Bone fractures: first aid

Fracture of is a violation of bone integrity. Reasons for : Excessive strength and speed of physical force due to falling( own weight), external impact exceeding the strength of bones.

Today we will talk about the provision of the first pre-medical and medical care in closed and open bone fractures in children and adults, about the treatment of fractures with folk remedies for the rapid fusion of bones at home for a child and an adult.

Aggravating factors : insufficient bone strength due to:

  1. of childhood;
  2. diseases or medication with side effects associated with increased brittleness of the bones of the skeleton;
  3. elderly, old age.


Bone fractures: closed, open

Basic types of fractures:

  1. full - the bone is completely broken;
  2. incomplete - bone fracture;
  3. closed - without compromising the integrity of muscles and skin;
  4. open - a rupture of muscles, subcutaneous tissue, skin, bone fragments are visible through a gaping wound and can even protrude over it.

A fracture arising from pressure, flattening, is called compression. In addition, in the traumatological practice, there are additional fracture classifications by type:

  1. simple,
  2. complex,
  3. with offset,
  4. without bias,
  5. comminuted,
  6. nested,
  7. helical,
  8. oblique,
  9. transverse.

Most fractures are accompanied by a displacement of fragments. This is because the muscles, contracting after the injury, pull the bone fragments and move them to the side. In addition, the direction of the impact force also contributes to the displacement of fragments.

Symptoms, signs of fractures

In case of a fracture, the patient complains of:

  1. severe pain, aggravated with any movement and limb load,
  2. change in position and shape of the limb,
  3. inability to use it.
  4. appearance of puffiness and bruising in the fracture region,
  5. shortening of the
  6. limb abnormal its mobility.

Additionally, when you feel the fracture site, the patient complains of increased pain, it is often possible to identify uneven edges of bone fragments and crunching( creping) with slight pressure.

The first first help should be done carefully, without causing unnecessary pain to the injured person and no longer shifting bone fragments.

With an open fracture in the wound, you can sometimes notice a bone fragment, which indicates a pronounced fracture.

First First Aid and Medical Assistance for Closed and Open Fracture

Let's consider the principles of rendering, the first aid algorithm for closed and open fractures at home.

First aid for fractures is crucial for the further treatment of the patient.

If pre-medical and medical care is provided quickly and competently, it will help the patient get rid of many troubles and complications in further treatment:

  1. shock,
  2. bleeding,
  3. displacement of fragments.

The basic principles of first aid at home for fractures of bones are:

  1. ensuring bone immobility in the fracture region( immobilization);
  2. measures to combat fainting, shock and collapse;
  3. the fastest hospitalization in a medical institution.

Immobilization: to ensure bone immobility

Fixation of bone fragments is necessary in order to:

  1. to prevent the displacement of fragments,
  2. to reduce the risk of injuring the bones of muscles, vessels and nerves,
  3. to reduce the danger of pain shock.

Immobilization is achieved by the imposition of tires from any auxiliary material( stick, rods, bundles of straw).

Apply the tire carefully, without causing unnecessary pain( without aggravating the shock!) And not allowing further displacement of the fragments.

It is not recommended to even try to correct the position of the damaged bone or( in any case!) To compare the fragments. Especially do not put in the depth of the wound protruding fragments.

With open fracture , immobilization on the wound is always impregnated with a sterile bandage. The skin around the wound is treated with iodine or any auxiliary antiseptic( alcohol, vodka, cologne).

If the wound is bleeding, then methods should be used to temporarily stop the bleeding. Options:

  1. overlapping harness, twist, pressure bandage;
  2. pressing the artery along the finger.

If nearby there are no suitable items for immobilization, then the injured limb is tightly bandaged to a healthy part of the body, for example, a broken leg to a healthy one, and a hand to the trunk.

When applying tires, the rules should be adhered to: the

  1. tire is always applied to at least two joints( above and below the fracture site);
  2. the tire does not overlap the naked part of the body( under it necessarily put cotton wool, gauze, clothes);
  3. the overlapping tire should not be loose, it should be fixed firmly and reliably;
  4. if there is a fracture in the hip area, then the joint should be fixed to all the joints of the lower limb.

The patient should be cautiously transported during fractures;it should be borne in mind that the slightest push or shifting of the patient can lead to displacement of fragments of the bone( which means an increase in pain, which increases the risk of pain).

For transportation of the victim, any auxiliary means can be used: a stretcher, a car, a cart, etc. Patients with a fracture of the upper limbs can be transported in the sitting position, with a fracture of the lower limbs only in a lying position.

Fighting shock, fainting, collapse

To prevent shock to a patient with a fracture, you must give something painkiller:

  1. Analgin,
  2. Tempalgin,
  3. Amidopyrine,
  4. Promedol,
  5. alcohol,
  6. vodka.

It should be remembered that when rendering assistance to the victim there should be no fuss, unnecessary conversations and procrastination.

The actions of people who provide assistance should be specific, clear. It is not necessary to discuss the patient's trauma with the patient and talk about its possible consequences.

If the misfortune occurred in the cold season, then before transporting the patient it must be covered with a blanket or something warm.

Fracture of the ribs: what to do

With this type of fracture, the patient experiences very severe pain in the fracture region. It is difficult( and painful) for him to breathe, cough, turn and move. When providing first aid to such a patient, first of all, a pressing bandage should be applied to the chest.

In the absence of a sufficient number of bandages, the chest is tightly wrapped with a sheet, towel or other large piece of tissue. The ends of it should be sewn up at the time of exhalation. To reduce pain, you need to give the patient something pain killer.

Fracture of the clavicle: what to do

The main point in providing first aid for clavicle fractures is the immobilization of the upper limb on the fracture side. In this case, the Dezo dressing is applied or the immobilization is carried out with the help of cotton-gauze rings.

First aid for fractures in children

Human bones resemble branches of trees. In the elderly, they are dry and brittle, in children - more flexible.

Due to its flexibility, the bones of the child with injuries often give a crack, and do not break( in medicine there is the term of a child's fracture - "by the type of a green twig").

The bones of a child are broken only with very strong physical impact. Diagnosis of fractures in children is usually difficult due to the characteristics of the structure of the bone.

Fractures of limbs in children are characterized by the following signs, symptoms:

  1. pain when touched;
  2. edema in the fracture region;
  3. limb deformity;
  4. loss of strength and movement.

A child may not always admit to you that he has fallen or fainted. Therefore, he should calmly and carefully ask why his pen or leg hurts, calm him, explain to him what has happened.

If possible, do not allow him to move the injured limb.

Often after a trauma in children, vomiting begins, so you should always monitor his breathing( especially if the child is unconscious).

  1. Immobilization of the injured limb is mandatory. For this, any auxiliary material( scarves, scarves, sheets) is used.
  2. With a fracture in the area of ​​the lower limb for fixation, the diseased leg is tightly bandaged to a healthy one( or a tire is applied).
  3. In fractures of the upper limb, either a tire is applied or the injured limb is tightly bandaged to the trunk.
  4. At fractures of fingers they are tightly bandaged together.
  5. With any kind of fracture, parents and caregivers need to fuss as little as possible, act calmly and clearly, so that the child does not get the impression that something terrible has happened.
  6. After the first aid the child must be examined by a doctor - for this it is necessary to call a doctor at the house, contact the nearest trauma center.

Folk remedies at home for fast fracturing of

fractures For the fastest healing of fractures, prepare ointment :

  1. gum( spruce resin) - 20 g,
  2. mashed medium sized bulb - 1 piece,
  3. olive oil - 50 g,
  4. copper powdervitriol - 15 g.

All well rub and simmer on low heat for 30 minutes. Do not bring to a boil. Rub into the fracture site twice a day for 10 days. MAZE VERY HOT. She is treated with abscesses, bruises and fractures of bones.

Comfrey ( black earth ).To prepare the ointment use the root of the plant. Wash it thoroughly, pass it through a meat grinder and mix with unsalted butter( or Vaseline in the ratio 1: 1).Stretch the fracture site 2-3 times a day for two weeks.

Cornflower .The whole plant is dried, pulverized and mixed with the turnberry juice in a ratio of 1: 1.Take 1 time a day in the morning, on an empty stomach for 10 days.

Mumiye .A daily dose of 0.2 g. Take in the morning on an empty stomach. Breed in warm water. The course of treatment is 10 days, then break for 5 days and repeat the course. For fractures of large bones, it is recommended to perform three courses of treatment.

Copper. Copper treatment is an ancient folk remedy. A copper powder was scratched from a coin or wire, a small amount of a powder( 0.1-0.2 g was ground with egg yolk) and allowed to drink twice a week. The remedy contributed to a good healing and rapid fusion of bones.

Related Videos

First aid for fractures of bones: video

Video channel "Alexander Okhtrudrudich".A great demonstration video with a visual demonstration of the types of bone fractures:

  1. open,
  2. closed,
  3. full,
  4. incomplete,
  5. transverse,
  6. oblique,
  7. helical,
  8. nailed,
  9. comminuted.

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First aid for open bone fracture: training film

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  1. Theory 00:18.
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Transport immobilization in injuries of the spine, pelvic bones, upper, lower extremities

. Source: YNGorgov. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia.- Moscow: Izd-vo Eksmo, 2012.

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