Antibiotics for sinusitis
Antibiotics for sinusitis sometimes become the only solution to the problem, because they help get rid of the infection or the virus and, thus, "clear" the maxillary sinuses from accumulated pus. Treatment should appoint a doctor who will choose the optimal drug depending on the course of the disease and the patient's condition.
Genyantritis (maxillitis) - a very common disease, which is of an infectious nature and is accompanied by an inflammatory process in the mucosa of the maxillary sinuses. This is a kind of sinusitis - inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses. The main reasons for the development of maxillitis can be viral and bacterial infections that cause a prolonged runny nose, usual hypothermia, fungal infection, complication of the flu or ARVI, various allergic factors.
Common symptoms are headache, fever, facial hypersensitivity, soreness in the eye and forehead, and abundant discharge from the nose. Inflammation provokes a violation of the outflow of secretion, which is secreted by the mucosa of the maxillary sinus, which, in turn, leads to the development of the disease. Under the influence of pathogenic microbes, the mucus turns into pus. If the genyantritis is not treated, it will go into a chronic form.
Symptoms are smeared, but with pronounced sensations in the form of tension or pressure in the area of the inflamed sinus, profuse secret secretion from the nose, difficult respiration, as well as headache, which is aggravated with head inclinations, or pain giving to the teeth, there is every reason to believe about the development of the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses.
As a rule, the cause of the disease is a pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic bacterial flora. To treat this disease, antibiotics are used in various forms - tablets, sprays, nasal drops, and also ampoules for injections. To determine the most suitable antibacterial agent, it is necessary to conduct a special study to determine the sensitivity of the causative agent of an infection to a particular antibiotic. Usually, the doctor sends the patient to the procedure for taking a bacterial swab of a nasal smear. Based on the result of the analysis, you can choose the drug to which the pathogen will be most sensitive.
Treatment of the disease is usually prescribed, if during the first 7-10 days the use of other methods (washes, inhalations, instillations of the nose) did not give the desired result. Modern antibiotics can save a patient from sinusitis in just a few days. They can be released in various medical forms: in the form of tablets, sprays, drops, solutions, injections. The doctor can prescribe the taking of several drugs at the same time to alleviate the patient's condition and accelerate the recovery process.
The choice of an antibiotic from a genyantritis is best entrusted to the skilled medical expert, - self-treatment can not give results. So, for example, if the development of maxillitis caused some fungal infection, taking the medicine may become ineffective. In this case, you need to "connect" antifungal drugs, as well as corticosteroids.
When treating a disease in chronic form, it is necessary to conduct a study to identify the true cause of the disease. It can be pathology in the adenoids, curvature of the nasal septum and even banal caries. Only by eliminating the main cause of pathology, you can continue to fight its consequences.
Antibacterial treatment of sinusitis in adults
Before starting medication, you should consult an experienced medical professional. It is he who will assess the severity of the disease and select the most appropriate drug.
Treatment in adults takes place when there is an acute course of the disease, or the chronic form has caused serious complications. In some cases, the patient is placed on inpatient treatment. He is prescribed bed rest and treatment with effective antibacterial agents. In most cases, intensive therapy produces positive results, and the patient quickly goes on to recover. In severe situations with complications, punctures of the maxillary sinuses are applied.
Usually, macrolides, penicillins and cephalosporins are used to treat adults. These include: Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Azithromycin, Amoxicillin, Ampiox, Cephazoline, Macropen, Ceftriaxone (often used to neutralize the acute phase), Cyphran, etc. The selection of an antibacterial agent depends on the general condition of the patient, the degree of complications associated with maxillitis, and other factors. Usually the course of treatment is no more than 7 days. If necessary, intramuscular injection should be a special test for sensitivity. The chronic phase is treated, as a rule, by penicillins, in particular, by Augmentin. From chronic forms get rid of longer - on average, such treatment is 2-3 weeks.
Any skin rashes may indicate an allergy. In this case, the medication should be discontinued and consult a doctor to decide on the choice of an alternative remedy. Often together with antibiotics, antihistamines and corticosteroids are prescribed, whose action is aimed at reducing edema, reducing inflammation and preventing allergies.
The most effective at treatment of a genyantritis at adults for today are considered cephalosporins. Already on the second day after their administration, a significant improvement in the patient's condition is observed, unpleasant symptoms disappear, breathing is facilitated.
The choice of antibacterial agents today is quite extensive, but the purpose of treatment should be done by an ENT doctor. So, he can attribute antibiotics in the form of tablets, powder for the preparation of injections, sprays, suspensions and drops. The most effective forms of release of antibacterial agents in medical practice are considered to be injectable solutions. Without a qualified consultation of a medical specialist, treatment will not produce the desired results and will practically be meaningless.
Antibacterial treatment of sinusitis in children
Antibiotics for sinusitis for children's treatment are used only in rare cases, with the advanced stages of the disease, which have passed into chronic forms when it comes to serious dangers for life of the child. The fact that drugs of this type can have a very negative impact on the health of the child in the future, because often affect the liver and disrupt the intestinal microflora. The optimal dosage form of an antibacterial drug is selected depending on the age of the child. It can be both tablets and injections.
How to recognize sinusitis in a child? The main symptoms of this disease in most cases are puffiness of the face, a headache that increases with corners or head inclinations, prolonged cold for more than 7 days, accompanied by severe nasal congestion and runny nose, reappearance temperature.
Antibiotic is selected taking into account the state of the baby, the course of the disease, as well as the complications that have appeared. Typically, doctors recommend modern topical antibacterial drugs. Their advantages are in the localization of active agents directly in the foci of infection. One of the most common and effective drugs of local action is Bioparox, as well as its analogues - Fusafungin and Hexoral. These are polypeptides that are available in the form of oral and nasal inhalers and only work in the field of application - on the mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities, suppressing the focus of infection. In addition, these drugs have a minimal amount of side effects. The course of treatment with Bioparox or its analogs usually does not exceed one week. But children up to, they are contraindicated.
Among the classic drugs used to treat children's maxillitis, we can mention sprays, nasal drops, suspensions and ointments. When diagnosing "catarrhal sinusitis therapy is most often performed with a single medicine that has a wide spectrum of action. In addition to taking antibiotics, in the complex treatment of the disease, other pharmaceutical preparations are used, as well as rinsing of the nasal passages on the basis of folk prescriptions, compresses and inhalations. Treatment with antibacterial and effective auxiliaries in most cases is positive.
Rates of antibiotic treatment for sinusitis
The course of treatment can take from 1-2 weeks and longer (up to 2 months), it all depends on the degree of infection. Antibacterial therapy is prescribed by a doctor with severe intoxication of the patient's body. If the situation so requires, the drugs are administered intramuscularly. At the same time to reduce the swelling of the mucous membrane in the nasal passages instilled modern vasoconstrictors (Sinuforte, Naftizin, Galazolin, Sinupret, Sanorin, Nazol). Aerosols inhalation have a special effect.
In case of emergency, apply a puncture of the maxillary sinus and its washing with antiseptic solutions with further administration of antibiotics. With prolonged form of the disease, antimicrobials are given in the form of tablets or injections. To this end, macrolides, azalides, beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), as well as fluoroquinolones, are used. Usually, after 2-3 days after the beginning of admission, the patient shows a significant improvement in the condition, but if this did not happen, the doctor must choose another antimicrobial drug that is more effective against the pathogen disease. The choice of the drug is mainly carried out after the laboratory determination of the sensitivity of the pathogen to the active substance.
Systemic antibiotic therapy is necessary for moderate and severe forms, as well as for determining the streptococcal nature of the inflammatory process. The course of treatment is strictly individual in each case.
New antibiotics for the treatment of sinusitis
Antibiotics for genyritis of a new generation - macrolides and cephalosporins of the 2nd generation - are considered in our time to be the most effective drugs that have found wide application in modern medicine in cases where penicillins do not give positive dynamics in treatment patients.
New antibiotics for the treatment of sinusitis from the group of so-called. "Cephalosporins" - Cefuroxin, Cefotaxime, Tsecefoksitin, Tsefahlor, Tsefeksim - in their structure resemble penicillins, however, unlike the latter, not only inhibit development, but also completely destroy pathogens bacteria.
A group of macrolides - for example, Azithromycin, Macropen, and tetracyclines, are highly effective in treating even the most severe forms. The course of treatment is usually 5 days, and Macroben is able to suppress a bacterial infection in just three days. Unfortunately, along with the powerful effect of drugs of macrolide group on pathogens, their negative impact on the human body is observed. For this reason, these antibacterial drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy, as well as small children. With special care are assigned to patients who suffer from acute or chronic gastritis, because of the negative effect of drugs on the gastric mucosa. In such situations, patients are prescribed local drugs with less pronounced side effects.
Of the modern antibacterial agents of local effects, Isofro and Bioparox can be noted. They have a powerful bactericidal action against bacteria that cause infection of the upper respiratory tract, and are able in just a few days to remove symptoms - stuffiness in the maxillary sinuses, debilitating rhinitis and obstruction respiration.
Antibiotics for genyantritis penicillin series are considered the most sparing in relation to the human body. These drugs, for example, include Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin and Augurmentin, which have proven effective in the treatment of acute disease.
Antibiotics for sinusitis are available in different forms, but most often in tablets that have a general effect. To date, both powerful and modern medicines are used, as well as the old generation, which have been trusted and tested by time. Tablet forms not only actively fight the causative agent of infection or the virus, but also prevent the development of dangerous complications, such as meningitis, middle ear inflammation or otitis media. Only 3-5 days of antibiotic therapy will bring relief and eliminate the cause of the disease.
Tablets that are used to treat acute forms are Macropen, Flemoxin Solutab, Sietrolide, Augmentin, and others. If the penicillin group is intolerant, tetracyclines or macrolides are prescribed to the patient: Ampicillin, Azithromycin, Amoxicillin and others. When choosing the most suitable antibiotic, the doctor must take into account the features of the disease course, the patient's condition, as well as the results of the tests (sowing from the nose). It is important to choose the right and effective remedy, since a weak antibiotic may not have the desired effect. Since the study to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to an antibacterial agent is sometimes a long period of time (up to 2 weeks), in the treatment of possible empirical (selective) administration of antibiotics.
Often, the tablet antibiotic is given to the patient in combination with topical preparations - drops and sprays for the nose. Usually, vasoconstrictors are instilled, and then spray or drops are used. It is important to entrust the treatment to an experienced doctor, since self-medication with selected tablets at random will not give an effective result. Sometimes the use of just drops and sprays also does not have a positive effect. Compulsory is the combination of antibiotics with antihistamines, the action of which is aimed at removing allergies and reducing edema of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Among these are Suprastin, Dimedrol, Tavegil.
Antibiotics for genyantritis in pregnancy
Antibiotics for sinusitis (rhinosinusitis) are prescribed in cases of acute disease, or when the disease has passed into a chronic form and has caused complications in the form of purulent discharge. To diagnose this disease in pregnant women, methods such as classical ultrasound, diaphanoscopy, and thermal imaging are used, since X-rays to prospective mothers are prohibited.
Antibiotics for sinusitis during pregnancy are used only in cases of the development of an acute form of the disease. The most common are Azithromycin, Agumentin, as well as cephalosprosins of the 3rd generation. Doctors can prescribe to future mothers Spiramycin - is considered the safest in pregnancy, but only in extreme cases, when other methods of treatment do not give the desired results.
It should be noted that pregnant women are not very desirable to take antibiotics in the form of tablets, especially in the first months of bearing a baby. Therefore, the alternative to the tablets are other procedures, in particular, the introduction of antibacterial agents of local action (Isofra, Bioparox) directly into the maxillary sinuses. In combination with antibiotics, modern antihistamines are often prescribed, the action of which is aimed at reducing the swelling of the mucosa.
Often doctors prescribe vasoconstrictive nasal preparations for pregnant women (Pharmazoline, Otilin, ForNos, Nazivin, etc.), which reduce the mucosal edema and well clear the apertures of the maxillary sinuses. However, their appointment is carried out only in case of emergency.
A pregnant woman should never be engaged in self-treatment maxillitis, tk. this can lead to unpleasant consequences and even dangerous conditions. After all, any medicine in pregnancy, and especially antibiotic, is used in extreme cases, when potential use of its use exceeds all possible dangers and risks for the future mother and her child.
Antibiotic therapy in the treatment of sinusitis can be systemic and local. Local antibiotics are available in the form of a spray, which allows the drug to penetrate into the paranasal sinuses and act directly on pathogens. Most often, in combination with local, systemic drugs are prescribed, the action of which is aimed at purifying air cavities from pus and mucus. Only under such conditions, local drugs will have an effective effect.
Of the nasal sprays of antibacterial action that are used in modern medical practice, we can note the following:
- Isophra. Nasal spray, which contains framicetin from the group of aminoglycosides. Spray effectively destroys the bacteria that cause inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. It has virtually no side effects, except for a possible allergic reaction. The active substance - framicetin sulfate - is not absorbed into the blood. However, if after a week of treatment the illness does not pass, it is necessary to cancel this antibacterial agent.
- Bioparox. The active substance is fusafungin. Produced in the form of an aerosol for inhalation and has a pronounced anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect. Fusafungin penetrates into the blood in minimal amounts, so the use of this drug does not cause any danger. In addition, Bioparox virtually no side effects, but it is not recommended for children up to 3 years.
Sprays with antibiotics
Antibiotics for sinusitis in the form of sprays usually occur in a complex combination with other ENT-drugs (in particularly, corticosteroids) and are used both in the treatment of acute forms, and in chronic course disease.
A distinctive feature of a spray based on an antibiotic is that it does not enter the bloodstream system, does not have a negative effect on the microflora of the intestine, but fights directly with the focus of inflammation. Of drugs that perfectly match and have an effective effect on microorganisms and bacteria that cause maxillitis, you can identify Phenylephrine and Polidex. In addition to the rapid liquefaction of mucus, these drugs relieve swelling, and also actively suppress the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses.
Polidex contains three main medicinal substances - polymyxin, neomycin and dexamethasone. Thus, it can be called combined, because he has several pharmacological effects. According to the instructions for use, Polidex has a pronounced bactericidal, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of various ENT complications.
The spray should be effective and promote rapid suppression of the inflammatory process. In this regard, Bioparox and Isofra are well established. Both sprays cope well with the main causes of the disease, eliminating foci of inflammation in the nasal passages, and have a non-aggressive effect. It should be noted that the use of such drugs should not be too long and frequent. This can cause addiction to the action of active substances. In addition, the thinning of the walls of the vessels of the nose is observed under the influence of antibiotics. This can lead to hemorrhages at sharp jumps of arterial pressure.
Often together with sprays, spray mucolytics are used that dilute mucus in the maxillary sinuses, increasing the access of oxygen to the affected areas, and also effectively cleans the nasopharyngeal cavity from pus. Of these sprays, mention may be made of Rinoflumucil, which has a mild vasoconstrictor effect. Another popular spray - Sinuforte - provides accurate drainage of the maxillary sinuses. It is not absorbed into the blood, while ensuring the integrity of the epithelium of the mucosa.
From sprays based on corticosteroids, which are used in complex therapy along with antibiotics, it is possible to isolate Nosonex, Nasobek and Baconase. They actively remove the swelling of the mucous membranes by affecting certain cells of the immune system. After irrigation with such sprays, burning in the nasal cavity is usually observed, but other negative manifestations (dry nose, nosebleeds, etc.) are extremely rare. It is not recommended to take sprai-corticosteroids for small children and pregnant women.
Antibiotics in the form of a spray should be prescribed by a doctor, since the effectiveness of the drug consists both in the correct selection and the competent use of the drug. The attending physician should take into account the individual condition of the patient, the course of the disease, its severity and other factors. As a result, a set of therapeutic measures, appointed by an experienced skilled physician, will lead to a rapid recovery. Uncontrolled use of any means to treat maxillitis, including antibiotic-based sprays, can cause various negative consequences.
Antibiotics for sinusitis can take the form of tablets, sprays, and also nasal drops. Most often the doctor prescribes drops with antibiotics, it helps to overcome the infection in record time.
Nasal potassium is prescribed for local action, which consists in the destruction of pathogenic microflora and suppression of the inflammatory process. In addition to Bioparox, Isofra, nowadays Polydex and Dioxydin are in great demand.
- Polydex is an effective spray or a drop for the nose. One of the active ingredients - phenylephrine - facilitates nasal breathing due to vasodilating action. Local effects limit the number of side effects - they are very rare in the form of nausea, dizziness, headache. Another substance that is part of Polideksa - dexamethasone - has a pronounced anti-allergenic effect. The combination of such antibacterial substances as polymyxin and neomycin, expands the range of its use and increases its effectiveness.
- Dioxydin - contains, in addition to the antibiotic, adrenaline and hydrocortisone hormones. It is used both for washing the maxillary cavities, and for instilling the nose. It has narrow therapeutic indications; therefore, when taking it, it is necessary to observe the recommended dosages and not to exceed them in order to avoid the appearance of toxicological properties.
In maxillites in combination with antibiotics, oil-based drops containing extracts of herbs are often used, such as Sinuforte and Sunipret. These drops gently envelop the nasal mucosa and have not only antibacterial, but also anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory effects. Plant components, which are present in the composition of such droplets, have an immunomodulatory effect.
Any nasal drops in case of their frequent or prolonged use can cause:
- bleeding at pressure surges;
- thinning of the walls of the nasal passages and other negative consequences.
With extreme caution, drops should be taken by hypertensive patients, as well as people with thyroid dysfunction. In pregnancy and lactation, the use of such medicines is prohibited.
Modern drops with an antibiotic are characterized by abundance and the possibility of choosing the optimal medication. Among the most common can be identified isofru, Polidex with phenylephrine, Bioparox (fusafungin), Dioxydin. Before use, it is necessary to rinse the nose well. To this end, you can use brine. For its preparation should be dissolved 1 hour. a spoonful of large rock salt in a glass of slightly cooled boiled water.
The course of treatment with antibacterial drugs in drops should be brought to an end, even despite the first signs of improvement. Typically, this course of therapy is 5-7-10 days, depending on the severity of the disease. Long-term administration of drops can lead to the development of drug resistance to the drug, as well as cause various unpleasant symptoms, including allergies.
Drip drops should be in the prone position on the side. In this case, you need to dig in the nostril, which is located below. After instillation it is recommended to remain in the same position for several minutes, so that the drops penetrate well into the maxillary sinuses. After 2-3 minutes, you can instill a second nostril.
Names of antibiotics for sinusitis
Antibiotics for sinusitis are used to suppress the inflammatory process and destroy the source of the disease. Among the pathogens may be streptococcus, fungus, hemophilus rod, staphylococcus and various types of bacteria. Accordingly, in such cases, drugs of the penicillin series are used.
The most popular names are:
- Ampicillin. An effective medicine with a wide spectrum of action and a pronounced bactericidal effect. Quickly stops the reproduction of bacteria. The greatest effectiveness of Ampicillin in the treatment of infections of the ENT organs, respiratory system diseases, as well as gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections.
- Amoxicillin - a modern derivative of Ampicillin, possesses the best absorption in the intestine and is capable in large concentrations accumulate directly in the maxillary sinuses, thereby providing an even greater efficiency.
- Flemoxin soluteba - another effective derivative of Ampicillin, has a pronounced activity against pathogens and is widely used in the treatment of diseases of the ENT organs.
- Augmentin and Amoxiclav - combine Amoxicillin and clavulonic acid. They have increased effectiveness and are alternative, which are used to treat infections that are resistant to Ampicillin.
In addition to drugs of the penicillin series, it is necessary to note the ani-biotics, belonging to the class of macrolides. They are non-toxic and widely used in cases where penicillins are not effective: •
They also have a wide spectrum of action and are capable of slowing down the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria, expressing activity in relation to anaerobes, mycoplasmas, intracellular microorganisms, ureoplasmas, chlamydia, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spirochetes. They differ in the ability to penetrate directly into the cells, thereby showing increased activity relative to the intracellular pathogens of the disease. The highest concentration of macrolides is observed in the focus of inflammation, which greatly increases the effectiveness of such drugs.
In cases of bacterial infections of a severe degree, including maxillitis, cephalosporins - a group of antibacterial drugs that have a low toxicity and have a high efficiency:
All of them have an excellent antibacterial effect, they have proven themselves in the treatment of infections of the ENT organs, respiratory tract, peritonitis, as well as sepsis, bacteremia.
Another group - fluoroquinolones - also provide a pronounced bactericidal and antimicrobial effect. These include:
which are highly active, are capable of destroying the DNA of bacterial cells and inhibiting the multiplication of pathogens. These drugs are used in diseases of ENT organs, various infections of the respiratory tract, abdominal cavity, pelvic organs, etc.
Of the local medicines can be noted Polidexu, Bioparox, Isofro. They are available in the form of drops and sprays. They have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect and have an effective effect on the pathogenic flora. It must be remembered that the appointment of antibacterial drugs must come from a doctor who will do this on the basis of the results of the analysis, as well as subjective and objective research.
Macroben today takes the leading place among other antibacterial drugs. It belongs to macrolides and is able to exert an active influence on many different bacteria, including those that show resistance to other antibiotics, for example, penicillin series. Thus, Macropen can be considered a new generation drug.
Effective in the treatment of chronic forms and is able to overcome the disease in the shortest possible time. The dosage form is tablets or granules for the preparation of a suspension. Enough intake of 1-2 capsules per day, and after 3-4 days the patient will feel considerable relief, the disease will begin to recede.
With prolonged therapy with Macropen, there is a need to monitor the activity of liver enzymes, especially if the patient has pronounced violations of the liver.
Certainly, Macropean has contraindications. Among the main ones are children's age up to 3 years, the period of pregnancy and lactation. Before treatment it is necessary to consult a doctor-otolaryngologist. He will select the optimal scheme for taking the medicine and warn the patient about possible side effects. Timely antibacterial treatment will help prevent the development of chronic form.
Clatid with sinusitis gives very good results. Its main action is the inhibition of microbial cells, the suppression of their growth and reproduction. However, it must be taken strictly under the supervision of a doctor. The main active substance of this antibacterial drug is clarithromycin, which belongs to the semisynthetic group of so-called. "Macrolides". Klacid is very effective in the treatment of respiratory diseases and ENT organs, as well as skin lesions.
This drug has different forms of release: granules or tablets for the preparation of therapeutic suspensions, as well as powder for injection solutions. In general, patients are prescribed prolonged-action tablets, called Clacidum SR. The dosage is 1-2 tablets taken per day. The course of treatment depends on the degree of severity and varies from 6 to 14 days. However, in special cases, the therapeutic course can be extended up to 6 months and even more.
It should be emphasized that Clacid is immediately absorbed into the bloodstream, which contributes to the rapid reduction of clinical symptoms of the disease, such as nasal congestion, headache, unpleasant sensations of compression in the forehead and maxillary sinuses, as well as mucopurulent discharge from the nasal moves.
A particular advantage of Clacid over other antibacterial drugs that are used to treat maxillitis is the absence of any allergic reactions. According to the results of many clinical trials, it is practically safe for a patient of any age, including children. The effectiveness of this drug is proven by time and medical practice.
Antibiotics for chronic sinusitis
Antibiotics for sinusitis, occurring in chronic form, are used in the case of a prolonged, persistent runny nose, fever, an increase temperature, general malaise and pain in various parts of the face that may be permanent, or appear episodically. In such cases, the treatment of chronic form requires a special approach, according to the specific symptoms of the disease.
Basically, with chronic course, doctors prescribe to patients Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Ampiox, Doxycycline, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Cyphran, Macropen, Gramox (Flemoxin Solutab), Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin.
Before taking an antibacterial drug, you should make sure that there is no allergic reaction to the active ingredient. So, with intramuscular injection, a test for sensitivity is made. It must be canceled if the patient has skin rashes that indicate an allergy.
If the treatment is ineffective, another medication is prescribed to the patient.
When treating chronic maxillitis it is very important to undergo a full course of treatment, strictly according to the scheme outlined by the doctor. Basically, this course is 10 to 14 days and more, all depends on the improvement of the patient's condition.
Antibiotics for acute sinusitis
Acute antritis is accompanied by inflammatory processes in the maxillary sinus. Its main symptoms are unpleasant, constantly increasing sensations in the near-nasal region, nasal passages, above the eyes, severe stuffiness nose, difficulty in nasal breathing, persistent runny nose, fever to 38 ° and even more, malaise and weakness, decrease appetite.
Antibiotics in acute maxillary sinusitis should be used if it is proven to be bacterial in nature and the causative agent of the disease was revealed, and the likelihood of developing a purulent form was increased, or there were chronic disease. From modern medicines it is possible to note:
- Amoxiclav. It is intended mainly for older patients for oral administration. Before use, dissolve in water.
- Augmentin. Effective for the treatment of adults and children (strictly under the supervision of a pediatrician). Adults are recommended to drink 1 tablet of Augmentin three times a day.
- Flemoxin Solutab. You can eat regardless of food, swallowing the pill entirely. Typically, patients are prescribed a double intake in a dosage of 500-2000 mg (for adults).
- Macropean. Produced in the form of tablets and granules - respectively, for adults and children. Daily intake is usually 2-3 times. Patients in excess of 20 kg are recommended a dose of 2 ml. Granules Macrofen should be taken after meals, previously dissolved in water.
- Hiconcile. Effectively inhibits the activity of pathogenic bacteria, and also destroys at the cellular level their structural walls. There are different forms of release - suspension, powder and capsules. The daily dosage is 1-2 capsules three times a day.
- Zitrolide. It should be taken orally 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after eating.
Polypeptides of local action can also be noted, which proved to be highly effective. It should be noted Bioparox, as well as its analogues - Fusafungin and Geksoral. The action of the active substance is directed to the affected area, the drug does not enter the systemic circulation, and also has no side effects. The course of treatment with Bioparox is usually 5-7 days.
It should be noted that if at the end of 3-4 days after the start of taking the medicine the temperature does not drop, it should be replaced with another one. Often together with antibiotics, antihistamine tablets are taken, which reduce swelling and relieve allergies. In severe cases, the patient is punctured at a site of inflamed sinuses to purify them from pathological mucus, and then antiseptic solutions are administered. Usually after such procedure the patient becomes much easier, unpleasant symptoms pass, in particular headaches, breathing is facilitated, the general condition improves.
The best antibiotic for genyantritis
How to choose the right antibiotic? The solution of this question is the prerogative of the doctor. Determine the choice of the optimal drug will help him the results of X-ray and laboratory tests.
The best antibiotic for sinusitis is the one to which the pathogen is the most sensitive to the results of the smear. Usually, if after 48 hours after taking the antibacterial drug the patient did not feel any special relief, then the pathogen resistance to this drug has been formed, or the main cause of the pathology is not a bacterial infection, but a virus, a fungal lesion, or allergic factor.
When choosing a medicine, the doctor should take into account the patient's age, the features of the course of the disease, and the likelihood of developing various complications. The acute form usually requires taking one antibacterial drug, but the most effective one. In severe disease, there is a need for intramuscular or intravenous injections. The course of antibiotic therapy should last at least one week (7 days). Even with the observation of improvement, the patient is not recommended to stop treatment.
In chronic form, a combination of topical drugs with broad-spectrum antibiotics is usually used. The best result is achieved with the use of antibacterial agents of the new generation - Augmetin, Cephalosprosin of the third generation, Azithromycin, Bioparox, etc.
Antibiotics for sinusitis are selected taking into account individual sensitivity and mandatory allocation infectious agent by smear microscopy, otherwise the treatment may be ineffective and only aggravate the condition patient. In medical practice for effective therapy, such groups of antibacterial drugs are used:
- Penicillins (Ampicillin, Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Flemoclav solutab, Augmentin, etc.). Consider the most effective. Their main advantages are good tolerability and limited side effects. However, in the inflammatory process, which is caused by a pathogen that is resistant to penicillins, such drugs are ineffective.
- Cephalosporins (Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime, Ceftriaxone). They are used in severe and lack of desired results when using lighter drugs.
- Macrolides (Sumamed, Clarithromycin, Zitrolide, Macropen). Often prescribed for treatment in children. Alternative for intolerance to penicillin drugs.
- Fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Moxifloxacin). These are modern medicines, to which the main pathogens did not have time to develop immunity.
- Local (sprays, solutions, nasal drops). Used to avoid many side effects due to intramuscular or oral administration. Local include Bioparox (Fusofungin), Isofra, Polidexa and others.
Pharmacological groupAntibacterial agents for systemic use
ATC codeR07AX Other preparations for the treatment of respiratory diseases
Antibiotics for sinusitis in adults: names of tablets for treatment
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which in most cases is a consequence of acute sinusitis.
The name of the disease comes from the name of the maxillary sinuses of the nose, which are affected in the inflammatory process - the maxillary.
For the first time the symptoms of pathology were described several centuries ago by an English scientist named Gaymor, hence the name.
Among adults, about one in ten people suffer from acute or chronic sinusitis - these figures allow you to get understanding the extent of the prevalence of this pathology and to understand the importance of finding the optimal sinusitis.
More than 10% of cases of acute respiratory viral infection are diagnosed with acute sinusitis caused by the attachment of bacterial infection and corresponding complications.
Given that an adult is infected with ARVI about once a year, we can say that the sinusitis risks everyone. And the latest static data on sinusitis - this pathology is on the fifth place in the list of infectious diseases that need to be treated with antibiotics.
What antibiotics are used - how to choose a medicineThere are general principles that guide the doctor, choosing the best antibiotics for sinusitis for adults.
It can not be said that this medicine is the best antibiotic for sinusitis, and it will certainly help everyone, like mucolytics. First of all, the symptoms of the disease, the degree of their severity, the characteristics of the patient are evaluated.
All antibiotics, which can treat sinusitis in adults, are divided into three large categories.
Preparations of the first line
These include those antibiotics for sinusitis, which are most effective at genyantritis and are the drugs of choice. They are appointed adults first. It:
All these tablets from sinusitis are usually well tolerated and give excellent results with timely and correct use, like mucolytics.
Preparations of the second line
Drugs from this group of antibiotics are prescribed if the patient lives in a region in which a high level of ENT diseases caused by resistant microorganisms is recorded. They are prescribed to adults, if the symptoms of sinusitis do not disappear after a course of therapy with antibiotics of the first line.
This group includes such tablets from sinusitis:
- Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid;
- Cephalosporins of the 2nd and 3rd generation.
Such drugs can treat both chronic and acute sinusitis.
Injuries in genyantema
There is a separate category of patients with the so-called nosocomial sinusitis. In this case, tablets from antritis antimicrobial effect are not effective, antibiotics should be administered intravenously. Injection prescribe such drugs:
Each medicine from the above has its own peculiarities of the impact on the body with genyantritis, they need to be taken in different dosages and according to different schemes.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to consider in detail each of them, in order to understand when and what it is best to treat sinusitis.
Penicillins in the treatment of genyantritisTreatment of maxillary sinusitis with antibiotics from the penicillin group is the most reliable and safe. Usually these tablets from a genyantritis are well transferred, they are appointed or nominated to patients of any age.
They can be taken during pregnancy and lactation, as well as mucolytics. Numerous official studies have confirmed that these drugs do not have a negative effect on the fetus.
Amoxicillin and its derivatives refer to first line drugs in sinusitis. But they do not always manage to treat atypical strains effectively. Some bacteria are able to produce beta-lactamases - substances that can destroy the beta-lactam ring of the antibiotic.
Antibiotics from the penicillin group are unprotected, and if the sinusitis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms capable of to produce beta-lactamase, to drink Amoxicillin in tablets is meaningless - the symptoms will not disappear, and the disease will be progress.
Antibiotics from the group of macrolides with genyantritis
Alternative drugs of choice, if unprotected penicillins could not eliminate the symptoms of sinusitis - macrolides. These medicines do not have a lactam ring. Consequently, they will be effective even against those strains whose microorganisms are capable of producing beta-lactamases.
Macrolides are more active than unprotected penicillins with respect to the Moraxella bacteria. They can be used in the treatment of acute sinusitis if the patient suffers penicillin intolerance. Most often from this group appoint Clarithromycin and Azithromycin.
This is a second-generation macrolide. It is effective against virtually all microorganisms that can cause acute or chronic sinusitis. Take the drug in this dosage - 500-750 mg twice a day.
Clarithromycin is most effective if taken at regular intervals. The course of treatment lasts no less than 7 and not more than 10 days. Dosage and duration of treatment can be adjusted if necessary by a doctor.
This drug is a 15-member macrolide. It has a long half-life. Therefore, the treatment schedule and its duration are radically different from the use of other antibacterial medicines.
On the first day, 500 mg of the drug should be taken once. Then you should take 250 mg daily for four more days. The total duration of treatment is five days.
Treatment of sinusitis with second line antibiotics
If both penicillins and macrolides prove to be ineffective in the treatment of sinusitis, they pass to treatment with antibacterial drugs of the second line. To select the right medicine, the patient's material is first sown to establish sensitivity to various antibiotics.
How can it be determined with empirical prescription of drugs that strains of the microorganism are resistant to the drugs being taken, what are the symptoms indicating this? Infection with antibiotic resistance of the first line by microorganisms can be assumed if no improvement in the patient's state of health is noted after 2-3 days after the initiation of therapy.
Symptoms of an organism intoxication at an acute sinusitis:
- General weakness.
If they do not disappear, but are retained or become stronger, despite the administration of Amoxicillin or Clarithromycin, they proceed to treat pathology with second-line antibiotics. These are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins.
Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acidAbove it was said about the main and essential shortage of Amoxicillin - due to the presence of the lactam ring it loses its activity in case of infection with microorganisms that are capable of producing beta-lactamase.
Therefore, it is best to select an alternative antibiotic, to sow the contents of the maxillary sinuses of the patient. This will allow one hundred percent to accurately determine whether the patient is sensitive to certain antibacterial drugs and which is better to choose. What is the difficulty?
In order to get the contents of the maxillary sinuses, it is necessary to make a puncture - puncture of the paranasal tissues with a special syringe and mucus from them. This is a rather complicated and serious procedure that requires strict adherence to sterility. Not all patients agree to it, because often it is necessary to immediately switch to the selection of second-line drugs.
There is an antibiotic that retains all the properties of Amoxicillin, but is immune to penicillinase. Such preparations are called protected penicillins, these are combinations of Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.
This is Augmentin in tablets, Amoxiclav, Flemoclav. According to studies of physicians, the effectiveness of treatment of sinusitis with these medicines is more than 90%.
The dosage of amoxicillin protected by clavulanic acid is determined by the doctor, taking into account the nature of the disease and the degree of its manifestation. Adults are prescribed from 500 to 1000 mg once a day.
Cephalosporins in tablets as alternative drugs
Cephalosporins in the form of tablets from the common cold of the second and third generation are alternative second line drugs that are also effective in treating sinusitis. For oral administration, one of the following drugs is selected:
In pharmacies most often this antibiotic of the second line from the group of cephalosporins is offered from three different manufacturers - Ceforoxime Sandoz from the German pharmaceutical company, Zinnat from the manufacturer Glaxo and the drug Aksef from the company Medokemi, located on Cyprus.
Cefuroxime is active against most known strains of microorganisms that can cause acute sinusitis. He is also not prone to penicillinase. The standard dosage of the drug is 250 mg twice a day at regular intervals.
Cefpodoxime.These tablets are a third generation antibiotic. The main difference between the preparations of this group of cephalosporins is their effectiveness against gram-negative pathogenic microflora. Ceppodoxime in liquid form for injection is distinguished by a very high level of bioavailability. But in tablets this same substance, on the contrary, is absorbed by the intestine badly.
In the pharmacy it can be found as tablets of various dosages of Cefodox from the Jordanian pharmaceutical company - 100 and 200 mg in one tablet. Less common drug Tsepodem of Indian origin. It is more affordable, but the effectiveness of doctors give preference to Cephodox.
The intestine absorbs Cefodox in tablets by little more than half. This is a fairly low rate, because in no case can you change the dosage and schedule of the drug prescribed by your doctor.
Usually 200 mg of the drug are indicated twice a day. Duration of treatment - up to 10 days.
The drug refers to antibacterial third generation drugs on a semi-synthetic basis. Has a significant disadvantage - low activity in relation to gram-positive microorganisms. For example, Staphylococcus aureus, which is often the causative agent of acute and chronic sinusitis, is resistant to Cefixima.
The drug is poorly absorbed by the intestine, its bioavailability is even lower than that of Cefpodoxim - only 40-50%. As an alternative medicament, an antibiotic, Suprax, can be considered, which has the same efficacy, but is absorbed better by the dispersible form of release.
Less common, but also can be used as an analogue of the Indian drug Ixim and tablets from the Macedonian company Panzef.
Antibacterial injections for sinusitisDo you really need antibiotics pricks in sinusitis - this issue still remains controversial for domestic otolaryngologists. Of course, getting immediately into the blood, the antibiotic several times faster than the pill, starts to act, eliminating the symptoms of sinusitis. But is there a need for this?
On the one hand, it is easier for a doctor to immediately prescribe an antibiotic for parenteral administration, which will definitely work than pick up pills whose effectiveness is only hypothetical. On the other hand, the patient is only too glad to get rid of the impassive nasal congestion, purulent secretions, headache and finally breathe normally, in this case, often a puncture sinusitis.
Therefore, when the otolaryngologist writes out a prescription of antibiotics in a liquid form for injections, assuring that this the only way to combat the exhausted disease, the patient agrees without hesitation, takes the prescription and obediently goes to pharmacy.
The duration of treatment with the help of injections is the same as treatment with antibiotics in tablets - from 7 to 10 days. And the result is usually noticeable. But the side effects in most cases are so great and serious that after treatment sinusitis has to move to the treatment of other internal organs and the restoration of a completely destroyed immunity.
So are injections of antibiotics necessary for sinusitis? Yes, there are situations when one can not do without them. Parenteral administration of antibacterial drugs is indicated for nosocomial maxillary sinusitis. The causative agents of the inflammatory process are mainly gram-negative microorganisms with high resistance to antibiotics.
Aminoglycoside antimicrobial agents are active in bacteria of this type. In this case, empirical appointments are inexpedient, it is mandatory to make culture sowing to detect the sensitivity of bacteria, and then, according to the results, select an antibiotic.
In conclusion, we offer a cognitive video about antibiotics for sinusitis.
Recommendations: antibiotics in adults with genyantritis
Antibiotics for genyantritis adults must be taken necessarily, because without these medications there will be no positive result. If the doctor is fully confident that the problem has arisen as a result of the influence of bacteria and because of them the inflammatory process has begun, then there is only one thing: choose which of the many antibiotics is suitable in this or that case for an adult patients.
For the treatment of acute sinusitis it is better to choose penicillins
Specialists for a long time studied how exactly different antibiotics work on the treatment of sinusitis. Do not independently conduct numerous experiments and choose antibiotics for treatment problems, because doctors have long determined which means are suitable for one form or another sinusitis.To treat the acute form of sinusitis in adults, it is necessary to use drugs from the penicillin group.
Amoxicillin is considered to be the most effective remedy that helps to get rid of the disease. After a week of using the medicine in tablets, a significant improvement in the well-being of the sick person begins.
Amoxicillin is effective because it kills microorganisms, because in acute form they secrete beta-lactamase. It is a unique enzyme that breaks down under the influence of penicillins.
Recently, specialists have begun to conduct additional studies and have come up with quite a few other drugs that help with acute sinusitis. At the heart of these drugs are still protected penicillins.
In order for bacteria to die even better, this agent can be mixed with clavulanic acid.
Penicillins without clavulanates and with themIf the antibiotic contains clavulanic acid in its composition, then it completely kills all the microorganisms that cause the acute form of sinusitis. At the same time, antibiotics of this type can also be used to treat the chronic form of the disease. Amoxicillin (an unprotected antibiotic) has recently been less and less used to treat sinusitis in adults. Most often it is prescribed to children whose body is not yet familiar with many bacteria.
For the treatment of chronic sinusitis, this antibiotic is generally not applied. This is due to the fact that recently the resistance of bacteria to Amoxicillin increased several times.
Unprotected antibiotics have lost their popularity and are rarely used, because a protected version of the drug is more effective in several times and helps to treat sinusitis not only in adults, but also in children, has fewer contraindications, and the process of recovery is going on faster.
The drugs, which contain amoxicillin, are completely safe for the human body, they are well tolerated. This antibiotic works on almost all bacteria that can provoke the development of sinusitis. It does not affect only those strains that produce penicillinase.
The great advantage of Amoxicillin is its availability in various forms: tablets, suspensions, drops and so on.For the treatment of an adult, 1 tablet is prescribed 3 times a day. The course of treatment of acute sinusitis is 2 weeks.To date, there are quite a lot of drugs based on amoxicillin. The most popular are the following:
- Austrian Ospamox.
- Flemoxin Solutab is a tablet that dissolves in the mouth or liquid, producer Astellas.
- Hiconcil, Slovak drug.
- Protected Amoxicillin with the addition of clavulanic acid.
Recently, due to the fact that the resistance of bacteria to the effects of antibiotics has increased significantly, protected types of medication have become more popular. Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is capable of killing all sorts of bacteria that have both a gram-positive and a gram-negative flora. At the same time, the human body tolerates this antibiotic very well. You can use the medicine even during pregnancy, regardless of the time, which is done in obstetric practice to date.
The dosage of the drug in the nose will depend on how severe the infection is in humans. If there is an easy form of the problem, then to treat acute or chronic sinusitis it is necessary to drink 1 tablet every 12 hours. An alternative option is to take the antibiotic in pure form 3 times a day, but the dosage will be slightly less. If there is an average or severe degree of sinusitis, the dose of the medicine will be large enough and take it 3 times a day.
If the doctors found that the cause of sinusitis development were pneumonia streptococci, then it is worth doubling the dose of the protected antibiotic.
To cure the acute form of sinusitis in this way, you can literally in 2 weeks, but the chronic form needs treatment for several months, so you need to start timely treatment and not run the problem.Analogues of protected Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid are quite numerous.
The most effective among them are: Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Flemoclav Solutab.
Alternative drugs against sinusitis in adults - macrolides.
Macrolides can be drunk with genyantritis in the same way as antibiotics, because drugs of this type are considered no less effective. They are often used in those situations in which a patient with maxillary sinusitis has an allergic reaction and penicillin intolerance. It is worth noting that macrolides in most cases are prescribed for the treatment of sinusitis, when on For the past 3 months, a person has already treated the problem with drugs from the penicillin group. The most effective options for these drugs are Azithromycin and Clarithromycin. They are often prescribed for the treatment of the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuses.
This medicine is an incredibly popular antibiotic, which consists of 3 tablets and is used not only to treat sinusitis, but also many other infectious diseases. The drug is removed from the human body long enough, and therefore it is enough to take it once a day. A huge plus is that the drug can kill a wide variety of bacteria and infections. This means that all microorganisms sensitive to Azithromycin, which can provoke the development of sinusitis, are sensitive. In this case, Azithromycin is considered a relatively safe antibiotic with a minimum of side effects.Azithromycin specialists are among the most reliable drugs of category B. It can be used to treat sinusitis in pregnant women, but only if the risk to the mother's life is greater than for her child. To this antibiotic, in only a few cases, habituation can arise. As shown by numerous practices, even if you take the medicine for several months, there are very few chances that some new resistant strains of malicious bacteria.
If a patient with a sinusitis has an acute form of the disease, then in this case, take 1 tablet of the drug per day for 5-7 days. If the inflammatory process has a chronic form, then the dosage is the same, but the doctor will prescribe a longer course of treatment. Its duration will be different in each individual case.
To date, there are several fairly effective analogues of the drug Azithromycin. Most often can be used to treat sinusitis Sumamed Croatian production from the company "Pliva Serbian Hemomycin and many preparations under the trade name Azithromycin, produced by domestic and foreign producers.
Antibiotic ClarithromycinA distinctive feature of the effective antibiotic Clarithromycin from Azithromycin is that it belongs to the category C. This means that it has an extremely negative impact on the child and for this reason the medicine can not be used to treat sinusitis during pregnancy. At the same time, the medicine is several times more rapidly excreted from the human body. You can not take Clarithromycin for children who have not turned six months old. In other respects, the characteristics of both drugs are the same.
To take an antibiotic Clarithromycin is necessary 2 times a day for 500 mg, the course of treatment and its duration will depend entirely on the degree of severity of acute maxillary sinusitis observed in rights. As a rule, in order to get rid of this unpleasant problem, it usually takes 2 weeks, or even 10 days.
Most often, doctors prescribe to patients the reception of the original Klacid medicine, which is of excellent quality. The French company Abbott is making the antibiotic. If we talk about cheaper counterparts, which also have a good quality, then you can choose your own from the Lemilide of Slovak production. In addition, they often use drugs such as Clarithromycin Zentiva..
Sinusitis - this is a very serious disease, which must be started on time to treat. Since the development of the problem is caused by bacteria, treatment without the use of antibiotics will be ineffective. It is not recommended to select a preparation on your own. The doctor should prescribe the medicine, dosage and duration of the administration after a thorough examination and establishing the severity of the disease.
Antibiotics for sinusitis - which are the most effective?
Sinusitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the accessory maxillary sinuses of the nose. The emergence of this common disease is associated with human-borne viral, infectious diseases, such as influenza, measles (see. symptoms of measles in adults), scarlet fever, as a complication after angina, otitis and other diseases of the ENT organs, as well as in diseases of the roots of the upper molars.
In recent times, cases of allergic sinusitis have begun to increase, as well as after oncological diseases after treatment, with helminthiases (see Fig. signs of worms in humans) and other chronic diseases that reduce the defenses of the body. Treatment of maxillary sinusitis with antibiotics should be only on indications, in complex treatment and is prescribed only by a doctor.
In most cases, self-treatment is not safe, can worsen the condition and slow the recovery process. First of all, you should undergo a checkup with a doctor who will establish an accurate diagnosis, the cause of the disease and prescribe a comprehensive treatment.
Signs of genyantritis
If, after some improvement after the flu or cold, a re-rise in body temperature occurred, the overall condition, there were shooting pains with the tilt of the head down, with a slight tapping in the area of the maxillary sinuses, you can suspect the onset sinusitis. The following symptoms of maxillary sinusitis serve as a cause for referral to a doctor:
- Stuffy noseconstantly or periodically, the sense of smell is reduced.
- Discharge from the nosecan be both abundant, purulent, yellow-green in color, and transparent, in rare cases they may be absent, this occurs if the sinuses are already filled with pus and the discharge is very thick.
- Sense of pressure, raspiraniya, stress in the sinuses of the nose.
- HeadacheIncreased when the body tilts forward, upside down.
- Severe painin the forehead, in the maxillary sinuses, cheekbones, cheeks, localizing only in one half of the face, or in a bilateral process - on the entire face. In acute process, pain can be pronounced, and in chronic sinusitis, not so intense, sometimes a person simply experiences pain in the eye area or headaches.
- Temperature,in acute maxillary sinusitis, it can be quite high, above 38C, with chronic often subfebrile or normal.
- The general state of weakness,increased fatigue. Due to congestion of the nose, headaches, the person is disturbed by a sound sleep, appetite decreases, a feeling of apathy, lethargy, depression develops.
Diagnosis of genyantritis
Anamnesis of the patient.Before the diagnosis is established, the doctor analyzes the patient's anamnesis, finds out the diseases that preceded the genyantritis (influenza, SARS, otitis, tonsillitis, inflammation of the teeth of the upper jaw), a tendency to allergic manifestations (pollinosis, urticaria, bronchial asthma, etc.), food intolerance, medicines. The factors that provoke the development of sinusitis include:
- Decreased immunity due to any chronic diseases, allergic reactions, helminthiases, metabolic disorders.
- Curvature of the nasal septum obstructing normal nasal breathing, congenital anomalies of anatomical structures in the nasal cavity.
- Vasomotor, hypertrophic, allergic rhinitis, adenoids in children.
- Inadequate treatment of influenza, colds, SARS, rhinitis.
- Diseases and removal of teeth of the upper jaw.
X-ray diagnostics. To date, the most reliable method of diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis is still X-ray, and with modern contrast tomography, the accuracy of diagnosis has increased at times. A snapshot can give information about the size, the volume of the sinuses, their fullness with pus, air. Sometimes the doctor recommends an X-ray in several projections - lateral, nasal-chin or frontal-nasal. With genyantritis, the images show different types of darkening, this is explained by the delay in the rays of the medium, which is denser than air. However, one should remember about the dangers of X-rays and CT (the risk of thyroid cancer increases, etc.), fluorography of the paranasal sinuses is sufficient, and the radiation load is minimal.
Puncture of maxillary sinuses- this is an informative method of diagnosis, but an outdated method of treating sinusitis. In view of possible complications (emphysema of the cheek, abscess of the orbit, embolism of the blood vessels), morbidity of the procedure and the transition of sinusitis to a chronic inflammatory process, it is carried out Rarely enough.
In connection with the application of the newest technologies for the treatment of sinusitis - the use of the sinus catheter "Yamik laser therapy, the plant medicine Sinuforte (increasing local immunity and excellent cleansing of the sinus), the frequency of using the nose puncture method for sinusitis for its treatment and diagnostics.
Bacteriological culture of a smear from the nose- as an independent diagnostic method for determining sinusitis or not - it does not matter. Carrying out of this diagnosis is expedient only for the choice of an antibiotic for sinusitis, to which the pathogenic microorganisms were sensitive.
When is antimicrobial therapy not recommended?
To begin with, you should determine the true cause of the genyantritis, its pathogen. Since with some provoking factors that cause sinusitis, antibiotic therapy can not only ineffective, but also capable of exacerbating inflammation, delaying the process recovery.
- If sinusitis occurs as a consequence of allergic manifestations, then in this case, the intake of antibiotics is not justified.
- With chronic rhinosinusitis, antritis associated with fungal infection, also taking broad-spectrum antibiotics only aggravates the process.
- In viral infections, when mild sinusitis can be helped by lavage, inhalation and immunotherapy, it is also not worth taking antibiotics.
When you can not do without antibiotics?
But with an acute bright process, with a high temperature, expressed by a general intoxication of an organism not of a viral origin, strong pains in the sinuses of the nose, purulent discharge from the nose - intake of oral antimicrobial agents or intramuscular injection of an antibiotic are needed.
Which antibiotics are most effective?
The best antibiotic for sinusitis is the one to which the inflammation agent is sensitive according to the smear analysis. If within 72 hours after taking the antibiotic, there is no apparent relief, then either the drug of the pathogen was stable, or the cause of maxillary sinusitis is not bacterial, but fungal or allergic.
If the genyantritis is caused by banal streptococcus, staphylococcus, hemophilia, then the following groups of antibiotics are used:
- Penicillins- Most preferred, because they have less side effects, are easily tolerated, but in cases severe inflammatory process caused by penicillin-resistant infections may ineffective. Amoxicillin - (Amosin, Flemoxin solutab), Ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (trade names: Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Flemoklave solutab, Ecoclav, etc.) are distinguished among them.
- Macrolides- their use is justified with intolerance of penicillin drugs. Trade names of the drugs are Zitrolide, Sumamed, Macropen, Clarithromycin.
- Cephalosporins- this group of antibiotics is prescribed in cases of severe inflammation and with the inefficiency of other antimicrobial agents. These include - Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime, etc.
- Fluoroquinolones- most bacteria have not yet managed to form resistance to these synthetic drugs, so they are also used to treat sinusitis (contraindicated to children). Antibiotics of this series - Ofloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin (1 generation), Levofloxacin (2 generations), Moxifloxacin (3 generations).
- Local treatment- drops in the nose with an antibiotic. The use of local local antimicrobial sprays, drops at the onset of the disease can help avoid oral or intramuscular systemic use of broad-spectrum antibacterials with their inherent adverse effects on the whole organism. Such drops include Isofra, Polidex.
When choosing an antibiotic should be guided by the individual characteristics of the patient, concomitant diseases, possible allergic reactions to it. And most importantly, the selection is best done taking into account the data of the smear microscopy and rapid assessment of the pathogen for staining by Gram stain, otherwise the treatment of sinusitis with antibacterial agents may not be effective, with wasted time and means.
What antibiotics should I take with genyantritis?
SinusitisIs a fairly common ENT disease. In most cases, pathology develops as a complication of infectious diseases such as influenza, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, measles, etc. The causative agents of sinusitis can act as bacteria (more often staphylococci, streptococci, hemophilia), so viruses and fungi. If the time does not begin to treat sinusitis, it can lead to such dangerous consequences as meningitis, ophthalmic phlegmon, osteomyelitis, etc.Do you need antibiotics for sinusitis?
The need for antibiotics is determined by the causes of the disease and the type of pathogens of the infection. So, if the genyantritis is caused by viruses or fungi, the use of antibiotic drugs can only exacerbate the pathological process. Symptoms of bacterial sinusitis are:
- purulent discharge from the nose (thick mucus of yellowish or greenish color);
- tenderness in the area of the maxillary sinuses, which increases with pressure;
- loss of smell;
- the phenomenon of intoxication of the body.
With the progression of these symptoms or maintaining them for more than a week, antibiotics are needed. In this case, before the start of treatment, it is required to carry out bacteriological culture from the nose in order to determine the microbes that caused the inflammation, as well as their sensitivity to the drugs. Although in practice with acute inflammation such an analysis is rarely performed, antibiotics of a broad spectrum of action are prescribed. But in the case of chronic sinusitis without determining the pathogen, treatment may not yield a positive result.
What antibiotic is better to take with genyantritis?
When the reception of antibiotic drugs is necessary and justified, the question arises: what antibiotics to drink at a genyantritis? When choosing a drug, the penetrating ability in the mucous membranes of the sinuses and the possibility of creating a maximum concentration of the active substance therein are taken into account. Also taken into account the spectrum of the drug, the individual characteristics of the patient, the existing diseases.
An important point is the choice of the form of the medicine. The most effective in genyantritis are antibiotics in the form of injections, but they are often prescribed in severe cases, with strong intoxication of the body. In most cases, antibiotics for oral administration are prescribed. Local use of antibiotics, although it avoids many side reactions, but can not always create the necessary concentration of the drug in the focus of inflammation due to swelling of the mucosa and the presence of thick mucus.
Effective antibiotics for purulent sinusitis (names)
Most often, in the genyantritis, antibacterial drugs belonging to the following groups are prescribed:
- cefalosporins (Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Cedex, Zinnat, Ospexin, etc.);
- penicillins (Amoxicillin, Amosin, Hiconcil, Ecoclav, Amoxiclav, Augmentin, etc.);
- macrolides (Zitrolide, Sumamed, Josamycin, Macropen, Clarithromycin, etc.);
- fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin).
Local antibiotics, which can be used in the treatment of sinusitis, are such drugs as:
In combination with antibiotics, as a rule, vasoconstrictive agents, antiallergic drugs, mucolytics are prescribed, and the nose is washed with antiseptic solutions. It should be taken into account that antibiotic treatment can not be interrupted even after the improvement of the condition (the treatment course is at least 7-10 days).
What is dangerous chronic sinusitis? Is it worthwhile to be treated with clarithromycin before punching?
The genyantritis to a genyantritis strife! Chronic sinusitis is dangerous and that, with every cold, it will end with a relapse! These are permanent punctures, hospitals, and may end with an operation in the sinuses. It is better to make a puncture immediately, that is, puncture the sinuses, rinse well and do not start. It happens that the pus in the sinuses is very thick and does not remove it from there. Often the problem may be due to rotten, untreated teeth. The so-called odontogenic sinusitis. Clarithromycin is prescribed by a doctor in any case, even if you agree to a puncture. Also there is a very strong drug Sinuphorte. This is a spray in the nose, when using which will flow from all the cracks! True dear!
I was, twice in the hospital I lay on punctures - very satisfied. Now I'm not complaining. Ugh-tfu-pah
not pierced. healed with injections of cephasalin. bogey bastards.
Chronic sinusitis is dangerous complications. Most often there is hypertrophy (proliferation) of the mucous membrane of the sinuses and the appearance of cysts. All this crap is revealed on X-rays. It is treated only operatively (under local anesthesia sinuses are opened and mucous and polyps, cysts are scraped out). But then the nasal breathing is restored. A purulent antritis is treated in / m antibiotics 7 days, drops in the nose. Thermal procedures before antibiotics are contraindicated. Before prescribing antibiotics, it is advisable to make a trial for drug sensitivity (you can be treated antibiotic, and you are not sensitive to it). Puncture of the sinuses is done in order to give an outflow of pus from the sinus and enter into her medicine.
Try the folk way.
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