Delay in menstruation, what is it?
Delay in menstruation is a violation of menstrual function, manifested by the absence of cyclic bleeding in excess of thirty-five( 35) days. It can be caused by physiological causes( for example, the onset of pregnancy, premenopause, etc.), as well as various functional disorders or organic disorders.
The delay in the menstrual cycle occurs in women at different periods of life:
- during the onset of menstrual function,
- in the reproductive period of
- in premenopause.
The delay in the onset of the menstrual cycle for more than five days is the reason for going to the gynecologist. The medical diagnosis of the delay of the monthly is aimed at finding the main cause of the symptom, on the basis of which further tactics of treatment depend.
Absence of this phenomenon - someone will alarm, another - will please. Well, we will consider the characteristics of the menstrual cycle, the delay of menstruation during pregnancy, other reasons, and also what kind of examination a woman needs to undergo and how much diagnostics and prices for treatment will cost.
What is considered a delay in menstruation?
A monthly delay is a malfunction in the menstrual cycle in which menstruation does not occur within the expected time. Delay of menstruation, not exceeding 5-7 days, is not regarded as pathology.
The options for delaying menstrual periods are such disorders of the menstrual cycle as oligomenorrhoea, opsonomena, and amenorrhea, manifested by a decrease in menstrual bleeding. The delay of menstrual periods can be observed in different age periods of a woman's life: during puberty, in the reproductive phase, in premenopause and caused by physiological or pathological causes.
For natural, physiological reasons, the delay in menstruation is explained in the pubertal period during the formation of the menstrual cycle, when during 1-1,5 years menstruation can be irregular. In women of reproductive age, the delay in menstruation is natural when pregnancy occurs and during lactation. In the pre-menopausal period, the menstrual function gradually fades, changes in rhythm, duration of menstruation occur, and the delay in menstruation is followed by their complete cessation.
All other options for delaying menstruation, exceeding 5-7 days, are not explained by natural phenomena, in such cases urgent consultation of the gynecologist is required. Menstrual cycle of a woman is a delicate mechanism that supports the childbearing function and reflects any deviations in the state of general health.
Therefore, in order to better understand the causes and mechanisms of delay in menstruation, it is necessary to clearly imagine what is the norm and the deviation in the characterization of the menstrual cycle.
Menstrual cycle. Characteristics of
The functioning of an organism of a woman of childbearing age has cyclic patterns. Monthly bleeding is the final stage of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual discharge indicates that the fertilization of the ovum and the onset of pregnancy did not occur.
In addition, the regularity of menstruation indicates that the woman's body functions smoothly. The delay of the monthly, on the contrary, indicates some disruptions that have occurred.
The onset of the first menstruation usually occurs between 11-15 years. Initially menstrual bleeding can come irregularly, the delay of menstrual bleeding during this period is normal, but after 12-18 months the menstrual cycle should be finally formed. The onset of menstruation before 11 years and the absence after 17 years is a pathology. The delay in the onset of menstruation up to 18-20 years is indicative of obvious pathological processes: general lag in physical development, disorders of the pituitary function, underdevelopment of the ovaries, uterine hypoplasia, etc.
Menstruation is normal, what?
In the norm of menstruation, they come and end at certain time intervals. In 60% of women, the cycle lasts for 28 days, that is 4 weeks, which corresponds to the lunar month. In approximately 30% of women, the cycle lasts 21 days, and about 10% of women have a menstrual cycle lasting 30-35 days.
The average menstrual bleeding lasts 3-7 days, and the allowable blood loss for one menstruation is 50-150 ml. Complete cessation of menstruation occurs after 45-50 years and marks the onset of menopause.
Irregularities and fluctuations in the duration of the menstrual cycle, systematic delays of menstrual periods of more than 5-10 days, alternation of scarce and profuse menstrual bleeding, indicate a serious deviation in the health of women. In order to control the onset or delay of menstruation, each woman should be led a menstrual calendar, marking the day of the beginning of another menstruation. In this case, the delay of the monthly will be immediately visible.
Pregnancy and delay in menstruation
Pregnancy is the most common cause of menstruation in women of childbearing age.
About the likely occurrence of pregnancy, in addition to the delay of the monthly, evidenced by changes in taste and olfactory sensations, appetite, the appearance of nausea and vomiting in the morning, drowsiness, pain in the mammary glands. To reject the possibility of pregnancy is impossible even if there was an interrupted sexual intercourse, sexual contact during menstruation, on "safe" days or using a condom, with an intrauterine device, oral contraceptives, since no method of contraception gives100% contraceptive effect.
If there was a delay in menstrual periods, and in the previous month the woman had sex, pregnancy can be determined with the help of special tests. The principle of all pregnancy tests( test strips, flatbed or inkjet) is the same: they determine the presence in the urine of the chorionic gonadotropic hormone( hCG or HG), the development of which begins in the body 7 days after the fertilization of the egg. The concentration of hCG in the urine rises gradually, and modern, even the most sensitive tests, can detect it only after a delay of the menstrual and no earlier than 12-14 days after the embryo has occurred.
"Read" the test result is necessary in the first 5-10 minutes. The appearance in this period of even a barely noticeable second stripe indicates a positive result and the presence of pregnancy. If the second bar appeared later, then such a result is not reliable. At a delay of monthly for reception of a authentic result the test for pregnancy is recommended to repeat two times with an interval of 2-3 days.
It should be remembered that living a sex life, a woman can always become pregnant, so you need to closely monitor the menstrual cycle and pay attention to delays in menstruation. However, the delay in menstruation can be caused not only by pregnancy, but also by a number of very different, sometimes very serious and dangerous to health reasons.
Delay of menstruation for other reasons
All causes of delay of monthly, gynecology conditionally divides into two large groups: physiological and pathological causes of delayed menstrual periods.
In some cases, the delay in menstrual periods is caused by special transitional, adaptive conditions for the body, and usually does not exceed 5-7 days. However, some of these states are borderline, and with their aggravation, there may be organic disturbances leading to a delay in the months as a manifestation of one or another pathology. The following physiological reasons can be considered:
- delayed monthly, caused by strong emotional or physical stress: stress, increased sports, training loads or work loads;
- delay due to unusual changes in lifestyle: a change in the nature of work, a sharp change in climate;
- delay due to malnutrition and strict diets;
- delay during periods of hormonal rearrangements: puberty or menopause;
- delay as a condition after abolition of contraceptive hormonal agents caused by temporary hyper-inhibition of the ovaries after prolonged receipt of hormones from the outside. If the delay in menstrual periods is observed for 2-3 cycles, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist.
- delay after application of emergency contraceptive preparations containing a high dose of hormones;
- delay in the puerperium associated with the production of the pituitary hormone prolactin, responsible for the secretion of milk and suppressing the cyclic function of the ovaries. If a woman does not breast-feed, menstruation should be restored approximately 2 months after delivery. When breastfeeding, menstruation is restored after weaning the baby. However, if the delay in menstrual periods is more than one year after childbirth, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist;
- is a delay caused by catarrhal diseases( acute respiratory viral infection, influenza), chronic diseases: gastritis, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, kidney disease and many others.etc., as well as taking certain medications.
In all cases,( except when the delay in menstruation is caused by age-related hormonal changes or lactation), the delay should not exceed 5-7 days, otherwise it is necessary to visit a gynecologist to prevent the development of serious diseases.
To the pathological reasons for the delay of menstruation are, above all, diseases of the genital area. In this group of causes, there are:
- a delay caused by inflammatory( adnexitis, oophoritis) and tumoral( uterine myoma) diseases of the genital organs. Inflammatory processes in the genitals, in addition to the delay of menstruation, may manifest pathological discharge and pain in the lower abdomen. These conditions require emergency treatment, as they can lead to serious complications and infertility;
- is a delay caused by polycystic ovary and related hormonal disorders. Also, with polycystic ovaries, in addition to the delay in menstruation, there is an increase in body weight, the appearance of seborrhea and acne, excessive hair growth;
- is a delay caused by a cyst of the ovary's yellow body, resulting from a hormonal disorder. To dissolve the cyst of the yellow body and restore the normal monthly cycle, the doctor prescribes a course of hormone therapy;
- is a delay after abortion, which, although it occurs quite often, is not normal. The reason for the delay of the monthly after the abortion can be not only a sharp change in the hormonal state, but the mechanical injuries caused during scraping of the uterus;
- delay due to a frozen or ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage in the early stages, requiring emergency medical intervention;
- is a delay caused by a critical health kit or weight loss. For women with anorexia, a delay in menstruation can result in their complete cessation.
Thus, regardless of the reasons, the delay in menstruation is the basis for an urgent visit to the gynecologist.
What kind of examination is needed for a delay in the monthly
? In order to establish the reasons for the delay in a month, additional surgeries may be required to complete the gynecological examination:
- measurement and graphical display of basal temperature changes to verify the presence or absence of ovulation;
- determination of blood levels of hCG, ovarian hormones, pituitary gland and other glands;
- ultrasound diagnosis of pelvic organs to determine pregnancy( uterine, ectopic), tumor lesions of the uterus, ovaries and other causes that caused a delay in menstruation;
- CT and MRI of the brain to exclude tumors of the pituitary and ovaries.
In case of detection of diseases accompanying delay in menstruation, consultations of other specialist doctors are appointed: endocrinologist, nutritionist, psychotherapist, etc.
Summing up the above, it should be noted that the delay of the monthly, whatever circumstances it was caused, should not be ignored by women. Delays in menstruation can be caused either by banal weather changes, or by a joyful expectation of motherhood, and by serious diseases.
If there is a delay of a month, a timely consultation of the doctor will free from unnecessary worries and worries that could significantly aggravate this condition. In families where girls grow up, it is necessary to conduct their competent sex education, explaining, among other things, that the delay in menstruation is a problem that needs to be solved together with the mother and the doctor.
Delay of menstruation: treatment of
This condition requires the attentive attitude of a woman to herself. For the purpose of treatment, she needs to consult a gynecologist at the place of residence. Do not take self-medication!
Plan a trip to a polyclinic or a women's consultation. Check with the doctor. He will appoint a checkup, make an examination and prescribe the necessary treatment.
The cost of treatment and examination for a delay in menstrual: prices in Moscow
Consider the average prices for procedures and operations:
- Consultation obstetrician-gynecologist - 1926 rubles.
- Transabdominal ultrasound of pelvic organs - 1567 rubles.
- Ultrasound of early pregnancy - 1713 rubles.
- Pregnancy test - 403 rubles.
- Inspection on the chair - 605 rubles.
- Registration for pregnancy - 3561 rubles.
All of the above should not be done in paid clinics. In public health institutions, you can undergo similar procedures for an insurance policy. Doctors are good and bad, they are everywhere - in private and in free clinics.
For security, you can always contact another doctor.