Tracheobronchitis symptoms diagnosis and treatmentInflammatory disease of the trachea (tracheitis) and bronchial tree (bronchitis) are often closely interrelated, integrating into a common concept - tracheobronchitis. This disease, in which the inflammatory process covers the trachea and bronchi with their smallest ramifications (bronchioles).
Tracheobronchitis usually develops from the upper respiratory tract, rapidly spreading lower, covering the bronchi. This disease can occur both in acute form and chronic form.
The state of acute diffuse inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi, which can be caused by a variety of causes. As a rule, acute tracheobronchitis occurs due to:
- viral or bacterial infection;
- catarrhal disease;
- effects of external stimuli (harmful production, adverse ecological situation).
Acute tracheobronchitis manifests itself, like any acute disease, with characteristic features. Increased body temperature, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, weakness and decreased performance - accompany the acute course of the disease.
The disease is also characterized by seasonal exacerbations in the autumn-winter period. If acute tracheobronchitis is not treated properly, the disease becomes chronic. In this case, the treatment of tracheobronchitis is much more difficult.
In heavy smokers, chronic tracheitis usually develops, characterized by persistent coughing with sputum, especially in the morning, shortness of breath, wheezing and weakness. In chronic bronchitis the same symptoms are observed, but the inflammatory process in this case covers the bronchi, which aggravates the patient's condition. With bronchitis and tracheitis, there is a cough of varying intensity and character, a sparse or abundant amount of sputum, which can differ in color, smell and consistency.
The most common chronic tracheobronchitis develops in people who work in conditions of increased dustiness, for example, in miners. Chronic tracheobronchitis is characterized by a paroxysmal cough, dry, or with a slight discharge of sputum.
With chronic tracheitis and bronchitis, there are hypertrophic or atrophic changes in the mucosa. Tracheitis is often accompanied by chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract (sinusitis, sinusitis), congestion in the respiratory tract with certain somatic diseases.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Tracheobronchitis
As already noted, the main sign of tracheobronchitis is a cough, at first dry, painful, souring. There are pains in the diaphragmatic area due to the applied efforts for coughing. Also, there is an increase in temperature to 37.5, sometimes - to 38 degrees.
Weakness, shortness of breath, sweating are characteristic for bronchitis and tracheitis. Patients tend to take a forced position, facilitating inhalation, which is noted for allergic bronchitis.
A little later, a dry cough with tracheobronchitis is replaced by a wet cough, with the appearance of sputum. Further course of the disease usually has a favorable outcome if proper timely treatment is prescribed.
Methods for diagnosing tracheobronchitis include:
- Examination of the patient using auscultation and percussion techniques (listening and tapping);
- Radiography of the lungs;
- Sputum analysis (to exclude dangerous and severe respiratory diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, etc.)
The main methods of treatment of tracheobronchitis
Treatment of bronchitis, tracheitis must necessarily be complex. If the tracheobronchitis is caused by viruses or a bacterial infection, it is necessarily prescribed.
Antiviral or antibacterial therapy. Widely used in the treatment of tracheobronchitis such drugs:
Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are applied. It should be noted that a qualified specialist must prescribe these drugs;
Expectorants and antitussives (mucolytics) that facilitate the excretion of sputum:
Medications Dr. MOM, Eucabal are widely used in the form of syrups and ointments.
The use of phytotherapy in the treatment of tracheobronchitis
A good expectorant, anti-inflammatory effect possess medicinal herbs:
- Thyme, mother-and-stepmother, oregano;
- Lime, licorice root, althea;
- St. John's wort, elecampane, rosemary, yarrow.
Inhalations are excellent in the treatment of tracheobronchitis. To do this, you can use ready-made inhalers, which are sold in pharmacies, as well as devices - nebulizers, which act more efficiently, thanks to the spraying of tiny medicinal particles deeply penetrating directly into the lower parts of the bronchi.
You can use and home inhalation means - to breathe steaming medicinal herbs, potato broth with the addition of garlic, ginger or pine extract, over the pan, covered with a towel with a head. But these actions should be done only if the doctor tells you to do this, do not recommend that you do this without the approval of your treating doctor, why watch the video.
The use of mustard plasters can have an additional therapeutic effect. Tracheitis, bronchitis is treated more quickly, if you also use special exercises for better sputum discharge. So, in the morning, without getting out of bed, tilt the upper half of the body down, as if hanging from the bed, and produce in this position of a cough. It is good to accompany such actions with percussion massage.
Excellent helps in the treatment of tracheobronchitis folk medicine. A lot of wonderful recipes can be prepared at home. Symptoms of tracheitis and bronchitis are effectively eliminated by the following methods:
- Honey and milk in a warm form well relieve inflammation, providing a mild anti-inflammatory and enveloping effect. You can add melted butter.
- The juice of the leaves of aloe with honey in a ratio of 1: 1 cleanses the bronchi well.
- Ginger has a natural antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and expectorant action. It treats bronchitis well. Helps to eliminate the first symptoms of colds, is widely used in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, digestion. You can use ginger as a decoction, therapeutic tea, add honey, lemon, herbs.
- The juice of black radish is very effective in treating tracheobronchitis if it is mixed with buckwheat honey and taken in a tablespoon 2 times a day.
- You can cook onion cakes. Onion grate, mix with honey in equal proportions and apply on the chest in the form of a warming compress. Also this onion mass can be applied a thin layer on the cabbage leaf, then applied to the breast. From above, cover with a warm towel and cover with a blanket to warm up the bronchi.
- Also used in the treatment of tracheobronchitis are plant and animal fats. They are used as medicinal ointments and grindings (badger fat, lard with honey). When treating bronchitis in young children, warming wraps have a good effect. To do this, bring to a boil olive oil or sunflower oil, get a towel or diaper in it, beforehand slightly chilling (to be warm) to prevent a burn of tender baby skin, wrap the child in it. On top you can wrap another large towel. It is better to do this during the sleep of the child.
- One should not forget about gargling with a tracheitis. They can be done with herbal decoctions, soda, ginger broth.
It is necessary to monitor the temperature regime of the room, the level of humidity in the room where the patient is. The air in the room should always be cool, clean and moist. Temperature - not above 22 degrees, humidity - not less than 40 percent. Regular wet cleaning of the premises must be carried out regularly.
In order to prevent the appearance of tracheobronchitis, active outdoor activity, hardening the organism, the rational nutrition, rich in vitamins, the regular consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. The fight against smoking and alcohol plays an important role in enhancing the body's defenses and strengthening immunity, which significantly increases the chances of the body to withstand colds and infectious diseases.
What is tracheal bronchitis: symptoms and treatment of the disease
The pathology of the respiratory system is very common. Often there is a disease such as tracheal bronchitis. A synonym for it is tracheobronchitis.
The name speaks for itself. Tracheobronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi with involvement in the pathological process of the trachea. It is known that the respiratory tract consists of several sections: the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi. The latter are large, medium and small. The smallest bronchi are called bronchioles. Tracheobronchitis can affect both adults and children. What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of tracheobronchitis?
Characteristics of tracheal bronchitis
When tracheal bronchitis occurs inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi.In most cases, this disease occurs against the background of acute respiratory viral infection or influenza in the absence of proper treatment. Initially inflamed the trachea, as it is located above the bronchi. In the event that only the trachea is affected, a diagnosis of tracheitis is made. Currently, there are 3 main types of tracheobronchitis:
In acute form, there is diffuse inflammation of the mucosa. In this situation, the infectious factor (introduction of pathogenic bacteria, viruses) is of great importance. The chronic form of the disease is most often detected in people who smoke or work in adverse conditions. In this situation, inflammation causes dust that penetrates the respiratory tract along with the inhaled air. In some cases, chronic tracheobronchitis accompanies another pathology. It can occur with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease. In the development of the allergic form of inflammation, the most important is the effect on the human body of allergens.
Possible causes include:
- the presence in the respiratory tract of pathogenic microbes (influenza virus, parainfluenza, measles virus, cocci);
- inhalation of dry, hot or cold air;
- general and local hypothermia;
- previous influenza, measles, pertussis, adenovirus infection;
- inhalation of chemicals (nitric oxide and sulfur);
- traumatization of the mucous trachea with a foreign object;
- unfavorable ecological situation;
- harmful working conditions (work in dusty conditions of the premises).
As for provoking factors, these include passive and active smoking, regular use of alcohol, obstruction of nasal breathing due to rhinitis or sinusitis, deformation of the chest, decreased immunity.
Bronchial tracheitis is acute and chronic. Common clinical symptoms of inflammation are:
- slight increase in body temperature;
- frequent breathing;
- the appearance of pain in the chest;
- change of complexion;
Acute tracheid bronchitis begins suddenly and proceeds more violently than chronic inflammation. Clinical signs depend on whether the bronchitis is infectious or not. For acute inflammation of the bronchi and trachea, the following symptoms are typical: cough, weakness, hard breathing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, pain during coughing. The temperature can be normal (for mild inflammation) or subfebrile. In the case of bronchioles, the condition of the sick person becomes the most severe. A strong dry cough is defined, there is pain in the area of the chest and upper abdomen, tension of abdominal muscles during coughing. Symptoms begin to subside in 4-7 days. In the absence of timely treatment, acute tracheobronchitis may become chronic.
If the inflammation is caused by toxic substances, the symptoms are even more pronounced. Such patients can make complaints about a constant painful cough. Most often this is allocated mucous sputum. Sometimes it determines the veins of blood. Over time, there is a spasm of the bronchi, and acute respiratory failure is formed. Develops hypoxemia. This may change the color of the skin (they acquire a bluish tinge).
Symptoms of chronic tracheobronchitisChronic inflammation of the trachea and bronchi is formed in the case of prolonged smoking of cigarettes or against the background of untreated acute tracheobronchitis. Symptoms can be the same. Cough is often productive. It is most intense in the morning hours. Cough accompanied by pain in the chest, wet rales. Excreted phlegm mucus purulent. Cough and chest pain can intensify after consuming hot food, drinks. In severe cases, the heart can be disturbed. Angina develops. Its manifestation is associated with local deterioration of blood supply.
Chronic tracheobronchitis can be attributed to professionally conditioned pathology. From this ailment, people who come into contact with dust often suffer. A feature of chronic inflammation of the trachea and bronchi is that over time it leads to atrophy or hypertrophy of the mucous membrane. Often, chronic tracheobronchitis is combined with sinusitis (sinusitis).
Before the treatment, you need to establish an accurate diagnosis. There are many diseases with similar symptoms (pneumonia, laryngitis, bronchial asthma, silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis). Diagnosis of tracheobronchitis includes:
- a patient interview;
- visual inspection;
- physical examination;
- X-ray examination of the lungs;
- analysis of urine and blood;
- conducting spirometry or peakflowmetry;
- ECG and ultrasound of the heart;
- sputum examination.
With a mild inflammation, physical abnormalities may be absent. Hard breathing or wheezing may be heard. When tracheobronchitis of moderate severity, dry or wet rales are revealed. The blood test in most cases remains within the normal range. In severe cases, signs of respiratory failure are revealed. To identify whether the tracheobronchitis is infectious, microbiological examination of sputum is performed (if it is excreted). In the case of detecting bacteria, their sensitivity to antibiotics is assessed. Additionally, a smear from the pharynx can be taken. To exclude pneumonia and tuberculosis, an X-ray examination is performed. Unlike these dangerous diseases, with tracheobronchitis, the lung tissue is not changed. Additional methods of diagnosis include bronchoscopy. It is performed with chronic tracheobronchitis and frequent relapses.
Treatment of tracheobronchitis
Tracheal bronchitis is treated conservatively.
When the form is infectious, antiviral or antibacterial drugs are indicated.Antiviral drugs often use Anaferon, Arbidol, Aflubin, Viferon, and Genferon. From antibacterial agents it is preferable to use antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action (protected penicillins, macrolides). For second-line drugs are cephalosporins ("Cefixim", "Cephalexin", "Cefazolin", "Ceftriaxone"). Medicines are taken orally in the form of tablets, capsules or injected. Tablets should be taken with mild and moderate severity of tracheobronchitis.
In the case of allergic tracheobronchitis, antihistamines are indicated. Symptomatic therapy involves the use of mucolytics and expectorants. These include "ATSTS", "Lazolvan", "Mukaltin", "Bromgeksin", "Ambroxol". For the treatment of children, it is recommended to use these drugs in the form of syrups. In the acute form of tracheobronchitis, antibiotics and expectorants can be administered via a nebulizer. Antitussives should not be used. With productive cough, they can cause bronchial obstruction by sputum. When the bronchial spasm is expressed, bronchodilators are prescribed.
Complex treatment also includes respiratory gymnastics, intake of complex vitamins, compliance bed rest, refusal to smoke and drink alcohol, massage, copious drink, steam inhalation. Thus, tracheobronchitis most often occurs against the background of infectious diseases (influenza, ARVI). If all the prescriptions of the doctor are observed, it passes in 1-2 weeks.
Tracheitis and bronchitis: symptoms and folk methods of treatmentIf sinusitis, SARS, sinusitis, influenza or other viral diseases are not cured, bronchitis and tracheitis may develop. These inflammatory diseases occur with severe symptoms, and in neglected cases are fraught with atrophic changes in the bronchi and trachea. Folk remedies for bronchitis and tracheitis can help alleviate the condition of the sick person and will serve as a good prophylaxis for other inflammatory ailments.
Symptoms of acute and chronic tracheitis and bronchitis
If you do not know how to distinguish tracheitis from bronchitis, compare the main signs of these diseases, and you will be able to establish a preliminary diagnosis yourself. But this does not mean that you just need to start self-treatment without consulting a doctor. Symptoms of bronchitis and tracheitis are similar in many respects, and only a specialist can advise correct therapy.
Tracheitis- an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the trachea.
Tracheitis can be acute and chronic, as well as allergic.
Symptoms of acute tracheitis:dry, painful, suffocating cough, breathing is difficult, coughing attacks sharpen at night and by morning, a small amount of viscous sputum, dullness and pain behind the sternum, in case of laryngitis, the voice becomes hoarse, the body temperature rises to 37.5 ° C. Most often, acute tracheitis is accompanied by acute laryngitis, rhinitis (runny nose) or bronchitis.
The cause of tracheitis may be untreated rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, influenza, SARS, bacterial infections, inhalation of vapors of some chemical reagents, irritating the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, exposure to cold and dry air, a cold.
In the absence of treatment, the inflammatory process from the trachea passes to the bronchi and lungs.
When the inflammatory process passes to the bronchi, tracheobronchitis develops:high body temperature, painful and persistent cough.
Without proper treatment, the acute tracheitis passes into a chronic form.
Symptoms of chronic tracheitis:often there are bouts of excruciating coughing, intensifying at night and in the morning; cough dry or with mucous membrane or purulent sputum; often associated with rhinitis, there are atrophic or hypertrophic changes in the trachea.
Still there is an allergic tracheitis, which occurs in response to the allergen (pollen of plants, vapors of some chemicals, etc.).
BronchitisIs an inflammatory disease of the bronchi. Bronchitis can be acute and chronic.
Acute bronchitis appears, as a rule, in the damp season (autumn or spring).The onset of the disease is acute:there is general malaise, cough, sadness behind the sternum, a slight increase in temperature, often a runny nose; The first days of sputum go away with difficulty, then the cough becomes less painful and sputum goes away more easily, with purulent spitting.
With frequent acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis can develop. It is characteristic of him that even outside the exacerbation of the disease there is a small cough, especially in the morning, and often there are exacerbations (several times a year).
Treatment of bronchitis at home: diet and regimenWhen treating tracheitis and bronchitis at home in the diet of patients necessarily include products that favorably affect the respiratory system. In this case spices (cinnamon, pepper, rosemary, bay leaf, cloves, ginger, cardamom, etc.), spicy aromatic herbs (dill, mint, lemon balm, anise, fennel, garlic, onion, hyssop) will help. Also, patients need to eat cabbage, horseradish, potatoes, carrots, beets, radishes, apples. Irreplaceable will be the fruits of dog rose and viburnum, lemon, raspberry, cowberry, black currant, cranberry, figs, honey and sea buckthorn oil. It is useful to take a multivitamin.
During treatment of tracheitis and bronchitis, folk remedies must be followed by bed rest and as much sleep as possible. With a wet cough, you need to exclude dairy products and move more.
If you discover symptoms of any of these diseases, immediately consult a doctor who will put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe a treatment.
In addition to the appointments of the attending physician, you can use folk recipes to treat tracheitis and bronchitis, which you can read on this page. If the prescription does not indicate the duration of the course of therapy, then it is necessary to be treated before recovery.
How to treat bronchitis and tracheitis with folk remedies: the best recipesHere you will learn the best recipes, how to treat tracheitis and bronchitis with folk remedies at home.
- As an expectorant for bronchitis and tracheitis, the juice from the leaves of plantain is good: take 1 h. l. juice of plantain, add 1 h. l. honey, mix and drink. Take 3 - 4 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
- When treating tracheitis and bronchitis with folk remedies, if the disease occurs in the spring, it is useful to drink a mixture of birch sap and milk (1: 1) several times a day.
- At the first signs of bronchitis or tracheitis, you need to take vodka tincture of garlic. A few drops of tincture to drip under the tongue and smear it all over the mouth. To cure bronchitis and tracheitis with this folk remedy, the procedure should be performed 3 to 4 times a day for 2 to 3 days.
- Means for treatment of bronchitis:take 0.5 cups of oat grains, pour 2 liters of milk, put in the oven, simmer at a not very high temperature , -2 hours, drain. Take 1 tbsp. l. before bedtime.
- With a strong cough, bronchitis, tracheitis and pneumonia, the following remedy helps: take 2 tbsp. l. grains of oats and raisins, pour 1.5 liters of cold water, put on fire, bring to a boil, cook on low heat until half of the liquid is evaporated, then cool, strain and wring out, add 1 tbsp. l. honey. Take 1 tbsp. l. mixture every hour. You can give children from 1 hour. l. up to 1 tbsp. l. mixture (depending on age). When using this folk method of treatment of bronchitis and tracheitis, it is necessary to store the remedy in the refrigerator.
Treatment of tracheitis and bronchitis by folk methods
- Cure a cold, bronchitis and pneumonia is helped by the following remedy: take 3 lemons, wash well and, together with the skin (but without seeds), pass through a meat grinder, add 20 crushed walnut kernels, 300 ml of aloe vera juice and "Kagor" type wine, 500 g unsalted butter and honey, mix. Take 1 tbsp. l. mixture 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals. Keep the mixture in the refrigerator.
- Means for treating bronchitis and colds:take 50 ml of juice grated horseradish root, add juice 3 lemons, mix. Take 1 hour. l. mixture every hour, without washing down with anything.
- Another popular way to treat tracheitis and bronchitis: take 1 lemon, pour water, cook over low heat for 10 minutes, then cut it in half, squeeze juice, add 1 tbsp. l. honey and glycerin, mix. Take 1 hour. l. mixture every hour. Shake before use. Keep the remedy in the refrigerator.
- With chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma, the following remedy helps: take 1 tbsp. l. crushed dried herb alfalfa, add 1 h. l. seeds of carrots, pour 1 glass of water, put on a boiling water bath, cook for 10 minutes, drain. Take 0.5 cup of broth 3 - 4 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
- As an expectorant it is useful to take cowberry syrup with honey (1: 1). Drink 1 to 2 tablespoons. l. syrup 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
How can you cure bronchitis and tracheitis with folk remedies?If you do not know how to cure bronchitis folk remedies, try the following recipes.
- Means for treatment of bronchitis:take 5 lemons, wash well and pass through the meat grinder along with the peel (without seeds), add 4 heads of chopped garlic, mix, pour 1 liter of boiled water, close tightly and insist in a dark cool place for 1 week, shaking regularly. Take 1 tbsp. l. mixture 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals. This tool is used to prevent influenza during epidemics. Keep the mixture in the refrigerator.
- Tincture of eucalyptus is successfully used to treat bronchitis, tracheitis, laryngitis, pleurisy and pneumonia. Take 10-15 drops of tincture per 50 ml of water 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals. This tincture can be added a few drops in the water for inhalation.
- For the treatment of chronic bronchitis and tracheobronchitis it is useful to take tincture from herbs with aloe. Drink 1 tbsp. l. tincture 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
- As an expectorant for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, it is useful to take tincture from plantain large for 1-2 hours. l. 2 - 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
- An effective tool for the treatment of bronchitis and pneumonia is a tincture from royal jelly bees with flower pollen and aloe, Take 1 to 2 hours. l. tincture 2 times a day for 15 - 20 minutes before meals for 2 - 3 weeks. This tincture is contraindicated in acute infectious diseases and adrenal diseases.
- With bronchitis, tincture from the red root helps well. Take 1 hour. l. tincture on 50 ml of water 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
Tracheitis is the inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the trachea, which can occur in both acute and chronic forms. The cause of tracheitis is most often various viruses, bacteria, less often dry, polluted or cold air.
Symptoms of the disease are specific - dry, less often wet cough, painful and most intense at night. Tracheitis in acute form may be accompanied by other diseases - laryngitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis and even bronchial inflammationICD-10 code J04 Acute laryngitis and tracheitis J04.1 Acute tracheitis
Is it contagious?
The question of whether the trachea is contagious is related to the viral nature of the disease. If the inflammation of the trachea causes viruses, respectively, the contagious disease is very high. Like other viral infections, the viral tracheitis is transmitted by a typical airborne pathway, less frequently by household routes, if people around the patient use the same items - dishes, towels and so on. Adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial viruses first affect the mucous membrane of the larynx, viral laryngitis develops, if the disease is not treated, viruses affect the sheath of the trachea, a cough characteristic of the trachea appears. A patient with tracheitis can infect a lot of people if he continues to work closely with close relatives and colleagues. Also provoking the infection factor can be a closed unventilated room, a gross violation of the rules Personal hygiene (general use of objects intended for individual use). Especially high susceptibility to infection in children of primary and secondary school age. Is it contagious? Of course, it is contagious, given the fact that there are a lot of viruses and it happens that one type of virus is sucked, a person can get completely different. Weakened immunity, "learned" to respond to a specific viral infection, is not able to resist the invasion of a new virus. This explains the possible relapse of tracheitis.
How long is the tracheitis?
To the question "how long does the tracheitis last" only the disease itself can respond, but it, as a rule, strongly "resists" treatment. The period of illness and the period of recovery always depends on the form of the inflammatory process, which can be both acute and chronic, that is, prolonged. In addition, the length of the tracheitis is affected by the patient's immunity state, the more actively the organism struggles with the tracheitis, the sooner the recovery will come.
The prognosis of the acute form of tracheitis, as a rule, is more favorable. Acute tracheitis takes place with proper and timely treatment for 10-14 days, if, of course, the disease is not complicated by additional problems with bronchial tubes.
How long does the tracheitis last in chronic form? It is more difficult to foresee the predicament, since the protracted course of the disease does not give an opportunity to accurately predict the duration of recovery. However, with complex intensive treatment, patients with chronic tracheitis get better no later than a month after the onset of the disease.
Acute banal tracheitis
Tracheitis in acute form is rarely an independent disease, as a rule, it is accompanied by an inflammatory process in the bronchial branches. This pathological combination is called tracheobronchitis and is caused mainly by the influenza virus, which can later join bacterial infection (pneumococcal, less often - staphylococcal).
Primary acute banal tracheitis is most often caused by the influence of catarrhal factors (general and local cooling, increased humidity during the cold season), creating favorable conditions for the activation of the opportunistic local microbiota, as well as an increased content of dust, corrosive gases, toxic fumes and various allergens in the inspired air. Contributing factors include chronic heart and lung diseases, leading to congestion and hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory pathways, weakening of the state of nutrition, a decrease in immunity after the transmitted infectious diseases or infection with HIV infection. In children, exudative diathesis, rickets, dystrophy, and poor living conditions can act as contributing factors that cause tracheitis. Most often, acute tracheitis occurs in children and the elderly in the spring and autumn periods.
Acute banal tracheitis is characterized by hyperemia of the mucous membrane, which is covered by mucus, sometimes forming separate lumps. In severe forms of acute banal tracheitis in the mucosa, there may be spot or more or less common hemorrhages, mucus may contain blood veins.
Usually acute banal tracheitis begins with acute catarrhal rhinitis and nasopharyngitis and spreads quickly downward, covering all upper respiratory tract and trachea. In other cases, simultaneously with the trachea, large bronchi are involved in the disease, and tracheitis symptoms acquire the character of acute tracheobronchitis. The most characteristic tracheitis symptoms are a cough, which is especially troubling to the patient at night and in the morning, before rising, due to a night accumulation of phlegm, on the one hand, and physiological night activation of the vagal system, leading to an increase in the sensitiveness of the nerve endings of the vagus nerve, providing a cough reflex. However, cough with tracheitis is less painful and constant than with bronchitis, appears with a deep breath, laughter, crying, with a change in the temperature of the environment. With a pronounced tracheitis, for example during influenza, patients sometimes complain of dull, sore pain in the throat and behind the sternum, especially after a fit of coughing. Due to painfulness with deep inspiration, the patients try to limit the depth of respiratory movements. In such cases in children, breathing becomes superficial and to compensate for oxygen deficiency - rapidity. With the accumulation of sputum in the area of tracheal bifurcation, an attack of severe convulsive cough may occur due to irritation of the trachea of the nerve endings of the vagus nervously branched in the keel area. The voice from frequent coughing and concomitant laryngitis can be hoarse. The general condition with acute tracheitis suffers little, sometimes subfebrile condition, headache, feeling of weakness, pain in the whole body are observed. In children, the clinical picture is acute with an increase in body temperature to 39 ° C. Dyspnoea usually does not happen, except for acute severe generalized viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, with which has a pronounced general intoxication, a violation of cardiac activity, and depression of the respiratory center.
Sputum is scant, at the beginning of the disease it is difficult to separate, which is explained by the stage of "dry" catarrhal tracheitis, has a viscous mucous nature. Gradually, it acquired a mucus-purulent melt, it becomes more abundant and separates more easily. Cough ceases to cause unpleasant scraping pain, the general condition improves.
With the usual clinical course and timely treatment begun, the tracheitis ends within 1-2 weeks. Under adverse conditions, non-observance of the prescribed by the doctor regime, untimely treatment of tracheitis and other negative factors, recovery is prolonged and the process can go on into a chronic stage.
During epidemics of influenza, when the virulence of the virus reaches its maximum, hyper-acute hemorrhagic tracheitis with a rapid onset and severe clinical course can occur. Typically, such a tracheitis is only part of the clinical picture of the common lesion of the respiratory tract and often - the draining flu-like hemorrhagic pneumonia, resulting in the death of the patient. With such forms of respiratory disease, complications such as swelling of the lining space with a threat asphyxia, in which the only rescue of the patient is immediate tracheotomy and massive detoxification treatment. Especially dangerous complications is the development of bronchopneumonia in the elderly and capillary bronchitis in children.
Tracheitis is recognized without difficulty, especially in cases of seasonal colds or epidemics of influenza. The diagnosis is established on the basis of a typical clinical picture and characteristic symptoms of catarrhal inflammation of the trachea mucosa. Tracheitis is difficult to diagnose in influenza toxic forms, when inflammation of the airways should be differentiated from lung tissue disease (pneumonia). In this case, apply the physical therapeutic methods, chest radiography and other methods of examination of the patient, which are in the competence of the pulmonologist.
Acute uncomplicated banal tracheitis has a favorable prognosis. With complicated forms and super-acute hemorrhagic tracheitis - cautious and even serious.
The acute form of tracheitis is most often provoked by a viral infection, usually a flu. In such cases, the treatment of acute tracheitis directly depends on the symptoms and severity of the course of the disease. If the tracheitis is not accompanied by complications in the form of inflammation of the bronchi, enough immunomodulating drugs, abundant and frequent drinking of herb expectorant dues, inhalations and aerosol irrigation of the larynx by Bioparox. Antiviral and antipyretic drugs are prescribed only in cases of severe exacerbation of the disease, when the body temperature exceeds 38 degrees. The use of amyzone, interferon, remantadine or arbidol is indicated. Preparations containing paracetamol or ibuprofen are also taken. Exhausting, dry cough is treated with mucolytic syrups, antitussive drugs that do not have contraindications. Effective are syrups containing licorice root, marshmallows, rubbing with warming ointments and mustard. It is also necessary to drink a lot and often, for example, a broth of dogrose, which has a vitamin and diuretic effect. Bed rest, frequent wet cleaning, restriction of contacts in order to avoid additional infection are also integral measures in the treatment of acute disease.
Treatment of acute tracheitis is carried out according to the doctor's prescription, as uncontrolled intake of antiviral drugs can lead to complications, and the transformation of tracheitis into a protracted, chronic, complicated form.
Chronic, commonplace tracheitis
Tracheitis in chronic form is most often the result of an untreated acute form of the disease. With this type of tracheitis, the tracheal mucosa undergoes atrophic changes, as a result of which the patient is persecuted by attacks of persistent cough, especially at night. Often, tracheitis is accompanied by painful sensations in the sternum, similar in symptomatology to pneumonia.
Chronic banal tracheitis can develop from acute banal tracheitis with the continuation of the causes of primary inflammation, and the presence of contributing factors (harmful production, smoking, alcohol consumption), as well as poor-quality and unfinished treatment of acute banal tracheitis. However, chronic catarrhal tracheitis is more likely to result from emphysema of the lungs, heart disease, kidneys leading to stagnation phenomena on the soil of the disorder blood circulation and the presence in the blood and lymph of catabolites (under-oxidized metabolic products) arising from these stagnant phenomena.
Chronic banal tracheitis and chronic tracheobronchitis - diseases predominantly adults, but can observed in children after measles, whooping cough and other childhood infections complicated by acute tracheitis.
The chronic banal tracheitis is divided into hypertrophic and atrophic forms. Hypertrophic tracheitis is characterized by venous hyperemia and congestion, swelling of the mucous membrane of the trachea, increased excretion of mucus and purulent sputum. According to some reports, hypertrophically the tracheitis is only the first stage of the systemic process leading to the second (final) stage - the atrophic form of the disease. The latter is characterized by atrophy of the mucosa of the trachea, its thinning. The mucous membrane becomes smooth, shiny, gray, sometimes covered with small dry crusts, causing a painful cough. The systemic nature of the process is indicated by the fact that there is no isolated atrophic form, since the atrophic process encompasses all higher and lower respiratory tracts. This systemic character is especially vivid when the lake, which, according to some sources, is nothing but a true final the stage of systemic atrophy of the respiratory tract, culminating in the vegetation of a specific ozonous microbiota.
Tracheitis has such symptoms - cough, stronger in the morning and at night. Especially tormenting this cough with the accumulation of sputum in the area of the keel of the trachea, which dries into dense crusts. With the development of an atrophic process, in which only the surface layer of the mucous membrane is affected, the cough reflex remains, However, with deeper atrophic phenomena, exciting and nerve endings, the severity of the cough is reduced. Tracheitis takes a long time, alternating with periods of remission and exacerbation.
Tracheitis is diagnosed on the basis of local pathoanatomical manifestations, it usually does not cause difficulties and is carried out with the help of tracheoscopy. However, it is much more difficult to establish the cause of this disease.
Chronic tracheitis is treated much longer than its acute form. This is due to the fact that the treatment of chronic tracheitis is aimed not only at eliminating the cough symptom, but also on the treatment of complications such as pharyngitis, bronchitis. The chronic form of the disease most often has bacterial etiology, respectively, antibiotic therapy is indicated. If pus appears pus, tracheitis is treated with macrolides, which have a wide spectrum of action and are effective against virtually all types of pathogens. The course of treatment can last from two to three weeks, depending on the severity of the disease and complications. Treatment of chronic tracheitis is impossible without inhalations, which can be carried out both with the help of pharmaceutical preparations, and with the help of broths of ester-containing plants - eucalyptus, pine or fir. Inhalation should be carried out at least two times a day for two weeks, even with a subsiding cough. Effectively the use of chlorophyllipt, both in the form of irrigation, so inside. Irrigating the larynx Bioparox will ensure the fastest elimination of inflammatory processes, antitussive syrups help get rid of debilitating unproductive cough. In addition to pharmacy syrups at home, you can prepare a decoction of althaea or licorice root. Treatment of chronic tracheitis should last at least three weeks, even with the early neutralization of cough or temperature, only so you can avoid relapse of the disease.
Hypertrophic tracheitis, accompanied by the release of mucopurulent sputum, requires the use of inhalation of antibiotics, the selection of which is carried out on the basis of an antibioticogram, injection at the time of inspiration of astringent powders. In atrophic processes, vitamin oils (carotolin, dogrose oil, sea buckthorn oil) are instilled into the trachea. The cortex is removed by infusion into the trachea of solutions of proteolytic enzymes. In general, the treatment corresponds to that for banal laryngitis and bronchitis.
Tracheitis in certain infectious diseases
Tracheitis in infectious diseases, in which the upper respiratory tract and, in particular, the larynx are most often affected, occurs very rarely and, as a rule, are secondary. These diseases include infections that are acute (measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhoid, etc.) and chronically (tuberculosis, syphilis, scleroma, etc.). The emergence of both of them in the trachea only exacerbates the overall picture of the upper respiratory tract, but they are by themselves never fatal to the life of the patient. Only in those cases when the destructive process goes beyond the trachea and affects adjacent organs (esophagus, vessels and nerves), serious complications can occur that significantly worsen the general course of the disease, and sometimes lead to death.
Tracheitis is diagnosed on the basis of a set of methods described in diseases of the larynx. The same situation is also valid with regard to the treatment of these forms of the disease.
Tracheitis is treated symptomatically and specifically, treatment corresponds to each type of infection.
Tracheitis has a very different prognosis, from favorable to very serious. It is determined by the type of infection, its complications, the timing of the final diagnosis and the effectiveness of treatment.
Tracheitis and bronchitis
Tracheitis, accompanied by inflammation of the bronchial tree, is called tracheobronchitis. Acute tracheitis and bronchitis almost always coexist with each other. Most often, the inflammatory process proceeds in such a sequence: a viral or bacterial infection affects the laryngeal mucosa, develops laryngitis, then begins acute tracheitis and bronchitis. Thus, the pathological process spreads in accordance with the anatomical location of the organs of the upper respiratory tract. The symptomatology of tracheitis and bronchitis is also similar - a characteristic cough, weakness, febrile condition with increased body temperature, increased sweating, headache is possible. Tracheobronchitis differs from simple laryngitis and pharyngitis primarily by the character of the cough. "Barking," dry cough is characteristic of laryngitis, as well as a hoarse voice and labored breathing. Tracheobronchitis is also characterized by a cough, but it does not affect the timbre and sonority of the voice, moreover it is difficult not a breath, but an exhalation, there is a noticeable pain in the retrograde region, which can irradiate into the zone between the shoulder blades. Developing tracheitis and bronchitis are accompanied first by dry coughing attacks, more often at night, then the cough acquires moisture, sputum begins to depart. In addition, tracheobronchitis is always manifested by hard breathing with typical wheezing. Sputum, which in the course of the process departs more and more intensively, can "suggest" possible causes of the disease:
- The greenish-yellow highlight indicates bacterial infection.
- Liquid structure, clear and light sputum indicates a viral infection or allergies.
- Dense in the consistency of sputum, white hue, often in the form of clots indicating a fungal infection.
Tracheitis and bronchitis, in addition to the standard diagnostic methods, is determined with an auscultatory test: the patient takes a deep breath and then exhales. With narrowed bronchi, exhalation is literally "heard" by a typical bronchial whistle.
Viral tracheitis is the most common tracheitis in acute form. In children, inflammation of the trachea causes adenoviruses, which are characterized by high contaginosis and off-season prevalence. The basis of the form of adenovirus infections are diseases of the upper respiratory tract, that is, the larynx, nasopharynx and trachea. Viral tracheitis in adults is also not uncommon, but it most often develops during the epidemic spread of influenza viruses. The symptoms that distinguish viral tracheitis from bacterial aetiology depend on the degree of severity of the process, but the most the characteristic parameters of viral inflammation of the trachea are rhinitis and a specific sputum structure that recurs after two to three days
from the onset of infection. The viral tracheitis is almost always accompanied by transparent nasal secretions and a rather clear-looking outgoing phlegm. Also, the disease of viral etiology can be manifested by headache, hyperthermia and general malaise. Viral tracheitis, despite the severity of its course, is treated much faster than other types of inflammation trachea, sometimes enough of the expectorant and immunomodulating drugs and bed rest.
Tracheitis in Pregnancy
Tracheitis in pregnancy, unfortunately, is not uncommon, just like rhinitis or laryngitis. The most common form of the disease is the viral tracheitis, which is formed against the back of the sore throat, inflamed tonsils or acute respiratory disease. Viral tracheitis, however, like any other infectious disease, is dangerous for both the mother and the fetus, as pathogens can penetrate the placental barrier. Tracheitis in pregnancy is a rather serious threat in terms of treatment if the disease is diagnosed as a bacterial infection. After all, in this case, without therapy with antibiotics can not do, and any antibacterial agents are undesirable for the body of a pregnant woman. In addition, tracheitis in pregnancy can have complications in the form of bronchitis and even bronchopneumonia, which is even more dangerous for the health of the mother and intrauterine development of the fetus.
The only reliable way to prevent tracheitis in pregnancy is prevention, that is the maximum limitation contacts with patients, sneezing, coughing people who can be found in public places and hospitals.
Treatment of tracheitis in pregnancy
Where does it hurt?Chest Pain
What's bothering you?Cough
What it is necessary to survey?Trachea
How to inspect?Investigation of bronchi and trachea X-ray of lungs Investigation of respiratory (lung)
What tests are needed?Sputum examination
Who to contact?Pulmonologist General practitioner Family doctor
In addition to treatmentTreatment of tracheitis Antibiotics for tracheitis: when they can not be dispensed with and when they are not needed? Than to treat? Paxeladine Thyme Grass
The best way to treat any disease is prevention, not an exception in this sense and tracheitis. The main task that prophylaxis of tracheitis presupposes is the maintenance of immunity in the proper form, since tracheitis is mainly caused by viruses. It is also important to follow safety precautions if there are people in your environment who are sick with acute respiratory diseases. The path of transmission of tracheitis by 75% - airborne, less common household. Personal hygiene, that is classical washing and frequent washing of hands helps to avoid not only viral, but also bacterial infection. Prevention of tracheitis is also a rejection of bad habits, especially from smoking, incidentally, passive smoking is no less dangerous in the sense of provoking diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Vitaminotherapy, body protection through hardening, regular wet cleanings and active lifestyles will help reduce the risk of developing the disease or even avoid it altogether.
How to treat bronchitis, tracheitis and a simple cough?
Bronchitis, tracheitis and other types of cough are very dangerous in neglect and can lead to complications of the lungs. Treatment of tracheitis and bronchitis has a direct relationship. This is due to the fact that the physiological structure and functions of the organs in which these diseases are localized are interrelated.By itself, the trachea is a cartilaginous tube connecting the bronchi and lungs with the larynx and upper respiratory tracts. And the bronchi are separated from the trachea and enter the lungs. Functionally, the trachea and bronchi provide the lungs with clean air, moisturize them. For the most part this is due to the abundant release of mucus, which, in turn, cleans the path from infection and viruses. This process provides the ciliated epithelium, which lined the internal walls of these organs.
Most common viral diseases are the cause of both tracheitis and bronchitis.In tracheitis, the mucous membrane of the trachea is inflamed, and in bronchitis, the mucous membranes of the bronchi are inflamed.But since these two organs have a direct relationship (one goes into the other), the treatment for these diseases is basically similar. Also, the causes of tracheitis and bronchitis include irritant substances, tobacco smoking, colds (hypothermia), and bacterial infections. Symptomatically, these diseases have much in common. For example, cough, congestion, wheezing and malaise.
Treatment of diseasesThe treatment of these diseases is based on anti-inflammatory therapy, in which antibiotics are commonly used. Against this background, the so-called curative regime is required: it is the abandonment of tobacco or a significant reduction in its consumption, and airing the room, and bed rest. Since bronchitis and tracheitis affect the respiratory tract, it is necessary to avoid chemical stimuli. Despite the fact that the treatment of these diseases is similar, it is still possible to distinguish one from another.
Methods of treatment of bronchitis and tracheitis:
- antibacterial therapy;
- observance of the curative regime;
- antiviral therapy;
- antibacterial therapy (if there are purulent sputum);
- taking medications for cough;
- expectorant medication;
- physiotherapeutic measures (inhalation).
With bronchitis and tracheitis, there is usually a cough of a different nature. In the beginning it is dry, and then it becomes wet. By itself, this symptom is natural and favorable, because with the help of a cough comes sputum faster. And yet, in order to speed up the production of sputum, it is best to drink mucolytic drugs.
It is very important to identify the cause of these diseases. For this, it is necessary to take tests. It must be remembered that some antibiotics are treated for viruses, others for bacterial infection. Carrying out of inhalations is caused by that at a bronchitis and a tracheitis it is necessary to humidify mucous membranes constantly. Especially often, inhalations are prescribed to small children so that no false cereal occurs.
Treatment with folk remediesPeople's remedies in the case of tracheitis and bronchitis treatment can only be ancillary. Since both of these diseases are accompanied by inflammatory processes and are dangerous serious complications. For example, to treat cough, you can use infusions and decoctions of mallow, medicinal marshmallow, marshmallow, medicinal angelica and saxifrage. To accelerate the output of sputum, you can use decoctions and infusions of hyssop, European clef, medicinal sweet clover, rosemary and creeping thyme. It is often recommended antibacterial broths and infusions on calendula, rosaceous eucalyptus, thyme, narrow-leaved blanc, yagel and basil.
If tracheitis or bronchitis has a fungal nature, then use the blanch, yarrow and string. Spasms in the bronchi can be eliminated with the help of belladonna, thyme and anise seeds. And also it can be done thanks to dope, St. John's wort, dill, chamomile and cruciferous. Restore the functions of the epithelium of the bronchi with birch leaves and kidneys. This is especially true for those who smoke tobacco for a long time. With such diseases as bronchitis and tracheitis, the most important is the prevention of transformation into a chronic form. Therefore, it is necessary to treat such inflammatory processes in a timely manner.
Herbal decoctions and infusions favorably affect the treatment of these diseases, but only in conjunction with the main therapy.
To prepare herbal medicines is necessary only with the consent of the attending physician, who will tell in each individual case how to prepare them and how to apply them correctly. Self-treatment of bronchitis of tracheitis and other airway diseases should be carried out only under control with all additional research and analysis. The only exception: after the tracheitis and bronchitis in cases of hypothermia or cold, you can independently use already tested herbs for prevention. After all, if once these diseases have appeared, the risk of their repeated relapse is always present.
Tracheitis in children: symptoms, treatment, causes
Respiratory diseases in children rarely occur in isolation. Usually they combine the damage of several anatomical zones. The inflammation of the trachea is a tracheitis. Most often it accompanies laryngitis, can occur in conjunction with rhinitis, pharyngitis or bronchitis.
Tracheitis in children is quite common, because coughing is one of the most frequent complaints with which parents turn to a pediatrician.
The disease occurs more often in October-April, in the season of respiratory infections. Infectious tracheitis is susceptible to children of all ages. Especially from 6 months to 3 years. The reason for this is weak local immunity and the absence of previous contacts with pathogens.
The causes of tracheitis
Children become ill with tracheitis for several reasons:
In 90% of cases, the trachea becomes inflamed due to a virus attack. Here are the most common pathogens that are capable of adhesion (adhesion) to the mucosa of the trachea:
- respiratory syncytial virus;
- haemophilus influenzae;
Also, the symptomatology of tracheitis can occur with the initial manifestations of such diseases as whooping cough, paracottis, ornithosis.
Various non-infectious stimuli
which are in the air, affect the mucous membrane, causing it to swell and reflex cough.
- inhalation of cigarette smoke (passive smoking);
- living near industrial areas that pollute the air;
- a large concentration of exhaust fumes, accommodation near major highways;
- cool and dry air.
The incidence of tracheitis may increase with reduced local immunity, the presence of chronic lung diseases, allergic diseases.
Symptoms of tracheitis in children
Most often, the inflammation of the trachea in children occurs in an acute form. Chronic for them a rarity.
The acute form occurs after a short period of malaise, the appearance of a cold, and soreness when swallowed. Probably raising the temperature of the body. The clinical manifestations of tracheitis are more dependent on the causative agent of the disease. So when influenza tracheitis signs come to the fore. Disturbs the grimy dry cough, severe intoxication, high fever, aches in the body.
With trachitis caused by parainfluenza, it does not dispense with the symptoms of laryngitis:
- hoarseness of voice,
- barking cough.
Bacterial tracheitis tend to be delayed, may be a consequence of untreated ARVI.
- Initially, cough with tracheitis is dry, unproductive. Sputum is either small, or it is poorly separated. Viral sputum is always light, transparent. Bacterial sputum purulent, yellow or yellow-green. With the flu, it can appear blood veins.
- Children can cough up with attacks, especially if they inhale cold air, laugh, cry, get scared. Coughing lasts at night when the baby lies. In the morning, the accumulated sputum gives him a wet character.
- Older children may complain of a sore throat, a feeling of sadness behind the sternum.
- The temperature at children can keep on a low-grade level (no more than 38 ° С), and to rise to high figures. The children of an early age react sharper and brighter to infection.
Features of tracheitis in children of different ages
- Newborns and children up to 5-6 months are distinguished by the incompleteness of the cough reflex due to the immaturity of some brain structures. Therefore, they have symptoms of coughing absent or can be combined with regurgitation or vomiting. At the same time such crumbs can give high temperature, be listless and whimsical due to intoxication.
- Preschool children cough unproductively. Their musculature is not yet developed enough to fully cough up phlegm. Therefore, they get sick with frequent attacks of dry cough, especially at night.
- In schoolchildren, on the contrary, hypersecretion predominates, so the cough quickly becomes wet, with more sputum.
- Older children - the temperature may not be high, most often subfebrile.
How will the tracheitis be determined?
The diagnosis is made after the clarification of complaints and examination. When listening to the respiratory system, the doctor notes a hard breathing, the appearance of dry wheezes. After a cough they can disappear or change their localization. Changes in blood tests (leukocytosis, increased ESR, shift of formula to the left, predominance of lymphocytes or neutrophils) will talk about the presence of inflammation, as well as the viral or bacterial nature of the disease. X-ray examination is usually not required.
Distinctive features of tracheitis
The fact that the disease is localized in the trachea, will help determine some features of this disease. Since the main sign is cough, differentiate the inflammation of the trachea with laryngitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia.
Difference from laryngitis
The voice with tracheitis is normal, does not vanish, does not wheeze. Cough is dry, but not barking. Gradually turns into a damp one. Laryngitis does not change in auscultation. Maximum hard breathing. But laryngitis can turn into laryngotracheitis.
Difference from pharyngitis
When the throat is inflamed, the child suffers from a sore throat and dry cough. Cough does not turn to wet, if there is no concomitant rhinitis. There is no sputum. Cough can be softened by gargling or lozenges.
Difference from bronchitis
Bronchitis is more severe, with intoxication, dry and wet rales. Cough agonizing, with expectoration. In small children it can be complicated by bronchospasm, which does not happen with tracheitis. At a bronchitis changes on a roentgenogram are observed.
Difference from pneumonia
The classic course of pneumonia is easily distinguishable by a doctor from tracheitis. But there is an asymptomatic pneumonia, with a low temperature, for example, mycoplasmal pneumonia, when it should be differentiated from a protracted cough with tracheitis.
Another acute nonspecific tracheitis, it should be differentiated from:
Cough for a long time does not pass. Coughing attacks are accompanied by a whistling inhalation (reprises) and separation of vitreous sputum in the end. Severe intoxication.
Prolonged dry cough, coughing. The child is pale, losing weight. For a long time, the subfebrile temperature worries.
Cough arises abruptly, after playing with small details. The child is restless, there is a cyanosis of the lips, breathing is difficult, especially inhalation. Possible asphyxiation.
Treatment of tracheitis in children
Treatment of acute viral tracheitis, not complicated by attachment of infection and proceeding classically can be completely cured by yourself, addressing the doctor only so that he listened to the child, prescribed tests and checked if there was a threat of complications.
Urgent to see a doctor is necessary in the following cases:
- The child has heavy breathing, with shortness of breath. He prefers to sit, not lie, so it's easier for him to breathe. This is respiratory failure.
- The high temperature, knocked down by the antipyretic, rises more quickly than after 3 hours. After several such episodes of hyperthermia, a pediatrician is needed.
- During the cough, the child "whistles". This is a sign that the infection has fallen to the level of bronchi, which responded spasm.
- If the child is weak, weak, very unwell.
- If you unsuccessfully treat a tracheitis within 2-3 weeks.
What will the doctor appoint?
Mucolytics, if on the 3-4 day after the onset of the disease cough did not become productive. The child is difficult to cough up phlegm because of its increased viscosity. Assign Fluimitsil, Mukobene, ACTS, Fljuditik, Ambroxol and Bromhexine. Due to the fact that the muscles of the chest in the child are still undeveloped and the baby can not cough up phlegm, and the drugs make it liquid, mucolytics are not recommended for children under 2 years.
are rarely prescribed, only in the first days of the disease, when the cough is severe, debilitating. Children are treated with non-narcotic means Sinekod, Glavent, Libeksin, Bronholitin, Tussin Plus (see Fig. antitussives).
- Covering agents
reduce the reflex challenge of coughing. They create a protective layer on the oropharynx, they are often used in small amounts. These are lollipops and syrups, collections containing extracts of eucalyptus, licorice, wild cherry, white acacia.
mainly vegetable, are used for the fastest evacuation of sputum. Assign them in cases when the cough is rare, unproductive and low-intensive. These are syrups, drops and tablets from coughs with extracts of althaea, anise, elecampane, ipecacuanas, plantain, licorice, thyme. They are sold under the trade names of Gerbion, Linkas, Mukaltin, Dr Mom, Pertussin, Gedelix, Bronchipret (cf. expectorants). However, they are cautiously prescribed to young children due to possible sputum increase, vomiting and potential asphyxia. This refers to the preparations of ipecacuanas. Anise, oregano and licorice have a weak laxative effect. It is better to choose means based on the root of the althaea, anise drops.
Antipyretics for children are shown at a temperature above 38, 5 ° C, children under 3 months, as well as with lung and heart pathology.
To reduce the swelling of the mucous membrane, inflammation, the severity of cough, Erespal, Sirep is prescribed. It is prescribed for prolonged cough in syrup, and after 14 years in tablets.
Some doctors like to prescribe drugs that stimulate interferon production, which affect the immune system. This is Viferon, Cycloferon, Influcid, Oksilokoktsinum. From the point of view of evidence-based medicine, only antiviral drugs against influenza, Tamiflu, Oseltamivir are effective. If the cause of tracheitis is influenza, then they will help. Otherwise, it is a waste of money and risks of developing autoimmune processes in the body.
Antibiotics for tracheitis are prescribed only in the case of its bacterial etiology. When a virus disease, they are not needed. If the child has purulent sputum, you can send it to the planting and find out the sensitivity to antibiotics. Sometimes they are prescribed empirically, based on the clinic of the disease. Prescribe protected amoxicillin (Augmentin, Amoxiclav), cephalosporins (Zinnat, Cefotakim, Ceftriaacon). With chlamydial or mycoplasmal tracheitis macrolides are effective (Macropen, Fromilid, Sumamed).
How to treat a tracheitis in a child at home?
- Provide moist air, plenty of drink. If there is no heat, let calmly play. Care for the baby also includes feeding light foods rich in vitamins. Dairy products are useful.
- Children who are difficult to clear their throat, can be helped by the method of postural massage. The child lies on a pillow or on his knees with an adult stomach. After stroking, the palm in the form of a boat makes tapping from the bottom up, without touching the area of the spine. After the children it becomes easier to cough up phlegm. You can drink an expectorant before the procedure (for 30 minutes).
- In the absence of temperature, you can get your feet in the water (no higher than 45 ° C) or put the mustard on your back.
- You can make a baby inhalation. But this should not be scalding steam, so you can provoke a burn or laryngospasm. Apply herbal pickings with licorice, sage, breast picks. The main thing is to moisten the mucous and withdraw the phlegm.
How long does the tracheitis last for a child?
From the moment of the onset of malaise to the appearance of classical symptoms, 2-3 days pass. On average, the acute course of the disease lasts at least 2 weeks. Another week can last a residual cough.
The child in the clinic is often diagnosed with tracheitis. What could be its causes?
To begin with, we determine that frequent cases of acute respiratory viral infections are more than 6 episodes per year in children under 3 years old, and more than 5 times a year in children after 3 years. Frequent tracheitis may occur due to an increased number of contacts with potential carriers of infection, with a decrease in the immune response due to its immaturity. Also, often sick children should exclude immunodeficiency, anomalies in the development of ENT organs and bronchopulmonary system, cystic fibrosis.
Tracheid bronchitis (tracheal, tracheal): symptoms and treatment
If the tracheal type of bronchitis develops, it means that the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract is affected. By nature, the ailment can be allergic or infectious.
The danger of the disease is that its symptoms are combined. They are inherent in bronchitis and tracheitis.
This seriously complicates the course of the disease, its diagnosis, treatment. Acute tracheid type of bronchitis can take a chronic form.
In this case, a diffuse process occurs: inflammation begins in the trachea and bronchi. There are several reasons for this state:
- infection with bacteria, viruses;
- the presence of a cold;
- addictions (smoking);
- exposure to irritating factors (harmful working conditions, poor climate).
Such a diagnosis is most often put in autumn and winter. If there is no treatment or it is wrong, tracheid bronchitis passes into the next stage - the chronicle. When this happens, it becomes very difficult to treat the patient.
The inflamed inflammation is often detected in heavy smokers. This group of patients suffers from coughing attacks with active release of mucus. The most painful symptom is the morning after awakening. During the night, the bronchi are filled with mucus, from which the body tries to get rid of. Cough accompanied by:
- shortness of breath;
It is characteristic that the chronic course of bronchitis gives the same symptoms. The only difference is in the localization of inflammation.
When a trachea is affected, bronchitis can annoy a cough of different nature and severity. The patient may have little liquid secretion, or too much. Such discharges differ in smell, consistency and color.
More often than others, bronchitis and tracheitis develops in people who are forced to work in conditions of critical dustiness. Pathology is accompanied by hypertrophic or atrophic changes in the mucous membranes of the organs.
Tracheitis often occurs against the backdrop of stagnant manifestations of somatic ailments, chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract:
Symptoms and DiagnosisAs noted, tracheitis, like bronchitis, begins with a cough. Initially, it is tiring, sullen, but without any excretions.
Pain sensations in the area of the diaphragm begin after a fit of cough and excessive efforts for coughing. Often there is an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees.
The patient's heart beat faster, the appetite disappears. Bronchitis, tracheitis can provoke excessive sweating at night. Later cough becomes moist, many sputum are produced.
To diagnose the disease and properly treat it, you need to:
- visual examination of the patient (with the use of percussion techniques, auscultation);
- X-ray examination of the lungs;
- sputum analysis.
Sputum collection is necessary to exclude dangerous diseases of the respiratory tract and respiratory system. These include lung cancer, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis.
Treatment of tracheobronchitis
To treat tracheitis, bronchitis follows complex. If bacteria become the prerequisite for the development of pathology, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action.
In the viral nature of the disease, it is necessary to take a course of antiviral drugs:
In addition, the treatment provides for the use of ointments and fats. Dr. MOM, Evcabal.
If the doctor allowed, it would not hurt to treat the disease with folk remedies. However, it must be proven and effective recipes. The means of alternative medicine is just an addition to therapy. They can not completely replace drugs.
To treat the disease will help badger, bearish fat from coughing. Products rubbing in a circular motion in the back and chest, do it best before night sleep.
How to treat herbs
A good antitussive effect has decoctions of medicinal herbs: elecampane, oregano, lime, and marshmallow. Also, the licorice root, rosemary, St. John's wort, yarrow, thyme are used.
Treatment of tracheid bronchitis can not do without steam inhalations. Nebulizers are suitable for the procedure. If you do not have such a device at your fingertips, it's worth it. Allowed to breathe over broth:
- medicinal plants;
- pine buds.
It does not hurt to drink flaxseed infusions or just use such seeds in a dry form. About all this and many other things will tell the video in this article.