Antibiotics for pneumonia
Antibiotics for pneumonia - the main component of the healing process. Lung inflammation begins acutely, with fever, a strong cough with brown or yellowish sputum, chest pains with coughing and breathing.
Treatment of pneumonia requires an urgent hospitalization of the patient in the therapeutic or resuscitation department (depending on the severity of the condition). Indicated bed rest, vitamin nutrition, and it is also important to consume a large amount of liquid - tea, juice, milk, mineral water.
Since inflammation of the lung tissue most often occurs due to specific microorganisms, the most correct way to fight the pathogen is the introduction of antibiotics intramuscularly and intravenously. This method of administration makes it possible to keep a high concentration of antibiotic in the blood, which contributes to the fight against bacteria. Most often, pneumonia is prescribed antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, since it is impossible to identify the pathogen immediately, and the slightest delay can cost lives.
In general, for the treatment of pneumonia, macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, midecamycin, spiramycin) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin). To increase the effectiveness of treatment, antibiotics are administered according to a special scheme. At the first stage, the antibiotic is administered parenterally - intramuscularly or intravenously, and then antibiotics are given in tablets.
Despite the wide choice of antibiotics in pharmacies, you should not self-medicate, but it is better to seek help from experienced specialist, since antibiotics are selected strictly individually, based on the analysis of the pathogen pneumonia. In addition, the treatment of pneumonia is based not only on antibiotic therapy, but includes several stages in the general treatment regimen.
What antibiotics for pneumonia will be most effective is established laboratory. To do this, bacterial culture of sputum is done on a special medium, and depending on which colony of bacteria begins to develop, the causative agent is established. Then they make a test for the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics, and based on these results, the patient is assigned a specific group of antibacterial drugs. But, as the process of identifying the pathogen can take up to 10 days or more, at the initial stage of treatment of pneumonia, the patient is prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. To maintain the concentration of the drug in the blood, it is administered by both intravenous and intramuscularly, combining with anti-inflammatory, resolving agents, vitamins, etc., eg:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae. In antipnevmokokkovoy therapy prescribed benzylpenicillin and aminopenicillin, derivatives of cephalosporins of the third generation, such as cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, macrolides.
- Haemophilus influenzae. With the detected hemophilic rod, aminopenicillins or amoxicillin are prescribed.
- Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus - oxacillin, protected aminopenicillins, cephalosporins I and II generations.
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae. Antibiotics for the treatment of mycoplasmal and chlamydial pneumonia are macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics, as well as fluoroquinolones.
- Legionella pneumophila. Antibiotic, effective against legionella - erythromycin, rifampicin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones.
- Enterobacteriaceae spp. Antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia caused by klibsiella or E. coli are cephalosporins of the third generation.
Treatment of pneumonia after antibiotics
Treatment of pneumonia after antibiotics can be the reason for the selection of ineffective drugs or if the intake of antibacterial agents is not taken properly - an incorrect dosage, a violation of the regimen. In normal course, antibiotics are taken to normalize the temperature and then after 3 more days. In severe cases of pneumonia, treatment may take up to 4-6 weeks. If during this period the positive dynamics of the disease is not fixed, then the cause is in the wrong antibacterial treatment. In this case, a second analysis is performed on the bacteria, after which a course of correct antibacterial therapy is conducted. After full recovery and positive results of radiography, spa treatment, smoking cessation, and increased vitamin nutrition are indicated.
In the additional treatment with antibiotics after pneumonia, the patient may need to:
- Wrongly chosen antibiotic for treatment.
- Frequent change of antibiotics.
Also, antibiotic treatment after pneumonia may be necessary in the event of a recurrence of the disease. The reason for this - long-term treatment with antibiotics, depressing the defenses of the body. Also, a similar result arises from self-medication and uncontrolled administration of antibiotics at unidentified doses.
Treatment of pneumonia after antibiotics should be carried out in a hospital, by systematic radiographic monitoring. If after 72 hours the clinical picture does not change or if during the treatment termination the focus of inflammation on X-ray image is not reduced, a second course of treatment is shown, but already with another antibiotic, consultation is also necessary phthisiatrician.
Antibiotics for pneumonia in adults
Antibiotics for pneumonia in adults are prescribed depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the condition. Pneumonia is most often caused by a variety of bacteria, less often fungi and protozoa. At the first stage of treatment, up to the end results, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed, and also patient, whether he had previously had pneumonia, tuberculosis, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, is not smoker. In addition, in elderly patients, pathogens differ from similar cases in younger patients.
If the prescribed drug is ineffective and until the bacteriological analysis of sputum is obtained, the recommended antibiotic should not be changed within 3 days. This is the minimum time frame for the antibiotic concentration in the blood to reach its maximum, and it began to act on the lesion site.
- Inflammation of the lungs in patients under 60 years with a mild course appoint Avelox 400 mg per day (or Tavanik 500 mg in day) - 5 days, with him Doxycycline (2 tablets per day - the first day, the rest days - 1 tablet) - 10-14 days. You can take Avelox 400 mg and Amoxiclav 625 mg * 2 times a day - 10-14 days.
- A patient under 60 years of age, with a major illness and other chronic diseases, also a patient over 60 years old are assigned Avelox 400 mg plus Ceftriaxone 1 gram 2 times a day at least 10 days.
- Severe course of pneumonia at any age. A combination of Levofloxacin or Tavanic, intravenously plus Ceftriaxone 2 grams twice a day or Fortum, Cefepime in the same doses intramuscularly or intravenously is recommended. It is possible to administer Sumamed intravenously plus Fortum intramuscularly.
- In extremely severe pneumonia, when the patient is hospitalized in the intensive care unit, appoint: combinations of Sumamed and Tavanik (Leflotsin), Fortum and Tavanik, Targotsida and Meronem, Sumamed and Meronema.
Antibiotics for pneumonia in children
Antibiotics for pneumonia in children begin to enter immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. Obligatory admission to therapy or in a complex current in the intensive care unit are children, if:
- The child's age is less than two months, regardless of the degree of severity and localization of the inflammatory process in the lungs.
- A child up to three years old, diagnosed with lobar pneumonia.
- The child is up to five years old, the diagnosis is the loss of more than one lobe of the lung.
- Children with a history of encephalopathy.
- A child up to a year old, a confirmed fact of intrauterine infection.
- Children with congenital defects of the heart muscle and circulatory system.
- Children with chronic diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, with diabetes mellitus and malignant blood diseases.
- Children from families who are registered with social services.
- Children from orphanages, from families with insufficient social and living conditions.
- The hospitalization of children with non-compliance with medical recommendations and treatment at home is indicated.
- Children with severe pneumonia.
With mild bacterial pneumonia, antibiotics from the penicillin group, both natural and synthetic, are indicated. Natural antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, and others. Semisynthetic penicillins are commonly divided into isoxazolylpenicillins (oxacillin), aminopenicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin), carboxypenicillins (carbenicillin, ticarcillin), ureidopenicillins (azlocillin, piperacillin).
The described scheme of antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in children is prescribed until the results of bacterial analysis and detection of the pathogen. After identifying the pathogen further treatment is prescribed by the doctor strictly individually.
Names of antibiotics for pneumonia
The names of antibiotics for pneumonia indicate which group the drug belongs to: ampicillin - oxacillin, ampiox, piperacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, cephalosporins - claforan, cephobid and others. For the treatment of pneumonia in modern medicine are used as synthetic and semi-synthetic, and natural antibiotics. Some types of antibiotics act selectively, only on a certain type of bacteria, and some on a fairly wide range of pathogens. It is with antibiotics of a wide spectrum and it is customary to start antibacterial treatment of pneumonia.
Rules for prescribing antibiotics for pneumonia:
An antibacterial preparation with a wide spectrum of action is prescribed, proceeding from the course of the disease, the color of expectorated sputum.
- Conduct BAC sputum analysis to identify the pathogen, put the test on the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics.
- Prescribe a scheme of antibiotic therapy based on the results of the analysis. In this case, take into account the severity of the disease, the effectiveness, the likelihood of complications and allergies, possible contraindications, the rate of absorption of the drug into the blood, the time of excretion from organism. Most often, two antibacterial drugs are prescribed, for example, an antibiotic group of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
Hospital pneumonia is treated with amoxicillin, ceftazidime, with inefficiency - ticarcillin, cefotaxime. Also a combination of antibiotics is possible, especially in severe conditions, mixed infection, weak immunity. In such cases, appoint:
- Cefuroxime and gentamicin.
- Amoxicillin and gentamicin.
- Lincomycin and amoxicillin.
- Cephalosporin and lincomycin.
- Cephalosporin and metronidazole.
With community-acquired pneumonia, azithromycin, benzylpenicillin, fluoroquinolone are prescribed, in severe conditions - cefotaxime, clarithromycin. Combinations of the listed antibiotics are possible.
Independently to change a line of treatment by antibiotics it is not necessary, so it can lead to development of stability microorganisms to certain groups of drugs, as a result - inefficiency of antibacterial therapy.
Course of antibiotics for pneumonia
The course of antibiotics for pneumonia is prescribed by the attending physician, based on the patient's age, severity of the disease, the nature of the pathogen and the body's response to antibacterial therapy.
In severe community-acquired pneumonia, the following treatment is prescribed:
- Aminopenicillins - amoxicillin / clavulanate. Children at an early age are prescribed with aminoglycosides.
- Possible treatment options:
- Ticarcillin antibiotics
- Cephalosporins of II-IV generations.
With aspiration bacterial pneumonia, the following antibiotics are prescribed:
- Amoxicillin or clavulanate (Augmentin) intravenously + aminoglycoside.
- Possible variants of the treatment regimen, purpose:
- Metronidazole + cephalosporins III pen.
- Metronidazole + cephalosporins III n-y + aminoglycosides.
- Lincosamides + cephalosporins III pen.
- Carbapenem + vancomycin.
With nosocomial pneumonia, the following antibiotics are prescribed:
- With an easy course of pneumonia, the use of protected aminopenicillins (Augmentin).
- Possible variants of the treatment regimen are the appointment of cephalosporins II-III n-th.
- In severe cases, combined treatment is required:
- inhibitor-protected carboxypenicillins (ticarcillin / clavulanate) and aminoglycosides;
- cephalosporins III n-i, cephalosporins IV n-y with aminoglycosides.
Treatment of pneumonia, a long and serious process and attempts at self-medication with antibiotics not only can lead to complications, but and cause the impossibility of correct antibacterial therapy due to the low sensitivity of the pathogen to drug.
Treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics caused by Klebsiella
When found in sputum Klibsiella pneumonia treatment with antibiotics is the main method of pathogenic therapy. Klebsiella - a pathogenic microorganism, normally occurs in the human intestine, and with high concentration and a decrease in immunity can cause lung infections. Approximately 1% of cases of bacterial pneumonia are caused by Klebsiella. Most often, such cases are recorded in men over 40, patients with alcoholism, with diabetes, chronic bronchopulmonary diseases.
The clinical course of pneumonia caused by klibsiella is similar to pneumococcal pneumonia, often the focus of inflammation is localized in the right upper lobe of the lung, it can spread to other lobes. Develops cyanosis, shortness of breath, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea. Often, pneumonia is complicated by abscess and empyema lung, the reason is that the klibsiella are the cause of tissue destruction. With community-acquired pneumonia, Klebsiella, Serratia and Enterobacter are found in sputum.
Klebsiella, Serratia and Enterobacter have a different degree of sensitivity to antibiotics, so treatment begins with the designation of aminoglycosides and cephalosporins of the third generation, mezlocillin, amikacin is effective against the Serratia strain.
With proper and timely treatment, pneumonia caused by klibsiella, without complications, is completely cured in 2-3 weeks.
Treatment of severe pneumonia caused by klibsiella, appoint aminoglycosides (tobramycin, gentamicin from 3 to 5 mg / kg per day) or amikacin 15 mg / kg per day with cephalothin, cefapyrin, 4 to 12 g in day. Treatment of severe pneumonia caused by klibsiella, appoint aminoglycosides (tobramycin, gentamicin from 3 to 5 mg / kg per day) or amikacin 15 mg / kg per day with cephalothin, cefapyrin, 4 to 12 g in day.
Treatment with antibiotics mycoplasmal pneumonia
If a mycroplasma is detected in the sputum, pneumonia is treated to fight a particular pathogen. Getting into the body, mycoplasma is introduced into the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, where secreting a special secret causes first a strong inflammation, and then begins the destruction of intercellular membranes, epithelial tissues, which ends with necrotic degeneration tissue.
In the pulmonary vesicles, mycoplasma rapidly multiply, the alveoli increase, and possibly the interalveolar septa. Mycoplasmal pneumonia develops slowly, the onset of the disease looks like a cold, then the temperature rises to 39-40 degrees, a violent cough begins. The temperature lasts about 5 days, then drops sharply, fixing at around 37-3 degrees, and holds for a long time. On the X-ray image clearly visible darkened foci, degeneration in connective tissue septums.
The difficulty of treating mycoplasmal pneumonia is that the pathogen is inside neutrophils, and this makes penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides ineffective. First of all, macrolides are prescribed: azithromycin (sumamed), spiromycin (rovamycin), clarithromycin, applied 2 times a day, no more than 2 weeks, with a smaller rate of relapse.
Antibiotics for congestive pneumonia
Antibiotics for congestive pneumonia appoint a course of at least 2 weeks. Congestive pneumonia develops with prolonged bed rest, in elderly people, weakened, as well as complication after complicated operations. The flow of congestive pneumonia is slow, asymptomatic, there is no chill, fever, cough. The patient can be disturbed only by shortness of breath and weakness, drowsiness, later there is a coughing.
To treat congestive pneumonia it is possible and at home, but adhering to all prescriptions, and only under the control of a doctor, so most often the patient is hospitalized in a hospital. If a bacterial infection is found in the sputum (congestive pneumonia does not always have a bacterial character), antibiotics - cefazolin, digitum or protected penicillin - are prescribed. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks.
With congestive pneumonia, developing against a background of heart failure, additionally prescribed glycosides and diuretic medicinal complexes, along with antibacterial, bronchodilator, expectorant means. In addition, therapeutic exercise is shown, a diet rich in vitamins. With aspiration pneumonia, bronchoscopy is mandatory.
In general, with a timely diagnosis and antibiotic therapy, quality prevention and maintaining the patient's body, complications with congestive pneumonia does not develop, and recovery comes through 3-4 weeks.
Combination of antibiotics in pneumonia
The combination of antibiotics in pneumonia is introduced by the doctor into the treatment regimen under certain conditions that aggravate the clinic. In the clinic, the use of two or more antibiotics is not approved, due to the high burden on the body - the liver and kidneys of a weakened person can not cope with so many toxins. Therefore, in practice, the treatment of pneumonia with a single antibiotic, whose effect on the pathogenic flora is very high, is acceptable.
Combinations of antibiotics for pneumonia are acceptable when:
- Severe course of pneumonia, with secondary pneumonia.
- Mixed infection.
- Infections with oppressed immunity (with cancer, lymphogranulomatosis, use of cytostatics).
- Dangers or development of resistance to the selected antibiotic.
In such cases, a treatment regimen is developed, based on the introduction of antibiotics that affect Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms - penicillins + aminoglycosides or cephalosporins + aminoglycosides.
Do not engage in self-medication, as the necessary dosage of the drug can be prescribed only by a doctor, and with insufficient doses of antibiotic simply the resistance of microorganisms to the drug will develop, and at too high a dose cirrhosis, renal dysfunction, dysbiosis, severe form of anemia. In addition, some antibiotics for pneumonia, when combined, simply reduce the effectiveness of each other (for example, antibiotics + bacteriostatic drugs).
Best antibiotic for pneumonia
The best antibiotic for pneumonia is one to which the bacteria are most sensitive. For this purpose, special laboratory tests are carried out - bacteriological sprouting of the sputum is done to determine the pathogen and then put the test on sensitivity to antibiotics.
The main direction in the treatment of pneumonia is antibacterial therapy. Until the pathogen is identified, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed. In case of community-acquired pneumonia, penicillin with clavulanic acid (amoxiclav, etc.), macrolides (rulid, rovamycin, etc.), cephalosporins of the 1st generation (kefzon, cefazolinum, tsoufalexin, etc.) are prescribed.
At hospital pneumonia appoint: penicillin in clavulanic acid, cephalosporins of the 3rd generation (klaforan, ceftide, fortum, etc.), fluoroquinolones (peflacin, ciprobai, taravid, etc.), aminoglycosides (gentamicin), carbapenems (thienes).
The full complex of therapy consists not only of a combination of antibiotics (2-3 species), but also directed to restoration of drainage of bronchi (introduction of euphyllinum, beroduala), for liquefaction and excretion of sputum from bronchi. Also inject anti-inflammatory, absorbable drugs, vitamins and components that stimulate the immune system - freshly frozen plasma intravenously, antistaphylococcal and anti-influenza immunoglobulin, interferon and etc.
Modern antibiotics for pneumonia
Modern antibiotics for pneumonia are prescribed according to a special scheme:
- With the predominance of gram-positive cocci, intravenous and intramuscular injections of penicillin or cephalosporin preparations of the 1 st, 2 nd generation - cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxine.
- With the predominance of Gram-negative bacteria, cephalosporins of the third generation, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, are prescribed.
- Atypical course of pneumonia appoint macrolides - azithromycin, midekamycin, as well as cephalosporins of the third generation - ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, etc.
- With the predominance of gram-positive cocci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci or enterococci, cephalosporins of the 4th generation - cefipin, carbapines - to thienes, meronem, etc., are prescribed.
- With the predominance of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, cephalosporins of the third generation-cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, are additionally prescribed aminoglycosides.
- With the prevalence of fungal infection, cephalosporins of the third generation plus fluconazole are prescribed.
- With the predominance of intracellular organisms - mycoplasma, legionella, etc. appoint macrolides - azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, etc.
- In case of anaerobic infection, inhibitor-protected penicillins-lincomycin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and others-are prescribed.
- With penvmotsistnoy pneumonia appoint cotrimoxazole and macrolides.
- With cytomegalovirus pneumonia, ganciclovir, aciclovir, and cytotect are prescribed.
Antibiotics for pneumonia
Of all the groups of medications with which from time to time you have to face everyone, antibiotics are considered to be the heaviest. Despite the fact that they affect the body extremely negatively, sometimes it is impossible to do without the help of these drugs. With pneumonia, for example, only antibiotics can provide really effective help and prevent possible negative consequences of the disease.
How are antibiotics selected for pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs is one of the most serious and life-threatening diseases. Its main pathogens are viruses, bacteria, fungi. With pneumonia, the lung region stops functioning, which, of course, is unacceptable for the body. Therefore, the disease requires compulsory treatment. Cope with the same viruses and bacteria can only be using antibiotics.
Surprisingly, even today people continue to die of pneumonia. It is important to understand: the sooner you start to treat pneumonia, the less antibiotics you will have to drink and the higher the chances of a successful recovery. Medication must be prescribed by a specialist after a complete examination.
Previously, only penicillin was used to fight pneumonia. There was no alternative, no need to find an alternative medicine. Now everything has changed: harmful microorganisms have developed resistance to penicillin, the remedy has ceased to be effective, and he has to look for a replacement individually for each patient.
The way in which antibiotics will treat inflammation of the lungs is determined empirically. So you need to be prepared for the fact that the first prescription medication (even chosen based on the results of the study) may not be appropriate. To replace an antibiotic is necessary in the event that after a lapse of three or four days, its effect is invisible. Depends on the choice of medicine from:
- forms of the disease;
- causes of pneumonia;
- sensitivity of the body to drugs;
- previously taken antibiotics.
What antibiotics to treat pneumonia?
Antibiotics treat any form of pneumonia. In most cases, treatment is carried out permanently under the constant supervision of specialists. In order to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment course, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed to patients.
Immediately after the diagnosis is made with pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed in injections. Intramuscular and intravenous administration of drugs allows maintaining a high concentration of antibiotics in the blood, due to which the fight against bacteria is more intense. When the patient goes on the amendment, he is prescribed antibiotics in tablets.
Today, for the treatment of pneumonia, these antibiotics are used:
- Meronem and others.
It is very important to drink the whole course and not to throw the medication halfway. Otherwise, the disease may return soon.
The origin of the disease not only determines which antibiotics should be consumed with pneumonia, but also allows the selection of concomitant medications. So, with the fungal origin of pneumonia in parallel with antibiotics, you will also have to drink special antifungal agents. If the inflammation of the lungs is caused by viruses, antiviral drugs are added to the treatment course.
Antibiotics on the body are very strong. With prolonged use, they weaken the immune system and adversely affect the intestinal microflora. That there were no problems with a dysbacteriosis, in parallel with antibiotics it is necessary to accept probiotics.
Antibiotics for pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lungs, often a consequence or complication of bronchitis. Treatment of pneumonia is carried out with antibiotics on a mandatory basis, because the causative agents of the disease are bacteriological infections.Types of disease
There are pneumonia:
Depending on the treatment regime, different regimens for antibiotics are selected.Rules for prescribing:
- Choose a wide-spectrum antibiotic. This will be first line antibiotic therapy. The cause of the disease is assumed based on the color of sputum separated from the lungs and the nature of the course of pneumonia.
- Conduct an analysis to identify the bacteria that caused the disease, as well as their sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Correct the treatment scheme according to the results of the smear analysis of the sputum to be separated.
When choosing which antibiotics to drink in acute bronchitis and pneumonia, you should also consider:
- severity of the disease;
- possible allergic reactions;
- toxicity of drugs;
- the tendency of development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics;
- the speed of penetration of the drug in body fluids;
- the speed at which the therapeutic dosage is reached in the foci of inflammation;
- spectrum of action of the drug.
Such situations are quite a rarity. Basically they arise because of previous self-treatment of the patient with the help of bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents. Causes of lack of effectiveness of drugs can also be:
- frequent use and change of antibiotics;
- development of resistance of microorganisms to the selected drug;
- incorrect choice of dosage and duration of treatment.
The solution to the problem is replacing the drug with another, or combining several drugs.What antibiotics to treat hospital pneumonia?
Hospital type of pneumonia involves a constant finding of a patient in a hospital hospital and supervision by a doctor.
First line.The following drugs are used:
When intolerance of the above antibiotics or the occurrence of allergic reactions, it is possible to use alternative agents:
In some cases, a combination of antibiotics is required to quickly improve the patient's condition and achieve the necessary concentration of the active substance in the body.
The basis for its use are:
- severe course of the disease;
- mixed infection;
- rapid development of microbial resistance to a single form of antibiotic;
- inflammatory process occurs against the background of oppressed immunity;
- The causative agent of infection is a combination of microorganisms that do not fall within the spectrum of exposure of any drug.
Antibiotics used together:
- Cefuroxime and gentamicin;
- Amoxicillin and gentamicin.
- Lincomycin and amoxicillin.
- Cephalosporin and lincomycin.
- Cephalosporin and metronidazole.
The second line.If the initial treatment regimen is ineffective or in accordance with the correction according to the results of the pathogen analysis:
At a mild and moderate stage of the disease, such antibiotics are used:
Names of antibiotics in the severe stage of pneumonia:
Combinations of the above drugs can be used.
To choose the best suitable antibiotic for pneumonia, certainly, should the doctor. This will prevent the aggravation of the course of the disease and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the body.
What kind of injections are prescribed for pneumonia and pneumonia?
What are the injections for pneumonia? This question interests many people. There are several types of pneumonia.
The disease can develop for various reasons. It can be:
- bacterial infection;
- fungal infections.
Penetrating into the lung tissue, all these microorganisms cause inflammation in them. Despite the fact that today there are drugs that can cope with this disease, do not underestimate the situation.Inflammation of the lungs is a serious illness that can lead to complications.
Most often doctors prescribe injections from pneumonia. When pneumonia, antibiotics are usually prescribed. But given that there are several types of inflammation, only the doctor can determine the correct treatment. The most severe course of this disease is observed in elderly people, in children and in smokers.The clinical picture of pneumonia has similar symptoms with bronchitis, influenza, or many colds. However, if there is pain in the chest, shortness of breath and pus in the sputum, it is worthwhile to be on the alert. There is a very high probability that you have pneumonia. Very often, with pneumonia, the body temperature rises and a cough appears. It can be dry or wet.
What should the patient do if there is a suspicion of pneumonia? The very first thing to do, if you are concerned about similar symptoms, immediately consult a doctor.
It is very important to pass a medical examination, to pass all the necessary tests. In order to make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor prescribes a lung X-ray. Today sputum is sown, this will distinguish pneumonia from other lung diseases, for example, from bronchitis or tuberculosis.
What are the types of pneumonia?
Pneumonia can be:
To treat bacterial and mycoplasmic pneumonia, the doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Today there are bacteria that have already developed resistance to antibacterial drugs. Most often, antibiotics are prescribed, which refer to the penicillin and macrolide groups. Often, penicillin can cause allergies, then the doctor can prescribe cephalosporins.For the treatment of fungal pneumonia, antifungal drugs are prescribed. Today is often diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia.
The peculiarity of this disease is that most often it occurs in people who suffer from diseases associated with impaired immune system.
This species can be dangerous for patients with oncology, diabetes, smokers. Often this type of pneumonia occurs in preterm infants. Thus, for a person with suspected pneumonia, a visit to the doctor is mandatory.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
The first symptoms of the disease are manifested after a certain number of pathogens accumulate in the respiratory tree. They begin to multiply actively, which leads to the fact that the cells begin to break down. The organism, trying to cope with the disease, begins to replace the dead substances, as a result there is an unpleasant sensation, a dry cough.
Over time, immunity begins to fight with infection, inflammation develops in the lungs, and the character of the cough changes: it becomes wet.
Sputum begins to form in the lungs. Pneumonia has three main stages of its development:
- When a pathological process develops in one or more alveolar tissues, a focal pneumonia is diagnosed.
- If the inflammatory process is localized in the pulmonary segments, then segmental pneumonia is determined.
- Often the inflammatory process develops in the lobe of the lung, in which case a diagnosis of lobar pneumonia is made.
- If both lungs are affected, then the croupous pneumonia is determined.
Since the moment bacteria enter the organism, before the onset of the disease, it takes 3 to 4 weeks. At the initial stage of pneumonia, redness of the skin can be observed, often body temperature rises. Shortness of breath causes the development of dyspnea. Often there is pain in the chest area.
The main stages of pneumonia
The first stage of pneumonia lasts no more than two days.
At the next stage of the disease, which is called hepatitis, there is an increase in leukocytes in the blood, in the alveoli fluid begins to accumulate, in the lungs air exchange is disrupted. Sometimes inflammation affects the multifunctional tissue, which leads to the development of respiratory failure.
With timely treatment, the stage of resolution gradually begins. Disappears short of breath, the inflammatory fluid begins to resolve, the pathological symptoms disappear. However, the recovery process after pneumonia continues for a long time.
Why it is so important to begin timely treatmentAs we see, pneumonia occurs in most cases quite hard. The consequences of the disease can be the most serious. The main symptoms are shortness of breath, sweating, high fever. Perhaps the most serious can be called pulmonary edema. This can lead to death. In order to prevent such a serious course of pneumonia, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.
Particularly difficult for inflammation of the lungs can be in children. One of the most disturbing symptoms of pneumonia in small patients is an elevated temperature that does not exceed 38 ° C. At the same time, it is not possible to achieve a reduction in temperature by taking antipyretics. Rapid breathing, even without symptoms of cough, is a symptom of pneumonia. Infants often develop shortness of breath.
Mycoplasmosis, legionella and chlamydia pneumonia are atypical. A characteristic sign is a perspiration in the throat, rhinitis and dry cough can develop. Often there is vomiting, the child refuses to eat. In adults, very often a sign of beginning inflammation of the lungs is a dry cough. Sputum is not excreted. Against the background of cough, there is often an increase in body temperature, there is a chill. With physical exertion, dyspnea may appear.
An alarming symptom is the appearance of aching pain in the chest, which can also indicate pleurisy. Often there is an exacerbation of herpes, which can speak of low immunity.
How is pneumonia treated?At the heart of the treatment of pneumonia is the administration of antibiotics. Most often it's Suprax, Ceftriaxone, Cefazolin, Cefixime. Different types of pneumonia require different treatment.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is treated with the use of chemotherapy drugs. Begin the treatment as soon as possible.
In most cases, patients diagnosed with pneumonia are hospitalized. Antibiotics, which are necessary for treatment, are selected taking into account the age of the patient and the severity of the course of the disease. In order to choose the most effective antibiotic, do a series of tests that allow you to cope with the infection.
Punctures from pneumonia
If the patient has a severe illness, if it is a child under 3 years old or an elderly person is older than 70 years, then the treatment is performed with antibiotics in injections in a hospital setting.
In severe condition, the patient is prescribed injections of such drugs as:
When a disease of the lung and the middle course appoint nyxes:
With typical pneumonia of the middle course, caused by streptococci, pneumococci, enterobacteria, appoint injections of cephalosporins:
If the patient is intolerant of penicillins, then such a patient is prescribed injections:
If the inflammation of the lungs is complicated by an abscess or pleurisy, then injections of Timentin are made.
With intolerance of the above-mentioned drugs, the patient is given injections of fluoroquinolones of the 3rd generation:
If the disease is complicated by sepsis, then appoint:
Pricks of antibiotics for pneumonia can be done only according to the prescription of the treating doctor and under strict control of it.
Treatment of pneumonia in adults: principles and drugs
Pneumonia is the development of inflammatory changes in lung tissue. This is due to the ingress of microbes (mainly bacteria, but there may be viruses and fungi) in various ways. The danger of pneumonia is that the more or less extensive area of the lung turns off from the gas exchange process, which reduces the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. In addition, the body is poisoned by products of inflammation and destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma.Inflammation can develop:
- in out-of-hospital conditions (such pneumonia is called "non-hospital");
- a person undergoing treatment in a hospital for any other disease;
- arisen because of neurologic disorders (seizures, loss of consciousness), as a result of which the contents from the stomach got into the respiratory tract (aspiration pneumonia);
- in people with reduced immune defense.
Depending on which of the four species is observed in this case, and also considering age and the presence of chronic diseases, treatment of pneumonia in adults is prescribed.
How does a microbe enter the lungs?
1) On the bronchi:
- when they hit an aerosol, densely contaminated with pathogenic microbes. This is characteristic more for tuberculosis or viral pneumonia;
- by inhaling the contents of your mouth and throat. This process occurs almost always during deep sleep, increases when taking a sleeping pill or under the influence of alcohol. Normally, local immune defense of the lungs works, but when it is weakened by the action of the virus, when the microbes are too much or they are very aggressive, pneumonia arises.
2) Through the blood from another focus of inflammation. For example, from a bone - at an osteomyelitis, from valves of heart - at an endocarditis.
3) By contact:
- When pus comes from an adjacent organ, for example, with liver abscess;
- with penetrating chest injury.
Principles on which pneumonia is treated in adults
If a diagnosis of "pneumonia" is established, this implies the appointment of one or two antibiotics, since even if the cause was a virus (for example, the influenza virus), the bacterial flora joins in any the case.
In theory, an antibiotic should be prescribed after the microbial pathogen of inflammation is determined, and its sensitivity to the drugs is also obtained. But this requires mandatory coughing up of phlegm, which can not be done by every patient, as well as a 4-5 day wait for the result, which is unacceptable. The loss of time can lead to the death of the patient. Therefore, antibiotics are prescribed empirically, preferably after the person has given up sputum for bacteriological research, but in the same day and preferably at the same hour as the diagnosis was established (there is evidence that a loss of even 4 hours of time significantly worsens forecast).Treatment of pneumonia in adults is based on such criteria:
- Type of pneumonia: non-hospital, arisen inside the hospital or another.
- The volume of lesions of the lung tissue: segmental, lobar, polysegmentary, one- or two-sided.
- The patient's condition: takes into account his general state of health, shortness of breath, blood pressure level, degree of oxygen saturation of blood.
- Presence of concomitant pathology of the heart, lungs (eg, chronic bronchitis), kidney.
Treatment is carried out at home or in a hospital in the department of therapy or pulmonology. Sometimes hospitalization is required in the intensive care unit.
Pneumonia: DiagnosisThe classic symptoms of pneumonia are high (above 38 ° C) temperature, coughing with phlegm, deterioration in general condition (weakness, drowsiness, decreased appetite). But now there are often pneumonia with atypical course. Against the background of high or not very high temperature, diarrhea or impaired consciousness, delirium, hallucinations can appear. In this case, the cough may not be perfect.
Therefore, the diagnostic standard is to perform a chest X-ray, and computer tomography may also be needed.
Treatment of pneumonia in adults with antibiotics
For treatment, such antibiotics are used: Amoxiclav, Cefix, Sumamed, Levofloxacin, and Avelox. They are prescribed in tablets, often their combination is used. For example, with a medium flow, such a complex of drugs can be prescribed: Sumamed plus Avelox or Leflox. If the disease is caused by Klebsiella, pneumonia treatment is suggested in the hospital. In this case, intravenous and intramuscular drugs such as Amikacin, Gentamycin together with Lefloqin or Tavanik medicines are prescribed.