Here is a good selection of abstracts on the topics of combating corruption in Russia and combating it. Much is told about the concept of corruption as such, the forms of its manifestation, the types, causes of development and its consequences for modern society. You can see the full content of each essay by clicking on the appropriate link, downloading the document for free on your computer.
Summary: Corruption and methods of combating it
This essay on the course "Political Science", Ekaterinburg, 2008, is presented by the author Svetlana.
- History and the basic concept of corruption
- Forms of corruption in Russia
- 2.1 Elite Corruption
- 2.2 Ground corruption
- Consequences of corruption
- Fighting corruption
Excerpts from the abstract:
Russia is a country of enormous material possibilities, in which, today, according to a well-placed remark by a Western journalist, "the greatest sale in history" is going on. " The division of a huge pie in conditions of legal uncertainty contributes to the rapid growth of corruption. "Personal preferences, friendly sympathies, confusion of public and personal interests" (i.e. all that is the essence of corruption) in the course of the ongoing redistribution of public property have become a pervasive practice.
To date, the problem of corruption is extremely important and urgent in the political, economic, social life of both Russia and the world. Each of us knows what it is, and, perhaps, many have already experienced bribery in practice. The fact is that corruption exists in virtually all spheres of society, it manifests itself in a variety of forms and forms.
On the official website of the Transparency International analytical bureau (Transparency International) according to 2006 data, Russia ranks 121st in the rating. Its indicator for 2006 was 2.5. For comparison: the level of corruption in countries such as Finland, Spain, New Zealand - 9.6; Germany - 8; United States - 7.3; China, Egypt - 3.3. Transparency International experts note that corruption remains a characteristic feature of Russia and the situation is deteriorating.
Hence, our country is one of the most corrupt countries in the world, and its "successes" in this are much faster than the achievements of the national economy.
- Kardapolova TF, Rudenkin V.N. Political science. Training and metodology complex. Ekaterinburg UIUUIP. 2006
- Kataev NA Serdyuk L.V. Corruption of Ufa 1995.
- A.S. Dementiev. The state and problems of the organization of the fight against corruption. Corruption and Russia: state and problems. M., Ministry of Internal Affairs, Moscow Institute. 1996, T.1, p.25.
- Corruption: political, economic, organizational and legal problems. Ed. Luneva V.V. M., Lawyer 2001
- Citizens Valery. Corruption: will it be defeated by Russians? // "Power" 12'2004
- Zamyatin T. Russia and Corruption: Who's Who? Echo of the Planet, 2002, No. 50
- Satarov G. A. The Heat of Soul Relations: Something about Corruption Social Sciences and the Present, 2002, No. 6
- Simonia N. Features of national corruption // Free thought - XXI, 2001, No. 7
The full text of the essay can be downloaded free of charge here: http://www.bestreferat.ru/files/89/bestreferat-180489.docx
Abstract and course work on the topic "Counteracting Corruption in Russia: Historical and Legal Aspect"
It is represented by the Syktyvkar State University. Faculty of Law. Course work on the history of the domestic state and law.
Scientific adviser Kurach T. L. Prepared by a student gr. 6130 Grineva L.N.
He has a research of the following questions according to the epochs of the development of society:
- Counteraction to Corruption in Russia
- Counteraction of corruption in the Russian Empire. Official violations
- Counteraction to Corruption in Soviet Criminal Law
- Anti-corruption in modern Russia
In our country there is a complex process of establishing the institution of public service, and in parallel with it, legislation is being developed that has an anti-corruption focus. In the modern scientific literature on the problems of fighting corruption, there are many definitions of corruption. It is considered in several aspects: social, political, legal. A number of scientists believe that corruption should be viewed not as a specific crime or administrative offense, but as a set of related acts involving a number of official abuses.
Turning to the etymological dictionary, it should be noted that the term "corruption" in translation from the Latin (corruptio) means bribery, corruption, decay. From this point of view, the study of the phenomenon of corruption in the public service system is most acceptable, since it most accurately expresses the basic law of its origin and expression: initially, bribery of government officials is carried out, then deliberately inflicting harm to normatively regulated social relations and, as a result, relations decline of society. Difficulties in investigating the phenomenon of corruption are associated with its multifacetedness and penetration into various spheres, traditionally being the objects of study of various social sciences. The variety of approaches to the study of corruption causes the absence of an unambiguous definition of this phenomenon, but historically the first definitions of corruption pertained to the field of law.
At the same time, signs of corruption usually include: direct damage to the authority or other legally protected interests of state power (public service); The illegal nature of goods received by public servants (tangible and intangible); the use by civil servants of their status contrary to the interests of the public service; The presence of a civil servant's intent to commit acts (omissions) objectively damaging the interests of the government or service protected by law; presence of a public servant's mercenary or other personal interest.
The full text of this work can be found here (link to a docx file)
Summary: Types and forms of manifestation of corruption in Russia
It is represented by the St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance by the Department of Political Science.
The abstract on Political Science "Forms of corruption manifestation in Russia" fulfilled: Yushkina SV, group number 260. Scientific adviser: Petushkov S. A. St. Petersburg, 2003.
- Chapter I.
- 1. The concept of corruption
- 2. Forms of corruption in Russia
- Chapter II.
- 1. The causes of corruption
- 2. Consequences of corruption
- Chapter III. Measures to combat corruption
The beginning of the abstract:
To date, the topic of corruption in Russia in the conditions of modern market relations and the construction of a legal state is undoubtedly relevant. And this is not surprising, because the scale of this phenomenon is large enough to finally take the problem seriously. According to one of the latest data of Transparency International, the index of corruption perception in Russia, which characterizes the level of corruption in the country, in 2001 is 2.3, and Russia occupies 79-81 place out of 91 (according to the results of 10 independent studies). Hence, our country is one of the most corrupt countries in the world, and its "successes" in this are much faster than the achievements of the national economy, which, in fact, is not the most pleasant news.
Corruption is described in the media as a serious barrier to the healthy development of society, a social evil that requires intervention and elimination. But an effective fight against this negative phenomenon is impossible without a sufficiently complete and accurate knowledge of its essence, specific conditions of occurrence and consequences.
All of the above has served as a kind of impetus for the beginning of a detailed study of corruption. But due to the complexity of both the phenomenon of corruption and its study, today the development of theoretical approaches in this direction is just beginning. And as with corruption it is necessary to collide quite often, the work of researchers is based on concrete forms of manifestation of the phenomenon in various spheres of public life.
Source for downloading the file with the full text of the abstract in the format of the doc.: http://www.bestreferat.ru/files/62/bestreferat-51462.docx
The fight against corruption in Russia: history and modernity
This abstract is presented by the Ural Institute of Economics, Management and Law. The Nizhny Tagil branch. Abstract on the course "Political Science".
- Chapter 1. History and the basic concept of corruption
- Chapter 2. Forms of corruption in Russia
- 2.1 Elite Corruption
- 2.2 Ground corruption
- Chapter 3. Consequences of corruption
- Chapter 4. Fighting corruption
Extracts from the abstract:
Not only the country's economy suffers from corruption, but the whole country as a whole suffers. Corruption also leads to the fact that the competitive mechanisms of the market are violated, as often it is not the competitor who is the winner, but the one who has been able to gain advantages over bribes. As a result, the market efficiency is reduced and the idea of market competition is discredited. Corruption created a powerful growth in organized crime. According to the estimates of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, organized crime controls almost half of private firms, every third state enterprise, from 60 to 90 percent of banks. Virtually no sector of the economy is immune from its impact.
Corruption leads to the most severe consequences during the electoral and budgetary processes. Political corruption begins with elections, corruption during elections leads to distrust of the authorities (both elected and hired, who take the example from the people's representatives) and to discredit the institution of elections as a general democratic value. Corruption in the budgetary process leads both to the stolen budget money, and to the loss of the country's attractiveness for its and foreign investors.
Chapter 4. Fighting corruption
There are a lot of methods of fighting corruption, but basically they are divided into two types - preventive or soft methods, and reactionary or rigid methods. Among the soft methods are, for example, training, personal policy and organizational and cultural development, as well as certain control mechanisms. Among the hard methods are laws and punishments. In the fight against corruption, various methods are used. So, television and radio programs, social campaigns, training courses, information for the public, legal acts, corruption research, information booklets, amendments to laws, etc. have been developed for this purpose. In most states of Western Europe, laws that regulate anti-corruption activities are similar in a large part.
The problem of Russia in the fight against corruption may lie in the fact that we are fighting not with the causes of bribery, but with its consequences, trying to patch up those or other holes in the legislation and in society. We do not look at the root of the problem, we do not solve the problem systematically, totally, everywhere, although only this approach could bring us benefits, benefits and results. What do we need to do to eliminate this evil. Perhaps, the will of the government, which has not yet been observed, is needed.
This essay on corruption in the modern world addresses issues such as:
- Historical aspect of anti-corruption activity
- Socio-economic consequences of corruption
- International experience of fighting corruption
- Anti-Corruption Policy of the Russian Federation: Legislative Framework
Some extracts from work:
According to the data of Transparency International on the level of corruption, Russia is on the 154th place out of 178 countries. Next to us are the most backward countries of Africa (Congo, Guinea-Bissau), as well as Papua New Guinea and Tajikistan. Transparency International has recognized Russia as the most corrupt country among the leading countries of the world, members of the "Big Twenty". Our colleagues in the BRIC - Brazil, China, India (69th, 78th and 87th places respectively) - look much better.
Significant experience in fighting corruption has been gained by foreign scientists and public administration practitioners. In recent years Russia has also published a significant number of works devoted directly to the problem of corruption and possible ways of its solution. Serious analysis of the problem of corruption were subjected to the writings of V. AT. Bakusheva, I.Ya. Bogdanova, A.I. Kirpichnikova, I.M. Klyamkina, V.O. Rukavishnikova, G.A. Satarova, L.M. Timofeeva, A.B. Zaplina et al. The most acute problems of corruption concern many modern scientists, both domestic and foreign, which is reflected in the holding of specialized conferences, publications in various scientific collections, discussions on the pages of the periodical press.
Historical aspect of anti-corruption activity
It is no accident that in Russia corruption has a centuries-old history, its existence is associated with the traditions, the mentality of the population, the peculiarities of the functioning of the institutions of power. For corruption to become unacceptable for Russian society, a considerable time must pass, and for the time being there are strong stereotypes about the invincibility of corruption in the public consciousness.
In Russia, for the first time the term "corruption" was introduced into the legal apparatus of A.Ya. Estrin in the work "Bribery." The author gave the following definition: corruption - bribery and corruption of state officials, officials, as well as public and political figures in general.
The history of corruption is not inferior in antiquity to the known history
The historical roots of corruption probably stem from the custom of making gifts to leaders or priests in order to achieve their location.
An expensive gift allocated a person among other petitioners and helped to ensure that his request was fulfilled. Therefore, in primal societies, the payment to a priest or leader was the norm.
Bribery is one of the earliest known crimes among mankind. The evidence of the antiquity of this act can serve as the words of Ovid (1 century. BC. E.): "Gifts draw, believe, people and gods, Jupiter reconciles himself at the sight of gifts."
The first legislative restriction of corruption is Ivan III. And his grandson Ivan the Terrible first introduced the death penalty as punishment for excessive bribery.
International experience of fighting corruption
The Council of Federation studies and summarizes the experience of the CIS countries, foreign states and the practice of international cooperation in combating corruption. For this purpose, international conferences are held within the framework of the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly, lectures and seminars on the UN and Council of Europe conventions on combating corruption.
The first documents ratified by the Russian Federation in the field of combating corruption are the UN Convention against Corruption and the Council of Europe Convention on Criminal Responsibility for Corruption.
International cooperation should help states to develop unified administrative and legal means to fulfill their obligations in the field of preventing and combating corruption in the public service system.
Foreign experience of fighting corruption is important and can be taken into account in national legislation.
The full text of this essay can be found here: http://bibliofond.ru/download_item.aspx?id=722373&c=1
Essay: The causes and consequences of corruption in Russia
Ministry of Economic Development and Trade Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. Russian Federation.
State University - Higher School of Economics. Nizhny Novgorod branch. Faculty of Management. Department of Marketing.
Essays on the discipline Sociology on the topic: "The causes and consequences of corruption in Russia"
Completed: a student of the group 07МК2. Checked: Ivanov P. AND. Nizhny Novgorod, 2009.
Extracts from the abstract:
Types and forms of manifestation of corruption
- bribery, bribery, receipt of illegal proceeds (extortion, kickbacks);
- kleptocracy (theft and privatization of public resources);
- misappropriation (forgery, forgery, forgery, embezzlement, misappropriation (money, property), abuse of state funds;
- non-fulfillment of duties (appointment to posts by acquaintance);
- promotion of personal interests (granting preferences to individuals, conflict of interest);
- acceptance of improper gifts (money to accelerate the resolution of problems);
- protection and covering of poor-quality administration ("roofing", perjury, perjury);
- abuse of power (intimidation or torture);
- manipulation of regulation (falsification of elections, decision-making in favor of one group or person (biased decisions);
- electoral violations (buying votes, rigging election results);
- search for rent (civil servants illegally set a payment for services or artificially create a deficit);
- clientelism and patronage (politicians provide material services in exchange for the support of citizens);
- illegal contributions to election campaigns (transfer of gifts to influence the content of the policy).
I divided my essay into two parts, directly on the causes of the occurrence and the consequences of corruption.
The causes of corruption
There are many reasons for explaining the current situation in Russia with corruption, but among them I would like to highlight the most important:
1. Weakness of supreme state power. For 10 years there has been no social, but also political consensus in the country. The country was shaken by constant contradictions between the executive and legislative authorities; between various factions in the executive branch itself, for which clashes of interests of various groups and classes of bureaucratic capital were easily seen; between the federal center and the regions (which jeopardized the process of the formation of a new Russian statehood). The actual dysfunctionality of the state system disorganized the work of law enforcement agencies, and after an initial disorientation they quickly joined the processes of forming bureaucratic capitalism, serving primarily the interests of the "new Russians" and not forgetting their own selfish interests.
2. Absence of a national development strategy and a policy of "minimizing the state". From the very beginning, Russian liberals and democrats lacked any strategy for national economic development. The ideology of "minimizing the state", advocated by some reformers, in practice reduced to a complete minimization of the regulatory role
state (which in no way corresponds to the realities of highly developed Western states).
3. "Emancipation" of the bureaucracy. After the complete elimination of the ideological nomenclature as a result of the failed coup of August 1991 and the formation of the Yeltsin-Gaidar government (1991-1992), the era of complete emancipation of the bureaucracy has come. She was given freedom, bordering on anarchy. This meant, at the same time, the advent of the era of "lawlessness."
According to S. Glazyev, the main reason for corruption is the total irresponsibility of the executive. Within the framework of the current Constitution and Russian legislation, the executive branch is not responsible for anything. An official of high rank is appointed either by the government or the president - without discussion of candidatures in representative bodies. It is known that corruption did not appear yesterday. People who rely on some dividends, push their partners to ministerial and other key posts. For them, this is business. And at the same time, there is no real procedure for assessing cadres in Russia when appointing to the highest positions. No, because there is no executive responsibility to the representative power, before the judiciary, before the law and society.
Consequences of corruption
Corruption in Russia, and not only in it, permeates all segments of society: government bodies, entrepreneurs, public organizations, thereby bearing negative consequences for society as well as for the state as a whole. The most tangible blows she inflicts on the economic security of the country. As a result of corruption of officials, dishonest execution of their official duty, the shadow economy (criminal and semi-legal) gives almost 40 percent of the gross domestic product. More than 9 million Russians are involved in the sphere of its activity on a permanent basis. Such is the scale today. Corruption also leads to the fact that the competitive mechanisms of the market are violated, as often it is not the competitor who is the winner, but the one who has been able to gain advantages over bribes. As a result, the market efficiency is reduced and the idea of market competition is discredited.
Corruption created a powerful growth in organized crime. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, organized crime controls almost half of private firms, every third state enterprise, from 50 to 85 percent of banks. Virtually no sector of the economy is immune from its impact. It is corruption, which has penetrated all the floors of the Russian government, has become one of the main obstacles in the fight against organized crime. That is why there is every reason to speak about the most serious crisis of legality and law and order in the country.
Corruption leads to the most severe consequences during the electoral and budgetary processes. Political corruption begins with elections, corruption during elections leads to distrust of the authorities (both elected and hired, who take the example from the people's representatives) and to discredit the institution of elections as a general democratic value. Corruption in the budgetary process leads both to the stolen budget money, and to the loss of the country's attractiveness for its and foreign investors. As for the social sphere, here the results of corruption can be called: diversion of colossal funds from the goals of social development (and, as a consequence, an aggravation of the budget crisis, a decrease in the ability of the government to solve social problems); the growth of property inequality, since corruption encourages unfair and unjust redistribution of funds in favor of narrow oligarchic groups at the expense of the most vulnerable segments of society; an increase in social tension in a society that beats the economy and threatens political stability in the country.
In conclusion, I would like to add that, at the moment, Russia is confidently becoming the world's leader in corruption. Corruption pervades all segments of society than it does
irreparable harm to the country. This phenomenon did not appear yesterday and is a serious danger.
In today's Russia, corruption is manifested in very diverse forms. Over time, this diversity expands, new forms appear that do not yet have a name and precise description. The impact of corruption is so great that it reduces the effectiveness of the market economy, destroys existing democratic institutions, undermines people's trust in the government, exacerbates political and economic disparities, generates organized crime, and threatens the country's national security. The scale of corruption in Russia is so great that the authorities are threatening a complete loss of control over the vital activity of the state.
Corruption, however, can be reduced through comprehensive measures to combat it. Of course, it can not be eliminated in one day, but all the same, actions must be taken in this direction. It can not be said that in Russia the fight against corruption is in full swing, but in any case, this problem is being discussed and various strategies are being developed, which is not unimportant. We can say that the first step - awareness of the harm of corruption - has already been done in Russia. Now it's up to the government and the president himself.