In order to understand that with vision is not so, one should understand how in general we get a picture of the world. The eye is arranged so that it has both light-refracting parts and light-sensing parts.Light rays fall on the structure of the eye, that it is refracted (first on the cornea, then on the lens, and finally at the vitreous body) and after that the rays focus on the retina at one point. The retina itself is a light-absorbing structure and is responsible for the clarity of perception. The refractive power of the rays is an indicator in diopters.
- 1What it is
What it is
Hyperopia (hypermetropia) is a deviation of the human optical system, in consequence which he sees well objects located in the distance, and objects that are near distinguishes worse or weakly.This feature of perception is due to the fact that the refracted rays are not focused on the retina itself, but behind it.
With congenital farsightedness, distant objects become difficult to distinguish with time. At an age - the sharpness is reduced only close. Due to this, visual impairment of this form is less convenient for a person.
To focus the image on the retina, a convex lens comes to the aid, like on a magnifying glass.It will perform a collective function. Lenses of this orientation are called plus.Such a lens visually enlarges the eyes. The higher the score, the greater the effect.
To correct farsightedness, a "plus" lens is necessary, with myopia "minus".
Hypermetropia is divided into degrees:
- Weak. If the deviation does not exceed 2х diopters
- Average. The deviation is higher than 2x, but below 5 diopters
- High. The deviation value exceeds 5 diopters
At the initial stage of development of hyperopia, violations are almost invisible. With a high degree of deviation, indistinguishability of the image no longer depends on the distance of the object.
The main reason for the inability of the eye to focus the rays of light on the retina itself is to shorten the length eyeball or a defect in the optical system itself, because of which there is insufficient light refraction.Even the slightest change in eye length greatly influences focusing.This value rarely exceeds 2 mm, and only 1 mm gives a diopter +3. In most cases, this problem is hereditary, as is the lack of curvature of the cornea.
If the family had problems with vision, you should carefully monitor the health of your child. Many diseases of the visual system are inherited.
Hyperopia occurs in many people with age.Most often this is not due to a change in the size of the eye, but because of a decrease in the ability of the lens to change the curvature.Such farsightedness is called presbyopia. People who are over 40 fall into the risk group. By the age of 60, such a person can no longer manage without glasses or contact lenses.
Much less often damage to the retina occurs because of diabetes mellitus or due to problems with blood vessels in the retina itself.Visual impairment may occur due to tumors, and the size of the eyeball should be changed due to inadequate intrauterine development.This deviation is called "small eye syndrome" and is rare.
All small children have congenital hypermetropia and eventually it must pass.This is due to the fact that the eyes are not yet fully formed and grow with the baby.The deviation can reach +4 diopters and should disappear by the age of 7, when the eyeball will increase sufficiently in length.
All newborn babies have farsightedness and should not be frightened. Over time, vision is normalized.
The main symptom of hypermetropia is the difficulty in treating objects that are close.
If it is easier for you to focus on distant objects than on nearby ones, this is cause for concern.
A number of symptoms can be attributed as follows:
- Fatigue and heightened tension after reading, embroidering, knitting, working at the computer and other work with small objects near.It can be accompanied by headaches in different areas: forehead, nose, between the eyebrows, the side parts of the head.
- In order to view the subject you have to squint.
- It became more difficult to focus vision on small details, there is a double vision, blurred vision
- Burning occurs periodically, pain and other discomfort in the eyes. Can increase photosensitivity, itching.
If you find yourself experiencing these symptoms, you should immediately consult an ophthalmologist! The same applies to those who already wear contact lenses or glasses. Most likely you need a new recipe.
Despite the fact that vision problems in children can pass with age, it is still necessary to observe them and to visit the oculist in a timely manner.However, there are signs due to which it is absolutely necessary to visit an ophthalmologist:
- Redness and tear of the eyes
- Frequent rubbing of eyes and blinking
- Squinting when considering objects that are near
- Difficulties with reading
All these symptoms can be accompanied by absent-mindedness, increased fatigue, refusal to read. This can lead to a decline in academic performance, not laziness of the child.
Never miss planned physical examinations!
To determine the degree of farsightedness, different methods can be used.The simplest and most accessible of them is a table check. Corrective lenses are used to obtain more accurate results. However, this survey is not completely objective.
A more accurate method is autorefractometry. The process itself is fairly simple, and the result is instantaneous. The computer performs all the work and prints out the printed version. The printout will indicate which deviation you have and how much the diopter. But this method is also not 100% accurate, nor does it explain the causes of visual impairment.To get more accurate results, this procedure should be performed on the dilated pupil.In this position the ciliary muscle is relaxed and it is possible to reveal hidden problems with vision and determine the true hypermetropia and its index. This method is used to diagnose adolescents and adults.
It is difficult for small patients to concentrate and look at one point in the diagnosis, so they perform a procedure for skiascopy.During this examination, the optical shadow is observed during the passage of light rays through the refractive organs.To perform it, you need a special ruler and a ray of light.
Another method is ultrasound. It allows you to determine the size of the eyeball and its structure. Ultrasound is necessary for surgical intervention.
The first help in the treatment of hypermetropia will be properly selected glasses or contact lenses. This will help to correct vision and remove domestic discomfort.Improve the performance of the eyes will help the muscles that are responsible for the eye.This can be a special gymnastics for the eyes, the selection of eye drops, correction of vision using computer technology. Only the doctor can prescribe the whole treatment. Self-medication only hurt your health!
Also, an ophthalmologist can prescribe a special diet or course of certain vitamins.The course of treatment can include massages, exercise and other physical procedures. You should not disregard recommendations if you intend to keep your eyesight.
The most modern solution to problems with vision is laser correction. This method of treatment eliminates even the most severe deviations and allows you to forget about glasses and lenses forever. It is used only in adult patients, since many abnormalities may be age-related.
Solving problems with eyesight should not be put off for a long time.If you do not take timely measures, you can get a number of complications.Especially it concerns children.
Hyperopia significantly reduces the quality of life.It is increasingly difficult for a person to engage in ordinary household affairs, and in children, progress is declining. Constant tension of the eye muscles, causes severe headaches and increases fatigue.Against the background of hypermetropia, many children develop strabismus, and this problem is more difficult to correct.
The most dangerous complication may be the development of glaucoma. Due to improper operation of the eyes, the outflow of the intraocular fluid may be impaired over time, which will lead to increased pressure inside the eye.
Do not ignore health problems. Any disease is easier to eliminate at the initial stage.
In order to prevent the development of farsightedness, it is sufficient to select the correct mode of illumination, to correct the regime of loads and rest, to perform gymnastics for the eyes.Lighting will not overwork your eyesight during work. The regime of stress and rest will give an opportunity to rest not only the eyes, but the entire body. Gymnastics for the eyes do not allow the muscles of the organs of vision to lose the necessary tone..
Is it possible to treat folk remedies for the destruction of the vitreous body of the eye?
How to cure halyazion of the lower eyelid in a child read in this article.
Selection of eyeglasses for adults with astigmatism: http://eyesdocs.ru/ochki/podbor/osobennosti-doya-korrekcii-zreniya.html.
Each vision problem requires a definite solution. If you did not know before, hyperopia is a plus or minus, now you can be sure that this is a deviation index with a plus sign.If you have found the first signs of hypermetropia, it's best to turn to a professional.He will write to you the necessary treatment and help to keep your eyesight.