Otitis in the child: symptoms, treatment, prevention
When the ears begin to ache, even experienced parents can lose self-control from whims and tears. In order to effectively combat the disease, it is necessary to know the enemy, which is called "in person", warned - means armed.
What is otitis media?
Under otitis means any inflammation of the ear. Distinguish:
- The external ear (the auricle and the external ear canal to the tympanic membrane) whose inflammation will be external otitis. Here, the first place is played by furuncles caused by staphylococci and fungal lesions of the auditory canal.
- The middle ear that begins behind the tympanic membrane and includes the tympanum, the Eustachian tube, the cells of the mastoid process and the antrum. Inflammations in this department are called otitis media. This is the most common ear pathology in children.
- Internal otitis is also called labyrinthitis. In this inflammation affects the cochlea, its vestibule or semicircular canals.
Who is guilty?
The average otitis develops against a bacterial (less often viral) infection. The most common cause of its development is aggressive streptococcal or staphylococcal flora. Most often, it enters the ear cavity through the Eustachian tube, balancing the pressure between the ear and the nasal cavity. Therefore very often otitis is the outcome of the common cold.
A prerequisite for the development of otitis media is a significant decrease in local immunity in the child's body, more prone to ear infections:
- suffering from rickets (see p. symptoms and treatment of rickets in infants)
- lack of weight
- chronic pathologies of ENT organs
- exudative diathesis
- extreme forms of immunodeficiency takes with diabetes, AIDS and leukemia.
But even a child without severe somatic diseases can become a victim of otitis with trivial hypothermia. The fact is that the external ear canal of a child, unlike an adult, does not have an S-shaped curvature. Therefore, any flow of cold air can provoke otitis in a child, the symptoms of otitis will directly depend on the location of the inflammation.
Manifestations of otitis media
With external otitis, the symptoms in children may vary depending on the severity of the process.
- A furuncle of the ear or auditory canal will manifest reddening, swelling, the appearance of an inflammatory tubercle, which gradually will change color from red to bluish. In the center of inflammatory education a purulent stem will form. Until the tissues melt to pus, the pain will be very intense. After the death of the receptors, it will become a little less. After the boil opens and the necrotic stem leaves, there will be a deep wound that will heal with the formation of a hem.
- Fungal otitis externa is characterized by the appearance of crusts and scaling in the ear passage against the background of a fungal infection. There is also itching.
- The average otitis can be divided into catarrhal otitis and purulent. Qatar is when inflammation caused by microbes is manifested in the form of redness, swelling and inconstant pain of a stabbing or shooting character. Depending on the severity of the inflammation, the intensity of pain varies, from weak to unbearable. The pain may be located inside the ear or be given to the cheek, temple, throat. This is due to the common nerve, which supplies the tympanum and oropharynx. Pain can be combined with ear congestion.
- Since the formation of the abscess on the tympanic membrane, they speak of a purulent otitis. In addition to the pain for him is typical of hearing loss. If the abscess breaks, a purulent effusion with an admixture of blood follows from the ear. Later, the eardrum heals with the formation of a scar, after which the hearing is restored. With a significant defect, the membrane can not completely heal, and then there will be hearing problems.
Also, the child will be disturbed by temperature rises and intoxication (muscle, joint and headaches, weakness and weakness).
- In addition to acute otitis media, a chronic inflammatory process can develop, which is divided into exudative otitis media, purulent or adhesive. Exudative and adhesive otitis variants have mild manifestations in the form of noise in the ears (causes) and hearing loss. Adhesive (adhesive) otitis is the result of the proliferation of connective tissue and fibrosis of the tympanum and tympanic membrane.
- In chronic purulent process, there is a periodic leakage from the ear and a persistent decrease in hearing due to the perforating perforation of the tympanic membrane.
- The labyrinthitis is manifested by pain, hearing loss and dizziness (cause), since the body involved in the process is an organ of balance that is conjugated to the inner ear.
How to suspect an otitis at home?
Older children may well complain of pain in the ear and even talk about what kind of pain and where it gives. It is much harder with kids up to two years old who can not really talk and just cry in response to pain (including, and on otitis). Symptoms in infants at this pathology are not specific:
- on the thought of inflammation of the middle ear can push the child's anxiety
- his unmotivated crying
- abandonment of a breast or bottle
- also children can grasp handles for a sore ear
- to turn one's head from side to side
- if you press on a tragus of a sick ear, a child's anxiety or crying is aggravated by the intensification of pain
For any suspected otitis, the child should immediately be shown to a pediatrician or an ENT doctor.
How does a doctor determine otitis?
The otolaryngologist has such a simple and convenient device as an ear mirror. With its help, you can see changes in the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane. Thus, the average otitis corresponds to changes in the light cone in the eardrum. With the same purpose the doctor can use the otoscope.
First aid for otitis
If the visit to the doctor is postponed for objective reasons (although it is not possible to delay it), and the child is worried and crying, the first thing to do if you suspect otitis anesthetize the ear.
For this purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be used that have the property of suppressing inflammation, temperature and pain. Children are allowed paracetamol derivatives (tayled, kalpol, efferalgan, panadol, tylenol), ibuprofen (nurofen, ibuklin) and naproxen (cefecon) Review of all antipyretics for children, with dosages and prices. You can use syrup, tablets or rectal suppositories.
The second remedy for otitis media is ear drops Otypaks (170-250 rub), Otirelaks (140 rub) This combined a preparation containing anti-inflammatory phenazone and a local anesthetic of lidocaine hydrochloride. It must be remembered that otipaksom can be used only if the tympanic membrane has not been damaged (the ear did not flow). In infants instilled by 2 drops, and in children older than two years, 3-4 drops in each ear.
How correctly to drip drops?
- Before burying drops, the bottle should be warmed to room temperature. In infants, the temperature can be up to 36 degrees. Alternatively, the drops are poured from the vial into a warm spoon, and then pipetted.
- The child must be placed with the ear up and pull the auricle back and down to spread the auditory canal.
- After the drops are dipped, the child is kept up in his ear for at least ten minutes, so that the medicine does not leak.
- In children, drops are buried in both ears, since the process is usually two-sided.
- A baby sucking a pacifier needs to be removed before dropping drops. In combination with a stuffy nose, a pacifier can cause a barotrauma of the tympanic membrane.
Treatment of external otitis media
Furuncle of the external ear (purulent otitis) is treated according to the classical scheme. At the stage of infiltration (before the formation of the rod) with anti-inflammatory agents and alcohol compresses for the purpose of resorption. After the rod is formed - surgical opening of the abscess with drainage of the cavity, washing with Peroxide hydrogen or chlorhexidine, Miramistin and subsequent ointment bandages with levomelem to complete healing of the wound. When intoxication, high temperature, lymphadenitis, antibiotics are connected.
Fungal lesions of the auditory canal are treated with antifungal ointments (clotrimazole, candid, flucanazole), if necessary prescribe systemic antifungal agents in tablets (amphotericin, griseofulvin, mycosyst). As a rule, in children up to two years of age, systemic antifungal agents are not used.
Treatment of otitis media
The smallest preference is given to local treatment. For them, systemic antibiotics - too heavy a load on the immune system and intestines (see. list of probiotics, analogues of Linex). Therefore, very strict indications are given for antibiotics:
- Hyperthermia within three days of the onset of local therapy
- severe intoxication
- poorly docked pain that prevents a child from sleeping and eating normally
Drops in the ears are used by the course for seven to ten days. During this period, the child is necessarily examined by an otolaryngologist to be sure of the positive dynamics of the inflammation or to correct the treatment if the result is unsatisfactory.
In older (from two years) children, therapy also begins with ear drops, supplemented with anti-inflammatory drugs (see. First aid for otitis).
A prerequisite for the treatment of otitis media is getting rid of the common cold. With untreated rhinitis, there are risks of re-development of middle ear inflammation. For this purpose, antiviral (interferon), antibacterial (drops - isofra, polidex, protorgol) and combined (vibrocil) drops are used.
- Drops in the ears
- Otypaxcombines anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
- Sulfacil sodium (albucid) - a universal antimicrobial and antiviral agent.
- Otofa- antibacterial drug based on antibiotic rifamycin.
Albucid and otofa are not contraindicated in the case of perforation of the tympanic membrane.
- Polidex- children older than two and a half years have the opportunity to use polydix (a combination of antibiotics neomycin and polymyxin with the addition of hormonal anti-inflammatory dexamethasone).
Course treatment is carried out from seven to ten days. During this time, it is quite possible to cure uncomplicated catarrhal otitis in a child. Treatment should be prescribed and monitored by an ENT doctor.
- Antibiotics in tablets, suspensions or injections
Requirements for these drugs: safety, non-toxicity, achievement of sufficient concentrations in the site of inflammation, preservation therapeutic doses for a long time (no less than eight hours for a comfortable multiplicity of receptions per day). The duration of therapy with antibiotics is seven days, except for drugs that are able to accumulate and maintain therapeutic concentration in the blood for a week or ten days (for example, azithromycin, which is administered within three to five days).
- Penicillins. Preferred semisynthetic (oxacillin, amoxicillin, flemoxin, ampicillin, carbenicillin) and inhibitor-protected, allowing resist resistant strains of microbes (amoksiklav, flemoklav, augmentin, unazin, sultamitsillin, ampaksid).
- Cephalosporins of the second (cefuroxime, cefaclor) of the third (ceftibutene, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefazidime) and the fourth (cefepime) generations.
- Macrolides now displace cephalosporins. More convenient in dosing, the duration of the course and the forms of administration (tablets, suspension). Treatment of otitis media in children is carried out with azithromycin (azitral, sumamed, chemomycin), clarithromycin.
- Aminoglycosides are the drugs of choice if there is staphylococcal purulent otitis in a child. Treatment with kanamycin, gentamycin, sizomycin, amikacin is carried out mainly permanently due to nephrotoxicity.
The peculiarities of antibiotic therapy in children include refusal to use fluoroquinolones, since they are contraindicated for children under 18 years old, as well as to reduce the number of antibiotic-resistant infections.
To the question of antihistamines
Classic treatment regimens for otitis media suggest prescribing antihistamines to reduce the allergic component of inflammation and reduce edema. Recommended second and third generation drugs that do not cause drowsiness or have a minimal sedative effect: claritin, desloratadine, loratadine, clarixens, cetirizine, ketotifen (see. medicines for allergies).
However, today a number of specialists (primarily American, conducting selective clinical studies involving children-children) believe that the use of of this group of medicines in otitis is inexpedient, since there is no direct relationship between their use and the rate of cure for the disease. To date, the issue remains open, as there are still no full standards for the treatment of acute otitis in children.
Treatment of labyrinthitis
Since the process can easily be complicated by meningeal inflammation, sepsis and even disorders of cerebral circulation, the treatment is carried out under stationary conditions. Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and dehydrating drugs are used. If necessary, surgical intervention is performed.
Treatment of otitis media folk remedies
Traditional methods of treating otitis in children are quite diverse, but it should be noted that turning a child into a testing ground is not humane and reckless. Of course, in the field, when a doctor and a pharmacy are unavailable, a person will resort to any improvised means to alleviate the pain, suffering of the child. Therefore, we will focus on the most appropriate and less harmful for children's health folk remedies against otitis (ear inflammation).
External otitis, flowing in the form of a furuncle in the stage of infiltration (with reddened tubercle without a purulent stem), as well as the average catarrhal otitis in children is susceptible to folk remedies. You can use a vodka or alcoholic compress or lotion:
- boric, camphor alcohol or vodka are applied to a gauze pad that is applied to the ear area
- Polyethylene film or wax paper is placed on top
- the dressing is strengthened with a scarf or scarf
- exposure time from 15 to 30 minutes (the younger the child, the shorter the procedure time)
- Decently resolves infiltrates and iodine
- Also apply and leaves of an aloe, cutting them in half and applying to an abscess a cut of a leaf
No heating procedures for otitis are allowed. Treatment with alcohol-containing solutions is strictly prohibited in children up to a year, even for external use. In older children it is also not desirable, especially it is contraindicated to use for medical purposes with medical alcohol in undiluted form. It is better to use camphor, boric spirits or vodka. Burying boric or camphor alcohol in the ear is acceptable, but only in children older than 6 years - not more than 2 drops.
In fungal lesions of the auditory canal, people rub it with a solution of soda (not to be confused with instillation or washing). Soda creates an alkaline environment in which mushrooms do not breed well, but can not completely cure the fungal infection.
Sollux (blue lamp) is a thermal procedure, shown with a noggin otitis. However, in everyday life, nocturnal otitis from purulent is difficult to distinguish, especially since a bacterial infection can not be heated. Therefore, any folk methods should be coordinated with the treating pediatrician.
Prevention of otitis
- Rational ear hygiene. It is inadmissible to clean the ears of a child with improvised means, to penetrate deep into the ear canal.
- After bathing, the baby needs to shake out or get wet from the ear.
- Children under one year should not be in drafts without head covers covering their ears.
- It is necessary to treat all diseases of ENT organs (sore throats, tonsillitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis) in time and fully. Bilateral otitis in the child often develops against the background of the common cold.
The causes of otitis and its treatment with folk remediesEar infections are caused by bacteria or viruses. Often they occur against the background of already existing inflammatory diseases, such as tonsillitis, sinusitis, SARS, etc.
Ear infections are more common in children than in adults.
The ear consists of three parts: the outer, middle and inner. Ear infection can occur in any of these parts. Inflammation of the inner ear is the most serious ailment, in contrast to the otitis media of the middle ear, the symptoms and treatment of which are somewhat different.
When treating otitis media it is very important to prevent complications, including damage or rupture of the tympanic membrane. An untreated ear infection can lead to deafness, so if you have earache, it is important to consult your doctor as soon as possible. And for immediate relief of the symptoms of otitis, you can try some natural methods of treatment.
With otitis treatment with folk remedies is a good addition to drug treatment.
Salt- the most easily accessible home remedy.
- Heat one cup of salt in a microwave, saucepan or steamer for about three to five minutes.
- Put hot salt inside a dense fabric or sock. Tie with a knot.
- When the fabric is still hot, but not burning, attach to the area next to the patient's ear and hold for 5 to 10 minutes. Do not apply the tissue with salt directly to the ear.
- Repeat this procedure on a daily basis, as many times as necessary. The heat released from the bag will help draw out excess fluid from the ear and relieve swelling and pain.
- Alternatively, you can use one cup of rice in the order described above.
Garlichas antimicrobial and analgesic properties, which makes it very effective in the treatment of ear infections. There are several ways to use garlic when treating otitis with folk remedies.
- Boil two or three fresh cloves of garlic in water for five minutes, then grind them and add a little salt.
- Place the mixture in a clean cloth and attach the pouch next to the diseased ear.
- Using 2-3 cloves of raw garlic daily also helps to speed up the healing process.
Apple vinegarhelps to get rid of the fungus, which can cause ear infections.
- Mix one part of apple cider vinegar with an equal amount of water or alcohol. Dip into the mixture a cotton swab.
- Put a cotton swab in your ear and leave it for about 5 minutes.
- Remove from the ear a cotton swab and lie on the opposite side to "drain" liquid from the ear.
- If apple cider vinegar is not, you can use white vinegar.
- If the cause of an ear infection is in the Eustachian tube, try gargling with apple cider vinegar.
Pain in the child's ear: treatment with folk remedies
Careful monitoring of the child's condition (expectant management) along with home remedies can be a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment in otitis media. However, in some situations, parents should immediately seek medical attention:
- Immediately consult a doctor if the child has a fever, severe ear pain or other signs of a complication of the disease.
- Immediately consult a doctor if the child has a fever, regardless of other symptoms of ear inflammation.
Previously, antibiotics were often prescribed for ear infections. Now many parents express concerns about the excessive use of antibiotics and prefer to use folk remedies for pain in the ear. How to treat otitis at home?
- Attach a bottle of warm water or a warm bag of salt behind the ear. Such, albeit old-fashioned, remedies help to ease the pain in the ear.
- You can also bake the onion for half an hour, cut it into halves and place one half in a dense cotton fabric. Attach the tissue with the bulb to the area next to the diseased ear and hold for five minutes. Then wait 10 minutes and repeat the process.
With mild or severe pain in the ear, treatment with folk remedies (including herbal remedies) should be carried out with the approval of the doctor. Do not engage in treatment of otitis in the child yourself, you can cause irreparable harm to the health of the baby.
Essential oils as folk remedies for otitis
The antibacterial properties of tea tree oil can give instant relief from ear pain, so it is one of the most effective folk remedies for otitis.
Here's how to use it:
- Mix three drops of tea tree oil, two tablespoons of olive oil, a teaspoon of colloidal silver and a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar.
- Lightly heat the mixture.
- Using a pipette, drip 4-5 drops in a sore ear and leave for five minutes. Then turn around and lie down on the other side so that the glass mixture from the ear completely.
- Apply this remedy two to three times a day for two days.
Those who do not like to drip anything in the ear, can use the following folk remedy for otitis.
- Pour the boiling water in a large glass bowl (do not use plastic).
- Add 2-3 drops of eucalyptus oil (it should not be confused with camphor alcohol in the ear, eucalyptus oil should not be ingested, it should be applied directly to the skin) and lavender.
- Cover your head with a towel and breathe the steam so that it reaches the areas connecting the ears, nose and throat.
- Be careful not to use too much oil and do not lean too low over the bowl.
Before using essential oils for otitis treatment, consult your otolaryngologist.
How to treat external otitis with folk remediesWhat is the "swimmer's ear"? This is a bacterial infection that "settled" in the external auditory canal.
Medically, it is known as acute external otitis or otitis media of the external ear.
"Swimmer's ear" usually arises from excessive accumulation of moisture in the ear canal, which facilitates the penetration and reproduction of bacteria.
As the name implies, this problem mainly affects swimmers, as when swimming water directly reaches the ear canal.
Excessive accumulation of earwax, a narrow ear canal and bathing in water containing bacteria are the main risk factors for the development of this condition. Otitis of the external ear is accompanied by a feeling of pain, stuffiness and itching in the ear. It is not a serious problem and can be treated well.
Treatment of ear pain in adults can take place under the supervision of a doctor, and at home.
How to treat otitis with folk remedies:
Hydrogen peroxide in the ear.Put a cotton swab dipped in a solution of hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) into the ear. Leave for 5 minutes. This procedure will remove the sulfur from the ear, which keeps dust, dirt and bacteria trapped inside the shell.
White vinegar.Mix a few drops of vinegar with a little water, soak a cotton swab in the resulting solution and place it in your ear. White vinegar gives quick relief from pain and itching.
Garlic oil. It is another good natural way of treating the "swimmer's ear."
- Rub garlic on a grater and put it in olive oil.
- Leave it overnight.
- The next day strain, lightly heat the mixture and in a warm form, pour 2-3 drops into the sore ear.
It is not enough to know how to treat otitis with folk remedies. It is more important to know how to prevent it.
- Do not bathe in pools, ponds or lakes with muddy water.
- You can prevent the infection from entering your ear by immediately removing water from your ears after bathing or visiting the bathroom. Tilt your head down to drain the water. Then gently wipe the ear with a clean cloth or a soft towel.
- Wear a shower cap while bathing or taking a bath.
Ear otitis in a child: symptoms, causes and treatmentEar otitis in a child occurs much more often than in adults. The reasons for this imbalance are obvious - they are associated with the not yet sufficiently strengthened immune system of babies, which is not yet able to actively resist the development of inflammation. External manifestations of the disease, depending on the type of otitis media, differ, and therapeutic approaches should also be different.
What are otitis media in children and why they occur
Otitis is an inflammation of the ear.What are otitis media in children and what are their differences? There are external otitis and otitis media, depending on which department of the ear is inflamed. The course of the disease, which is very common at a young age, can be acute or chronic. The inflammatory process can, accompanied by suppuration or not accompanied by it. In this inflammation, there is a hearing disorder (mild to moderate hearing loss). The danger of all kinds of otitis in children is in their complications. Especially dangerous complications of purulent otitis. Remembering this, my mother should be attentive to the complaints of the child. If the child complains about the ear, the mother should immediately call the child's doctor. He, having examined the child, will give the necessary recommendations and, if he deems it necessary, appoint a consultation of a children's ENT doctor.
Otitis externa may be a furuncle of the external auditory canal, but may be external otitis and spilled. The furuncle develops as a result of the infection in the hair follicle or the sebaceous gland that is near this sac. Why does external otitis occur in young children? The cause of infection is usually a minor skin trauma (mum does not exercise caution when cleans the baby's ear, or the child puts in his ear a hard object with sharp edges).
Acute otitis media often develops as a complication of an acute cold. In the role of pathogens may act staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, etc. The cause of otitis media in children are adenoid glands that cover the mouth of Eustachian tubes and thereby create the conditions for air stagnation in the "drum-eustachian tube" system. In turn, the complication of acute otitis media, as well as complication of tubotitis is
The causative agents of acute purulent otitis are the same as in acute otitis media. If, for some reason, the timely and sufficient treatment of acute purulent otitis is not carried out, if the sick child is poorly fed, if the resistance of his body is reduced due to any prolonged illness, the acute purulent process in the ear can be transformed into chronic, and then it is already possible to talk about the presence of chronic suppurative otitis in the child. Among the causes of this otitis in children, it is necessary to name such pathogens as streptococci, staphylococcus and E. coli. If the pseudomonas aeruginosa appears in the ear, the otitis proceeds very hard.
What are the symptoms of external and middle otitis media in a child
What are the symptoms of otitis in a child depending on the type of inflammation?
With external otitis, the child complains of pain in the ear. The pain is growing, and when you press the tragus of the auricle, it is even worse. Body temperature rises, parotid and cervical lymph nodes increase, tissues in the external ear canal swell strongly - sometimes this passage is completely closed. After opening the furuncle, pus is poured from the ear. Soon after this, recovery comes.
Acute otitis media begins some time after the onset of a cold. Again, a characteristic sign of otitis media is a pain in the ear. Sometimes a child complains of pain in both ears. If you click on the tragus of the ear, the pain becomes stronger. Body temperature rises, appetite and sleep are affected. There is a noise in the Ear, hearing is broken. The JIOP-doctor sees the reddening of the tympanic membrane when examining the patient's ear. Also, with the average otitis of the ear in a child, the symptoms are changes in the blood test: leukocytosis, increased ESR.
Symptoms of purulent and chronic otitis media in a child
Acute purulent otitis proceeds with the same symptoms, but to them signs of intoxication of the organism are added:increased fatigue, general weakness, pale skin and mucous membranes. Increased body temperature - up to 40 ° C - lasts several days. The pain in the ear becomes stronger and, as it were, pulsates. At some point, there is a breakthrough of pus accumulating in the tympanum, through the tympanic membrane outside; and the amount of pus can be significant. When pus breaks through it, as a rule, an admixture of blood is found. After the pus empties, the pain quickly fades into nothing. There is a hearing disorder.
The chronic purulent otitis is characterized by a suppuration, which lasts a long time. The suppuration may be permanent or intermittent. The substance separated from the ear can have a mucous or mucus-like nature; rarely - festering. If the pseudomonas arisens in the ear or if pus stagnates in the tympanum, a putrid smell from the ear may appear. Symptom of this otitis in the child is a constant noise in the patient's ear. The doctor sees a hole in the eardrum when viewed (with the help of a special instrument) of the tympanic membrane. Chronic purulent otitis may be complicated by mastoiditis, meningitis; local complications - proliferation of granulations, the appearance of polyps; a fairly rare complication is cholesteatoma.
How to properly treat an ear otitis in a child
Before treating otitis in a child, the baby must be shown to a specialist. The patient is examined by the ENT doctor and prescribes the necessary therapy. When treating otitis in a child is very important nutrition. The child's diet should contain more foods that are sources of vitamins A, C, B, etc. for the body.
With external otitis, the patient's ear warms up several times a day, making warming compresses (around the ear). In the external auditory meatus every day put turundas with a doctor-appointed remedy. Physiotherapy is effective.
With acute otitis media, treatment is also local and general. How correctly to treat an otitis of the child if it has arisen in the middle ear? In this case, warming up several times a day; around the ear make warming compresses with vegetable or camphor oil, vodka, semi-alcoholic compresses.
With severe pain in the ear, analgesic drops are prescribed. The effectiveness of treatment is increased when physiotherapy is connected. Simultaneously, the nose is treated - with the aim of quickly restoring the function of the Eustachian tube.
And how to treat an ear otitis in a child, if the disease is an acute purulent inflammation? In this case, the doctor makes a paracentesis - a small incision in the tympanic membrane. Through this incision poured out, and the state of the baby improves. The doctor observes the child every day, performs the toilet of the ear, puts in the external ear canal of turunda with medicines. The patient's ear is warmed, warming compresses are put on, physioprocedures are done. With symptoms of purulent otitis in children, treatment is also prescribed for the nose with a nasopharynx.
With chronic purulent otitis, the doctor also makes a daily ear toilet; locally used anti-inflammatory drugs; antibiotics are administered parenterally; physiotherapy is prescribed. In those cases when conservative therapy is ineffective, when complications of otitis may occur, surgical treatment is indicated. If you can achieve a long period without suppuration, an operation is performed to restore the integrity of the tympanic membrane. This operation is called "myringoplasty."
Treatment of otitis in children at home: first aid to a childThe kid suddenly complained that his ear hurts. Timely competent actions of the mother will help in this case to alleviate the child's condition and prevent the development of dangerous complications. Before starting treatment for otitis in children at home, first, of course, you need to call a precinct pediatrician at home.
After that, the mother must:
- to measure the child's body temperature; if the body temperature is increased significantly, the child is recommended to give something of antipyretics: paracetamol in the form of a syrup, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in the age-appropriate dose, a small child - put a candle candle; if the mother gives the sick child acetylsalicylic acid, then - certainly on the milk;
- if the pain is severe, and the child can not tolerate it, providing first aid in otitis in the child, you need to give for oral intake of any anesthetic drug - eg analgin in the age-appropriate dose; an analgesic is injected into the ear - you can inject into the ear novocaine, otinum, if they are in the home medicine chest; if neither novocaine, no touching at hand is not, you can drip a few drops of warm vodka into the external auditory meatus; rather quickly the pain in the ear weakens after the introduction of several drops of warm vegetable oil; for this purpose, you can use any vegetable oil - olive, corn, sunflower, soy, etc. (for the child's recovery the ear needs to be rinsed to remove the residual oil from the external ear canal); after the mother dripped the baby in the ear of one of these means, it should be about 15 minutes. lie down - while the sick ear should be facing the ceiling; after instillations the external ear canal is always plugged with a cotton swab;
- When treating otitis in a child at home, you need to warm up your sore ear; The warming-up procedure, despite its simplicity, is very effective; its effectiveness the fact that heat is always characterized by a mild analgesic effect; in addition, heat causes local expansion of blood vessels and, consequently, a rush of blood to the inflamed ear, and in conditions of abundant blood supply the focus of inflammation resolves much faster; sometimes it is enough to warm one ear once at the very beginning of the disease - and the process of inflammation begins to "take positions"; warm up your baby need 3-4 times a day; each time the heating procedure should take 12-15 minutes; it is recommended to use the usual heating pad (the child should lie on the hot-water bottle with a sick ear); it is important to remember that when the body temperature rises, it is impossible to warm up;
- Also, such assistance is very effective for children in the home, like warming compresses; when inflamed, compress around the ear; most often for compresses use such as sunflower oil, camphor oil, vodka, alcohol, half diluted with water; make warming compresses 2 times a day: 1 times a day for 1.5-2 hours. and for the whole night; if the child has increased body temperature, compresses in no case can not be done, otherwise the body temperature will rise;
- close the child with a dry ear with dry cotton wool; until the doctor says that the recovery has come, the ear of the baby should be permanently closed; cotton wool is fixed on the ear with a handkerchief or cap.
Folk remedies for the treatment of otitis in childrenIt is necessary to warn that methods and means recommended by traditional medicine are used as a supplement to the basic treatment that the JIOP doctor will assign to the child.
Below are listed the best folk remedies for treatment of otitis in children at home:
- alternating with other means, bury in a sick ear a warm infusion of chamomile flowers; Preparation of the infusion: 1 teaspoon dried put the flowers in preheated dishes, pour a glass of boiling water and insist under the lid for about 15 minutes, drain;
- when folk treatment of otitis in children should be put twice a day in the external auditory canal gauze turuns (fitilechki), impregnated with warm walnut oil, for 2-3 hours;
- Propolis oil can be used as an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic; to put with it 2 times a day for 2-3 hours. in a sick ear gauze turundas;
- there is more grapes; preferably - sweet varieties; grapes for the body - an excellent source of energy, very necessary for fighting the disease;
- cleaning the external auditory canal from the pus, moisten the cotton swab with fresh juicy lemon juice (bear onions);
- an effective folk remedy for otitis in children is mixed in equal quantities fresh juice of onions and flaxseed oil; moistened this mixture of gauze turunda, you need to put the latter in the external auditory meatus for 1.5-2 hours; alternate with other means.
Exudative otitis in children and adults: treatment with medications and folk remedies
Exudative otitis is a common disease. It is accompanied by noninfectious inflammation of the middle ear, in which there is an accumulation of exudate in its cavity. This disease affects both adults and children. And in the absence of timely therapy, the inflammatory process can lead to a mass of irreversible complications. Therefore, information about the causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease will be useful to many readers.
What is the disease?
Exudative otitis media in no case should not be confused with the catarrhal form. In this case, infectious tissue damage is absent, and the inflammatory process is sluggish. The main difference of this form of the disease is the accumulation of exudative fluid in the middle ear cavity. By the way, when examining the ear, you can observe both a thin layer of serous fluid and the formation of a fairly thick layer of viscous exudate. In the people such a disease is often called a "sticky ear".
According to statistical data, exudative otitis in children is diagnosed much more often than in adult patients, which is associated with some anatomical features of a growing child's body. Most often, children of preschool age (from two to five years) are prone to this disease. With proper treatment, the disease is not dangerous, but the lack of timely therapy is fraught with a mass of negative consequences, including hearing loss.
The main causes of exudative otitis media development
Exudative otitis media can develop under the influence of various factors. Normally, a small amount of fluid is constantly formed in the middle ear cavity - this is perfectly normal, as it is removed from the cavity naturally.
But in some cases, outflow of fluid is difficult, which leads to its accumulation in the middle ear. What is the cause of this pathology? First of all, it should be noted that the disease can be associated with a violation of the normal patency of the auditory canal or Eustachian tubes. This is often observed against a background of sinusitis, persistent allergic rhinitis, acute catarrhal otitis. The causes of violation of patency can be adenoids. Some anatomical features are also important - for example, the risk of developing the disease increases with the curvature of the nasal septum, the increase in nasal concha, and the splitting of the palate.
Risk factors include the presence of tumors in the nasal passages or sinuses. Exudative otitis can develop as a result of trauma, including barotrauma in divers and pilots. Sometimes the disease develops against a background of a sharp decrease in immunity, hypothermia.
Classification of the disease
To date, there are several classification schemes for this disease. For example, depending on the current, it is customary to allocate:
- acute form of the disease lasts up to 3 weeks;
- with subacute otitis, the duration of the process is 3-8 weeks;
- if the disease is present in the patient for more than eight weeks, it is advisable to talk about the chronic form of the disease.
It is worth noting that the disease can affect both one and both ears. By the way, bilateral exudative otitis in children is diagnosed more often than unilateral.
What symptoms are accompanied by the disease?
It is worth noting that the clinical picture with this disease is slightly blurred - there is no pain, no increase body temperature, nor the standard symptoms of intoxication, which greatly complicates the diagnostic process. Moreover, in the absence of disturbing factors, many patients simply do not consult a doctor, especially when it comes to a small child.
So, what is worth paying attention to? Perhaps the only symptom in most cases is hearing loss. Some patients complain of a feeling of permanent stuffiness of the ears or nose (there is no allocation at the same time). Symptoms include autophony - during the conversation the patient can hear the echo of his own voice. In the presence of such violations should consult a doctor.
The most dangerous is exudative otitis in children, since a small child simply may not notice the presence of symptoms. In turn, the lack of treatment leads to the development of persistent deafness. In early childhood, hearing loss can disrupt the normal development of speech.
What diagnostic methods are used?
If there is a suspicion of exudative otitis it is worth to go to an otolaryngologist. To begin with, the doctor will perform a primary examination and collect a complete medical history (including information on previously transferred diseases). In many cases, changes can be noticed already during the usual otoscopy - the doctor has the opportunity to study the changes in the tympanic membrane.
In the future, additional tests are prescribed to help determine the reason for the occurrence of exudative otitis - treatment depends on it. For example, the ventilation function of the auditory tubes is studied. In addition, the doctor determines the level of mobility of the tympanic membrane. Sufficiently informative is also considered acoustic tubometry, which helps to determine the level of hearing loss, even if it is a question of the smallest patients.
X-ray can be used as an additional study. In disputable cases, the patient is advised to undergo a CT scan. Sometimes during the diagnosis the doctor examines the cavity of the middle ear with a flexible endoscope.
Exudative otitis media: treatment with drugs
Only a doctor can prescribe the right therapy, since the scheme in this case is made individually. Treatment of exudative otitis in children and adults is carried out in several directions at once.
In particular, it is extremely important to determine the cause of disturbance of the patency of the auditory tubes and restore it. Carry out treatment of cold and colds, if necessary, prescribe a procedure for removing adenoids or correcting the nasal septum.
As for medicines, their choice depends on the condition of the patient and the stage of the development of the disease. In some cases it is advisable to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Also, patients are prescribed mucolytic drugs that dilute exudate and promote its rapid elimination. In particular, the most effective drugs are considered active components of which are acetylcysteine ("ACTS") or carbocysteine. The course of mucolytics takes about two weeks.
The expediency of taking antibiotics by many doctors is called into question, since most often the inflammatory process with exudative otitis is aseptic. Nevertheless, if the infection was detected during the diagnosis, then the treatment course includes taking antibacterial drugs, for example "Amoxicillin". It is necessary to take antihistamines, which, on the one hand, inhibit the development of vaccine immunity, and on the other - reduce the likelihood of an allergic reaction to medication taken by patients. Quite often, patients are recommended "Suprastin", "Tavegil" and other means.
To facilitate nasal breathing, it is possible to use vasoconstrictive nasal drops (for example "Otrivin"), but such therapy should not last more than five days.
Other conservative treatments
Of course, drug therapy is not enough. Since exudative otitis is associated with impaired patency of the auditory tubes, one of the tasks of the doctor is to restore it. To this end, a variety of methods are used. For example, blowing on Politzer is considered quite effective. This procedure is nothing more than a pneumomassage of the tympanic membrane. This treatment allows you to restore the tone of the muscles of the auditory tube, improve its patency, and also remove the exudate from the tympanum.
In addition, the therapy includes a variety of physiotherapy procedures, for example, magnetotherapy, ultrasound and laser therapy. Energetic electrophoresis is also considered to be effective, in which steroid hormones and proteolytic enzymes (mucolytics) are used.
When is surgery necessary?
Unfortunately, not always conservative drugs help to eliminate exudative otitis media. Treatment in such cases is performed with the help of surgical intervention. To date, there are many therapeutic methods, ranging from a one-time removal of exudate from the ear cavity and ending with an extensive operation involving neurosurgeons.
Nevertheless, most often the patient is bypassed by the bypass of the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane is dissected and a special shunt is inserted through it, which remains in the ear for several months. This procedure facilitates the aeration and excretion of the exudate, and also allows the rapid and painless introduction of drugs directly into the tympanum.
Exudative otitis: how to treat with the help of traditional medicine?
Of course, there are many unconventional ways of treating inflammatory processes in the ear. So how to eliminate exudative otitis media? Treatment with folk remedies is possible only with the destruction of the doctor, as inept use of medicines can lead to the development of complications.
Some healers recommend using a decoction of chamomile, in which you need to moisten a cotton swab and then insert into the ear canal. It is advisable to carry out the procedure at night. Such a remedy helps to relieve the inflammatory process and to facilitate the departure of the exudate.
You can prepare ear drops from mint. Two tablespoons of fresh crushed leaves of peppermint should be poured a glass of vodka and insist for a week. Then you need to strain the tincture. Bury three drops in each ear several times a day (at intervals of three hours).
Chronic otitis media
Most often, the chronic form develops against the background of acute exudative otitis. The chronic process is indicated if the disease has not been resolved within the first eight weeks. The causes and symptoms of chronic aseptic inflammation are approximately the same as in acute forms. It is worth noting that not every case can completely restore the hearing of a patient with a similar diagnosis - some changes are irreversible.
What are the complications of the disease?
Unfortunately, the lack of therapy leads to extremely unpleasant complications:
- The tympanic membrane can be retracted - in medicine this condition is called atelectasis.
- A common complication is atrophy of the tympanic membrane, in which it becomes very thin and loses its basic functions.
- Much less often the disease is associated with the perforation of the membrane, which, of course, leads to disruption of the normal operation of the hearing aid.
- As a complication, the patient may develop an adhesive otitis media, which is accompanied by a scarring of the drum membranes, atrophic changes in the auditory ossicles, and proliferation of fibrous tissue inside the tympanum.
- As mentioned before, the disease often ends with the development of hearing loss.
Are there effective methods of prevention?
Unfortunately, there are no effective means that can protect a child or an adult from developing a similar disease. Nevertheless, doctors recommend to treat all inflammatory diseases of the ears and upper respiratory tract in time, and also to use appropriate means to stop allergic reactions - this will help reduce the risk of developing such a disease.
In addition, after suffering a cold or catarrhal otitis, you need to carefully monitor changes in the behavior of the child. If you notice a decrease in hearing (for example, the baby begins to add volume when watching TV or listening to music), it is necessary to undergo an examination with an otolaryngologist. Exudative otitis media of the middle ear can be extremely dangerous.