Bronchitis in a childInflammation of the bronchial mucosa or bronchitis, one of the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Most common bronchitis in children from 3 to 8 years, the incidence rate at this age is associated with the features of the structure of the upper respiratory tract and not fully formed immunity.
In children, bronchitis usually occurs in an acute form and occurs against a background of viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, from where the infection enters in the bronchi, causes inflammation of the mucous membrane, irritates the mucosal receptors and provokes a severe dry cough and chest pain.
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children takes about 2 weeks and does not require hospitalization, but if the disease not treated, it can go into a chronic form and cause pneumonia or bronchial asthma.
Causes of the disease in children
- Bronchitis in children in more than half the cases of all diseases, develops against the background of viral infections - the causative agent of the disease will fall in the upper respiratory tract, and from there it spreads lower, causing inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract.
- Bronchitis caused by a bacterial infection is much less common - bacteria enter the interior of the bronchial tree only together with some object, small children who like to drag in the mouth any objects or accidentally inhaled fine details of toys or dust particles, along with them enter into your body and bacteria that can provoke the development of bronchitis.
- In a number of cases, viral bronchitis is complicated by the attachment of a bacterial infection.
- Chronic or acute bronchitis can be caused by irritation of the bronchial mucosa by inhalation of chemical vapors substances or by mechanical irritation with particles of dust, sand or other substances falling into the bronchi during breathing.
- Allergic reactions - frequent allergic reactions cause permanent inflammation of the mucosa and can lead to acute or chronic bronchitis and even to bronchial asthma in children.
- Congenital malformations of the upper respiratory tract.
- Not completely cured colds or viral infections can be complicated by the development of bronchitis, and often repeated acute bronchitis becomes a cause of chronic disease.
- Glistovye invasions - with a massive infestation of the child's body with parasites, migrating worms can enter the lungs and stay there, their presence will cause constant irritation and an inflammatory reaction in the bronchi.
Acute simple bronchitis
Acute bronchitis in children develops a few days after a viral infection or hypothermia, the symptoms of the disease are similar to usual ORVI - the child coughs, complains of a pain in a goal, zalozhennost a nose, a headache and a pain in a breast at a tussis and breath.
Simple acute bronchitis usually proceeds fairly easily, body temperature does not rise above 37-38 degrees, the total the patient's condition remains satisfactory, and the main inconvenience is caused by a constant dry cough. With timely treatment and normal course of the disease, after a few days the cough becomes wet, the children normalize their general condition, but completely coughs after 10-14 days.
Chronic bronchitis in young children develops rarely, this diagnosis is considered proven in the presence of 2-3 exacerbations of the disease a year, for 2 years. Intermediate form between acute and chronic bronchitis, domestic pediatricians consider recurrent bronchitis. In contrast to chronic, with this form of the disease there are no irreversible changes in the bronchi and respiratory system in general and it is possible to completely cure the patient.
With this form of the disease, due to lack of appropriate treatment, weakening of immunity, adverse environmental effects, frequent viral infections and other predisposing factors, the course of acute bronchitis is delayed, the child can not fully recover and get rid of cough and other symptoms of bronchitis.
Chronic bronchitis in children up to 3 years often occurs against the background of the primary pathology of the lungs or the respiratory system - with malformations of the lungs and bronchi, with ciliary discenosis, chronic aspiration by food masses, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency states, lung sclerosis, in premature infants who are connected to artificial ventilation and in other such cases.
Understand that the child developed chronic bronchitis easily, the symptoms of the disease do not differ from acute bronchitis, but cough continues for several weeks, the phlegm becomes purulent - white or green, with an unpleasant odor. With auscultation of the chest, constant noise and wheezing are heard. In young children, the symptoms of the disease are accompanied by shortness of breath and gradual deformation of the chest - it can acquire a barrel shape.
Modern methods of treatment of bronchitisTreatment of acute bronchitis in children is carried out on an outpatient basis and only under the supervision of a pediatrician. A simple uncomplicated bronchitis is treated at home without requiring the use of antibiotics or intramuscular injection, but only a doctor can assess the condition of the patient and prescribe adequate treatment. Particular attention needs treatment of acute bronchitis in children under one year - they develop shortness of breath and respiratory distress very quickly, so doctors recommend hospitalization.
Treatment of children older than 3 years is not particularly difficult, simple acute bronchitis completely takes 2-3 weeks, with good care and compliance with medical recommendations.
- Mode - bed and half-bed regime in the first days of illness - until the body temperature and general condition of the child normalize,
- Diet - with bronchitis recommended digestible food, more dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables. If the child does not have an appetite, do not insist on eating, he should eat as much as he wants, independently choosing food.
- Abundant drink - to reduce body temperature, remove toxins from the body and to replenish the water balance in the body to the child you need a generous warm drink - milk, tea, compote, mors, broth of dogrose or cowberry, warm mineral water without gas.
- Rinse throat - with viral infections, gargling helps reduce tonsillitis and remove pathogens from the body - gargle can be sodo-saline solution, infusion of chamomile, sage or collection of herbs.
- Expectorants - to facilitate coughing with bronchitis apply mucolytics - licorice syrup, infusion of thermopsis, nitrosil, bromhexine, doctor mom, ambroben and others, they dilute sputum and facilitate its removal from the bronchi.
- Inhalation is one of the most effective remedies for dry obtrusive cough, they soften and moisturize the respiratory tract, reduce irritation, soothe cough and act as an expectorant - for inhalation you can use special devices - nebulizers or just breathe hot steam over infusion of medicinal herbs or boiled potatoes.
- Warming ointments and compresses - for pains in the chest, prolonged painful coughing, it helps to rub the chest with warming ointments or fat. To treat children older than 3 years you can use mustard plasters or compresses on the chest. Applying rubbing, mustard plasters or spreading the baby ointment, the heart area should be left open.
- Vibration massage - in the treatment of bronchitis, vibrating massage has a pronounced curative effect. It helps to clear bronchi and alveoli from mucus, helps restore normal breathing and speeds up recovery. Such massage can be done by a child's massage therapist or the parents of a child, for this you need to gently and easily tap on the back of the baby, creating a vibration with your fingers or the edge of the palm. Massage should not cause pain, a massage session takes 2-3 minutes to 15 minutes.
- If necessary, the child is prescribed antipyretics - children's panadol, paracetamol, ibuprofen or candles with these medicines.
- With nasal congestion in young children it is advisable not to use vasoconstrictive drugs - it is necessary several times a day to wash the nasal passages and instill there Aquamaris, saline or breast milk. Nasal contents can be sucked off using suction or a small pear. Children older than a year with a common cold are prescribed Nazivin, Tanos, sanorin or other similar remedies. All these drugs should not be used more than 3 days in a row.
- Antitussives are prescribed only in extreme cases, since they suppress the activity of the cough center in the brain, interfering with the purification of the bronchi and delaying the healing process. Preparations based on codeine, glaucine, and libexin are prescribed in the case of severe, painful coughing spells that prevent the baby from eating or sleeping normally and causing severe exhaustion of the patient.
- Antibiotics - the appointment of antibiotics in ordinary simple bronchitis is not advisable - most often the source of infection are viruses, and not bacteria. Antibiotics are indicated in case of complication of bronchitis, the appearance of purulent sputum or general decrease in immunity. The drugs of choice in this case are ampicillin, amoxicillin or sumamed. Treatment with antibiotics should be done only as directed and under the supervision of a doctor. When prescribing antibiotics, one should not forget about the possible development of dysbacteriosis and must start taking such drugs as linex, hilkforte, bifidum bacterin and others.
Obstructive bronchitis in children treatment and symptoms
The cause of bronchitis in children can be bacteria, viruses, allergies. If an allergy is found, it is necessary to find a factor that causes an allergic reaction and as a consequence of it an obstructive bronchitis in a child whose treatment and symptoms we will now consider.
The infection of the case is much more difficult. 90% of the cases are caused by viruses. Antibiotics for such a case are useless. They do not treat obstructive bronchitis in children. How does the disease proceed in this case, and what should be the treatment for obstructive bronchitis?Yandex. Direct
Treatment of obstructive bronchitisATSTS liquefies and displays phlegm, helping to quickly get rid of a cough! Properties of the ACCS Forms of the release of the cough of diseases. Acclong. There are contraindications. Talk to your doctor. Hide Ad|
Bronchitis. EffectivetreatmentThe newest medical device fortreatmentat home. Available. The guarantee of the result is abridged.-There are contraindications. Talk to your doctor. Hide Ad|
|Devices of Elatomsky Plant Treatment and prevention of diseases at home. Discounts up to 25%! Elamed.comThere are contraindications. Talk to your doctor. Hide Ad|
Obstructive bronchitis in children - symptoms of the disease
At the first suspicions on symptoms of obstructive bronchitis it is necessary to turn to a pediatrician for a special examination and the appointment of adequate treatment to avoid the transition of the initial stage of the disease into a chronic one.
Obstructive bronchitis in children is very common. This narrowing of the bronchi, because of which violated the patency of a large amount of mucus, which as a result causes a violation of the normal function of the respiratory tract.
There are two types of bronchitis: obstructive and non-obstructive, the disease is acute and chronic. When inflammation occurs along with inflammation - obstruction, in which bronchial mucus accumulates, because of which the permeability of the vessels (ventilation capacity) decreases. When the inflammatory process passes in the small bronchi is obstructive bronchitis.
Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis in children are often hidden in the early stages of the disease. Manifestations may be shortness of breath, coughing with phlegm, increased sweating, fatigue, fatigue. With the transition of the disease into a chronic form, there may be difficulty in breathing, pulmonary hypertension and, as a consequence, insufficiency of oxygen in the blood.
In some small patients, the disease occurs with bronchial asthma syndrome - a violation of the bronchial patency, which is manifested by a paroxysmal cough, expiratory dyspnea, attacks of suffocation. The incidence of bronchitis in some cases can lead to disability and loss of ability to work.
There is also a recurrent bronchitis obstructive in children. This diagnosis is made based on if the child had several cases of the disease throughout the year. Over time, such bronchitis can go on into a chronic form, and the treatment is much more difficult.
Such bronchitis is considered the most common and, at the same time, one of the most serious diseases of the respiratory system. The danger of acute obstructive bronchitis consists, first of all, in the fact that with frequent relapses it can lead to bronchial asthma. That is why at the first manifestations of symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis (with bronchoobstruction, that is if you feel sudden, sharp spasm of the bronchi), then you need to immediately seek medical help and start treatment in a timely manner.
Differential symptoms of obstructive bronchitis
Obstructive acute bronchitis is characterized by such a clinical manifestation as a dry, intrusive cough, which often becomes worse at night. Also noted was shortness of breath and difficulty in inhaling. There are also other symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis (nausea, headache, weakness), they are weak or not expressed at all.
But there are symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis, which should immediately alert: the impossibility of a deep breath, a rapid increase in body temperature, not stopping shortness of breath, the ability to relatively freely breathe only while standing or sitting, in the lying position you can hear bubbling with breathing, bluish shade of the face. When these symptoms are noted, you should immediately seek emergency medical help.
Obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment of the disease
If the pediatrician has diagnosed your child with obstructive bronchitis, then immediately take measures for treatment. Most often, obstructive bronchitis is accompanied by a dry or wet cough. From the nature of cough, treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is prescribed. General recommendations for the control of bronchitis in children are given below.
To cure obstructive bronchitis, it is necessary: to provide an integrated approach:
1. eliminate the infection,
2. to eliminate the influence of various factors,
3. to put in order respiratory organs,
4. carry out preventive measures. Experts in the osteopathic center can help in this.
The goal of treatment of obstructive bronchitis is to quickly clear bronchi from mucus and restore good patency. Parents should learn that obstructive bronchitis responds well to treatment. To do this, you need to comply with bed rest, plenty of drinking and a special microclimate.
Recommendations for the treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children:
Here are some recommendations for the treatment of this disease:
1. the main and important rule of treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is to restore the patency of the bronchi. For this, elementary things are needed: cool, clean and moist air in the sick child's room; regular airing; very plentiful drink (tea, water, broth with dog-rose, compotes of dried fruits); use of drugs that reduce spasm or narrowing of the bronchi (Euphilin), diluting astringent mucus (Lazolvan);
2. full, vitamin and protein-containing food with obstructive bronchitis;
3. with bacterial bronchitis can not do without antibiotics. To resume mycloroblore after a course of antibiotics will help such drugs: Lineks, Enterol, Bifidobacterin;
4. treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children should be rapid. Very good effect for liquefaction of mucus give alkaline inhalation with the addition of minerals and essential oils;
5. it is necessary to regularly wash the nasopharynx with saline solution, Borjomi, aquamaris and means, which include silver. To facilitate the breathing of the nose, use vasoconstrictive drugs: Tizin, Oksimetazolin, Vibrosol, others;
6. at a high temperature it is recommended to observe bed rest with bronchitis. Antipyretic agents that help bring down the temperature are paracetamol. Antipyrine, Aspirin, Analgin, Fenacetin for children is contraindicated, they can cause side negative effects;
7. to remove the remains of astringent mucus in bronchitis recommended therapeutic exercises and massage (light tapping on the back, which contributes to expectoration of phlegm);
8. antibacterial and antiviral treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is prescribed with complicated breathing.
Home treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children
Naturally, modern medicine will quickly solve your health problems, especially given the fact that today doctors offer a variety of methods for treating obstructive bronchitis. If you are opposed to drug treatment, you can consult your doctor to choose a treatment with folk remedies.
At the moment, treatment of acute obstructive bronchitis with folk remedies and methods has become possible, especially since recipes have been tested for years. In any case, the choice is yours, but do not forget to take into account the opinion of the doctor, because the specialist has, first, experience, and knows how much the disease is launched and by what means to treat, and secondly, taking into account the results of the tests, an experienced doctor will clearly determine how quickly you can get rid of your illness.
Good treatment has shown itself, with the use of herbs and decoctions of them. Foot baths, cans also show themselves well, but only at the initial stage of the disease. The initial phase of the disease involves bed rest, but with a safe transition to the second phase of obstructive bronchitis (sputum, relief of breathing and other acute symptoms) shows outdoor walks, not heavy physical activity, therapeutic gymnastics. With proper, timely treatment of obstructive bronchitis, the disease does not go into the chronic phase and does not cause complications.
Dear our parents, be aware that the disease is treated very well and quickly with the condition that if you treat obstructive bronchitis in children according to all the recommendations of the treating doctor! The main thing, during illness or disease be side by side with the child and provide good leaving or care.
Causes of obstructive bronchitis in children
The main causes of obstructive bronchitis in children - viral, cold, infectious diseases. There may also be a general depletion of the body.
Obstructive bronchitis occurs in children for the following reasons:
1. frequent ARVI diseases;
2. viral infections and nasopharyngeal diseases;
4. bad ecological conditions;
5. hazardous working conditions;
7. allergic predisposition and so on.
It should be noted that smoking is the main risk factor (80%) of obstructive bronchitis in adolescents. Also at risk are people with hereditary genetic predisposition. With the coincidence of several factors over time, the chronic course of obstructive bronchitis may develop. Then the inflammatory process affects both lung tissue and alveoli.
Timely treatment, which is aimed at restoring immunity and normal functioning of the nervous system, allows on time eliminate the cause of the disease, refuse to use medicines and avoid undesirable consequences.
Obstructive acute bronchitis and its classification by type of infection
The onset of the disease can occur under the influence of both infectious and non-infectious factors. To infectious types of obstructive acute bronchitis in children can be attributed:
But the most common of non-infectious types of bronchitis can be considered an allergy. Today, it is increasingly difficult to find a person in one way or another susceptible to allergies of various types, and the factors that cause it, every day becomes more and more.
Bronchitis in children: treatment at home. Inhalation of a child at home
A dangerous mistake is disregard for bronchitis. Do not consider it a non-serious disease. You think, the child has caught a cold! Coughs - and everything will pass. The illness is much more serious than it seems at first glance. If there were the first symptoms characterizing bronchitis in children, treatment at home should begin immediately. And the first thing to do is to call a doctor at home. Whichever proven folk remedies you use, pediatrician advice in any case is mandatory.
What you need to know about bronchitis
The ailment is common enough in young children. Such selectivity is associated with immature immunity. Although there are many causes. These include the presence of parasitic infection in the baby's body, and congenital malformations, etc.
In form, bronchitis can be acute or chronic. Its course is simple or complicated obstruction. The doctor will help determine the form of the disease. Accordingly, only he is able to select an adequate treatment. Ignoring the disease can lead to bronchial asthma.
It should not be forgotten that the disease is infectious and allergic. Depending on what type of bronchitis in children, treatment at home will be somewhat different.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of infirmity in children are quite typical. This makes it possible to take measures immediately, as soon as the bronchitis begins in children. Treatment at home, taken immediately, is able to protect the baby from prolonged indisposition.
The first bells, indicating the impending bronchitis:
- Dry cough, tormenting the baby all the time. Significantly intensified at night. Over time, a damp cough appears.
- Pain in the chest.
- The temperature can rise to 38 C0. The higher markings on the thermometer often do not cause the ailment.
- Hard breath. Can be accompanied by wheezing, whistling. Sometimes there is shortness of breath.
Diagnosis of the disease
If the baby shows signs of developing bronchitis, be sure to seek help from a pediatrician. To diagnose an illness, a child may be assigned the following examinations:
- blood test (from the finger);
- X-ray (allows to diagnose either bronchitis or pneumonia);
- sputum analysis, expectorated baby.
Very rarely an ailment leads to serious complications. In most cases, it is easily amenable to therapy. And often it does not require taking any serious measures.
Disease in the baby
Bronchitis in children under one year is usually a complication of a bacterial or viral infection that gets into the airways. But sometimes the ailment occurs for no apparent reason. Suspected disease can be due to characteristic noise in the chest and wheezing. The cause of this symptomatology lies in the mucus that accumulates in the airways.
For the treatment of infants, pediatricians, as a rule, appoint:
- anti-inflammatory, mucolytic drug - "Bromgeksin";
- antipyretic medicine (if necessary) - "Paracetamol";
- antibiotic (rarely) - "Cefuroxime".
The treatment started in time is characterized by a favorable prognosis. Very rarely, babies are experiencing any complications.
Features of treatment of younger children
Antibiotics are rarely prescribed. But if it concerns the smallest, that is, diagnosed bacterial bronchitis in a child 2 years of age or younger children, an antibiotic is mandatory. As a rule, drugs are administered orally or in the form of inhalations.
After the appointment, parents often ask why the baby was not prescribed a cough medicine. Especially often it is asked if the bronchitis is diagnosed in a child 2 years of age and younger. Do not attempt to independently give him drugs that fight with a cough. Small children are excellent at coping with the above symptom without medication.
It is worth remembering that before the age of 2 mucolytics can not be used. The weak muscles of the child's chest can not "cough up" mucus. This leads to the opposite effect. Mucus settles in the lungs, resulting in stagnant phenomena.
This kind of ailment is a manifestation of almost any catarrhal disease. More children with weakened immunity are subjected to it. It is these babies that are at high risk of getting sick. Sometimes it is possible to observe frequent bronchitis in a child. This, as a rule, characterizes the mixed nature of the infection. Initially, the virus enters the body. Over time, a bacterial infection is connected to it.
Faced with an ailment, do not fight it with your own self. Remember, treatment of acute bronchitis in children should be prescribed exclusively by a pediatrician! Otherwise, a whole "bouquet" of consequences is possible. You can not exclude the possibility that cough is a symptom of a completely different ailment.
Thus, the treatment of acute bronchitis in children requires an attentive and responsible attitude. The methods of struggle must be comprehensive. The pediatrician will necessarily recommend all the necessary measures. As a rule, treatment is complex.
Treatment includes the impact on the source of the disease - its pathogen. In most cases, the doctor appoints the agent "Interferon". This is an excellent antiviral drug. It is recommended to instill the baby into the nasal passages every two hours.
If the pathogen is a bacterium, not a virus, then the antibiotic is included in the prescription. Select a wide range of drugs. The following antibiotics are recommended in pediatrics:
These drugs are prescribed depending on the phase of the disease. The first is characterized by a coughing. The doctor appoints, as a rule:
Excellent expectorant drugs are:
Their action is aimed at diluting sputum, repairing the mucosa. Medicines contribute to the excretion of mucus.
There are pharmacological agents that can suppress cough. These drugs can only be purchased with a doctor's prescription. The need to use such medicines can be judged only by the pediatrician.
This procedure is recommended as an auxiliary therapy. It is allowed to do massage with bronchitis in children only after reaching the age of 6 months.
The baby should be put on the tummy. The head of a small patient should almost be lower than the chest and pelvis. You can achieve this by placing a pillow or a folded blanket under the baby's body.
To begin massage at a bronchitis at children follows from gentle grinding an essential oil of a back. Carefully, with the pads of your fingers tap the back of the baby and his offshoot. After such a procedure, the child should be seated and allowed to cough. Massage is great for sputum production from the lungs.
Place the child immediately on one side. Do all the above procedures. Repeat the actions should be on the other side. Massage should last from 10 to 15 minutes. Pediatricians are advised to exercise no more than two procedures per day.
In this case, you should know that at an elevated temperature and dry cough without sputum massage should not be done.
Diet and regimen
These are also important factors. Their observance can contribute to the healing process. Therefore, they should not be neglected. Baby food should be useful and balanced. It should consist of easily digestible products.
The drinking regime is also important. Fluids a sick child need 2 times more. You can offer the baby a cup of tea with raspberries, cranberry fruit drinks, dogrose drinks. Allergens are best excluded from the diet. Give up honey, chocolate, citrus.
The procedure is considered very effective. After all, there is a direct effect of the medicine on the bronchi. For inhalation of a child at home, it is good to use a nebulizer. But you should know that the device is suitable only for pharmaceuticals. You can use the device if you use mineral alkaline water.
If you plan to connect to cure bronchitis in a child, folk remedies, then inhalation is carried out over a saucepan. The baby is covered with a towel, and he inhales warm steam.
Remember, there is a restriction for such an effective procedure - it's a fever! Inhalation can not be performed with it.
So, if the choice has stopped on folk remedies, then several recipes will be useful to you (just do not forget to coordinate them with the pediatrician):
- Add 7-8 drops of iodine to a liter of boiling water. In the solution, enter a spoonful of salt. To increase the effect of this inhalation, you can dilute the mixture with a small proportion of propolis.
- An excellent result is the use of the so-called breast collection, supplemented with eucalyptus leaflets. This procedure has a fairly high healing effect.
- An excellent result will be shown by inhalation, for which twigs of sea-buckthorn, raspberries and mint (dry) are used. All ingredients must be boiled in boiling water for 5 hours.
Doctor Komarovsky's advice
Recently, many parents began to listen with pleasure to the eminent physician. After all, he does not just recommend methods of fighting the disease. His advice allows you to cure diseases much quicker.
What kind of recommendations gives a miracle healer, if there is bronchitis in children? Komarowski emphasizes that coughing is a symptom of a disease that a doctor should diagnose. And the illness should be treated together, listening to the doctor's recommendations.
Cough promotes the excretion of mucus from a child's body. Therefore, it is important that the sputum does not dry out. After all, it affects the process of self-healing. For this, the baby needs fresh cool air and plenty of liquid.
Bronchitis in children Komarowski recommends treatment only in consultation with the treating pediatrician. To combat the main symptom - a cough - the doctor offers a list of effective and fairly harmless drugs:
- Potassium iodide.
- Moist-anise drops.
The appointment of antibiotics for bronchitis is condemned by the doctor. He explicitly states that such a measure in most cases not only does not treat, but also leads to serious complications. Dr. Komarovsky highlights the main areas of the fight against the disease in children. Consider these:
- the inclusion of antiviral drugs;
- consumption of large amounts of liquid;
- Humidification of air in the room in which the diseased baby is;
- treatment of the nasal cavity.
The doctor singles out the use of massage procedures as a special item in his technique. Of course, at high temperatures this is taboo, this procedure is unacceptable! But in the stage when there is bronchitis without temperature in the child, massage makes it much easier and faster to get rid of mucus.
To the above method, you can add another amazing technique, recommended by the famous doctor.
Suggest that the baby take a deep breath. After this, the child will begin to cough. It is at this time that you need to squeeze the baby's chest with both hands.
Dr. Komarovsky believes that massage techniques for treating bronchitis are the most effective means to combat the disease.
The child's body is weakened by the onslaught of infections. And to mobilize forces to fight the disease is necessary in the shortest possible time. Therefore, it is important to help a small organism to overcome the infection. This greatly stimulates recovery. A sick child especially needs vitamins B1, B2, C, A. This measure is considered not only curative. This is also a great preventive method of fighting infections. Therefore, it is not recommended to stop taking vitamins immediately after recovery.
What factors can protect a child's body from a formidable illness? The most important thing is to protect the child from tobacco smoke. The kid should not be a passive smoker. This has a very negative effect on children's bronchi.
It is equally important to accustom a child to hardening. Never try to eat your child. Be equal to yourself. If the weather you wear a thin knitted cap, then the child should wear such, and not fur.
Be sure to carry out all the vaccinations that are prescribed by the district pediatrician.
Never do self-medication. Remember that only a pediatrician can diagnose bronchitis in children. Treatment at home will only benefit if it is agreed with the doctor. Let your child be healthy.
Obstructive bronchitis in children: symptoms and treatment
If obstructive bronchitis is diagnosed in children, treatment should be comprehensive. Bronchitis is a very common pathology of the respiratory system among children and adults. Most often, obstructive bronchitis is diagnosed in preschool children (from 1 to 6 years). In the absence of adequate treatment, inflammation and blockage of the bronchi can cause respiratory failure. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of this disease?
Characteristics of obstructive bronchitis
Obstructive bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchial mucosa of various etiologies (bacterial, viral, allergic), in which the permeability of the respiratory tube is impaired. The main cause of obstruction is the accumulation of large amounts of sputum. Often, bronchitis manifests itself bronchospastic syndrome, against which the bronchus clearance diminishes. Against the background of external and internal factors in bronchi, the following changes occur:
- disruption of the ciliated epithelium of the bronchial mucosa and its partial death;
- change in the composition of the secretion of bronchi and increase its viscosity;
- stasis of secretion;
- violation of ventilation.
There are 2 forms of the disease: acute and recurrent. In the latter case there is a repeated development of the disease on the background of pathology of the respiratory tract with influenza, ARVI.
Bronchitis in a child occurs for various reasons. Most often it is a complication of other diseases. At the same time, inflammation of the upper parts of the respiratory system is first observed, then the inflammatory process spreads downward, reaching the bronchi and even lung tissue.The causes of obstructive bronchitis in children:
- viral diseases (influenza, ARVI, adenovirus infection);
- respiratory mycoplasmosis and chlamydia;
- the presence of parasitic diseases (helminthiases);
- aspiration if swallowing is impaired;
- abnormalities of the esophagus;
- gastroesophageal reflux disease;
- malformations of the organ;
- intrauterine pathology (fetal hypoxia, trauma);
- premature delivery;
- penetration of foreign objects into the bronchi;
- allergic reactions.
Bronchitis in a child is caused by the following bacteria: staphylococci, pneumococcus, protheus, hemophilic rod, Klebsiella. Viral bronchitis occurs more often. Most often bronchitis develops in children:
- often ill with viral diseases;
- attending preschool institutions and schools;
- having a genetic predisposition;
- suffering from allergies;
- with reduced immunity.
Risk factors for the development of obstructive bronchitis: smoking, living in an environmentally unfavorable territory, enzyme deficiency, contact with various toxic substances (salts of heavy metals, silicon).
Clinical manifestationsThe main clinical manifestation of this disease is bronchoobstructive syndrome. It is characterized by the following symptoms:
- difficulty breathing;
- periodic attacks of suffocation;
The first symptoms of the disease appear after 2-3 days from the time of the defeat of the respiratory tract. At first, children complain about coughing and runny nose. Cough first dry, paroxysmal. Children become capricious, excitable. Body temperature may increase.
As the inflammatory process develops, the cough becomes productive. Sputum can be dense and difficult to expectorate. A typical sign of obstruction is wheezing. In young children, during coughing, cyanosis of the lips is possible. A similar symptom indicates respiratory failure.
In young children against a background of similar symptoms, sleep and appetite disorders may occur. Infants are likely to experience nausea and vomiting in the presence of a strong cough. Immediately after feeding, the frequency of regurgitation of food.The main manifestations of obstructive bronchitis in infants:
- persistent cough;
- wheezing, noisy breathing;
- catarrhal phenomena (runny nose, redness of the throat).
In severe disease, there may be severe shortness of breath. It can arise at rest and under load. If the inflammation and obstruction of the bronchi is a consequence of an allergic reaction, the temperature remains within normal limits. Symptoms of the disease can disturb the patient a week. Then comes the improvement of the condition.In case of severe symptoms of intoxication and development of respiratory failure, the child must be hospitalized.Hospitalization is also required for infants (up to 1 year).
Treatment of obstructive bronchitis in children is organized only after the final diagnosis is made.Diagnostics assumes:
- general analysis of blood and urine;
- physical examination (percussion and listening to the lungs);
- questioning a sick child or his parents about how the disease developed and what preceded it;
- visual inspection;
- examination of the pharynx;
- measurement of body temperature;
- X-ray examination.
A blood test can reveal a decrease in the number of leukocytes, an increase in lymphocytes, an acceleration of the ESR. In the case of an allergic nature of bronchitis, eosinophilia is observed. In the process of auscultation of the lungs, wheezing and hard breathing are detected. Differential diagnosis is performed with such diseases as bronchial asthma, laryngotracheitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis. In some cases, bronchial obstruction is observed with ascariasis or toxocariasis. To exclude this pathology, a feces analysis is required.
Treatment of bronchitis in children
If obstructive bronchitis in children is identified, treatment should primarily be aimed at improving the patency of the bronchi.
Treatment includes the use of drugs that dilute sputum, expectorants, antipyretics, bronchodilators, antispasmodics, copious drinking, physical therapy, compliance with bed rest and diet.In the case of allergic bronchitis, antihistamines are prescribed (Claritin, Zirtek, Erius, Cetrin). They can be used in the form of drops or syrup. Tableted forms are used much less often.
To improve the patency of the bronchi bronchodilators are prescribed. These medications dilate the bronchi. For children it is preferable to use aerosols or syrups. For the expansion of bronchial tubes, such agents as "Salmeterol", "Ascoril", "Berodual", "Salbutamol" are used. When choosing a medicine, the age of the baby is taken into account. In the case of development of bronchospastic syndrome, "No-shpa" or "Papaverin" is used.
For liquefaction of sputum and its prompt expectoration, "Ambroben", "Lazolvan", "Mukosol", "Prospan", "Gedelix" are shown. Codeine-based antitussive medications are not recommended. In the case of pronounced paroxysmal dry cough, Stopptissin Fito and Sinekod may be used.
Antibiotics are rarely used to treat obstructive bronchitis. They are indicated in case of persistent fever and severe cough. They will be effective only with the bacterial form of bronchitis. Often in the treatment regimen for obstructive bronchitis in children include antiviral drugs. For small children it is advisable to use antiviral drugs in the form of suppositories ("Viferon", "Genferon"), syrup or drops ("Interferon", "Grippferon").
Treatment of obstructive bronchitis can be physiotherapy methods. Physiotherapy is indicated only after the obstruction is removed. In the case of severe disease, the doctor may prescribe glucocorticosteroids. To strengthen immunity, a child should often be in the fresh air, take vitamins, eat right. It is required to limit for a while close contact with other children in order to avoid relapse of the disease.
For a speedy recovery of the baby, parents should air the premises, keep clean. To sputum is better off, parents can do the child a massage. To small children it is not recommended to put mustard plasters and apply warming ointments. Thus, obstructive bronchitis in children is diagnosed very often. Treatment should be conducted only after the appointment of a doctor.