Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, kinds of preparations, rules of reception inside

Antibiotics are antibacterial agents. They are used for the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic microflora.

Antimicrobials are divided into separate groups and species, depending on the substance in them. And the effect of an antibiotic on a particular bacterium is not the same in its effectiveness. The latter is determined in laboratory conditions according to the degree of sensitivity of the bacterial infection to a specific type of antimicrobial active substance.

So that the same antibiotic can be effective with respect to the suppression of any particular pathogenic microorganism, or completely useless against the other. This should be taken into account in the appointment of treatment, which will determine its success in the future.

Today we will talk about trade names of drugs, the price range in Russia in rubles and some features of drugs that are important to know the patient.

Consider the fact that the antibacterial drugs under consideration are not effective in the treatment of viral infections, that is, influenza and ARVI.

CONTENTS

Antibiotics, how to apply? General rules for taking antibacterial drugs

Let's look at the general rules for taking antibacterial drugs. For example, in diseases of ENT organs and bronchi, four main groups of antibiotics are used:

  1. penicillins,
  2. cephalosporins,
  3. macrolides,
  4. fluoroquinolones.

They are convenient in that they are available in tablets and capsules, that is, for oral administration. They can be taken at home. Each of the groups has its own characteristics, but for all antibiotics there are rules of admission that must be observed:

  1. Antibiotics are prescribed by the doctor for certain indications. The choice of an antibiotic depends on the nature and severity of the disease, as well as on what medications the patient received earlier.
  2. Antibiotics should not be used to treat viral diseases.
  3. The effectiveness of an antibiotic is evaluated during the first three days of its administration. If the antibiotic works well, you can not interrupt the course of treatment until the doctor's recommended time. If the antibiotic is ineffective( the symptoms of the disease remain the same, the fever keeps high), inform the doctor about it. Only the doctor decides to replace the antimicrobial drug.
  4. Side effects( eg, mild nausea, bad taste in the mouth, dizziness) do not always require the immediate abolition of the antibiotic. Often it is sufficient only to correct the dose of the drug or to introduce additional drugs that reduce side effects. Measures to overcome side effects are determined by the doctor.
  5. The consequence of taking antibiotics can be the development of diarrhea. If you have a copious fluid stool, consult your doctor as soon as possible. Do not try to treat diarrhea, which occurred with the antibiotic, alone.
  6. Do not reduce the dose prescribed by your doctor. Antibiotics in small doses can be dangerous, since after their application the probability of the appearance of resistant bacteria is high.
  7. Strictly adhere to the time of taking an antibiotic - the concentration of the drug in the blood should be maintained.
  8. Some antibiotics must be taken before meals, others - after. Otherwise, they are digested worse, so do not forget to clarify these features.

Cephalosporins: broad-spectrum antibiotics of the latest generation

Because this type of antibacterial drugs are of a wide spectrum of action, they are well treated with acute and protracted pneumonia and other severe infections in surgery, gynecology, urology.

Basically, cephalosporin series are used intramuscularly or intravenously. These are effective antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone , Cefatoxime , they are bred in half( 2 ml) with water for injection and a lidocaine solution of 2%.But there are also preparations for oral administration in the form of tablets - this is Cefixim .

Cefixime

Things to know about the patient :

  • Allergies are much less likely than penicillins. But a person with an allergy to a penicillin group of antibiotics can develop a so-called cross-allergic reaction to cephalosporins.
  • Can be used for pregnant women and children( for each drug there are limitations on age).Some cephalosporins are allowed even from birth.

What are the side effects of : allergic reactions, nausea, diarrhea. The main contraindication is individual intolerance.

List of cephalosporins for oral administration:


  1. Panzef ( alkaloid), costs from 129.77 to 748.3 rubles;
  2. Supraks ( miscellaneous), prices from 357.71 to 1070.5 rubles;
  3. Ceforal , Solutab ( Astellas) The price varies from 161.5 to 323 rubles.

Note : Here the active substance Cefixim .The drug is widely used, especially in children. The main indications for the appointment are tonsillitis and pharyngitis, acute otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Suspension is allowed from 6 months, capsules - from 12 years. Breastfeeding women on the days of taking the drug is recommended to stop breastfeeding for a while.

Penicillins, drugs dating back to the past

They are still used in the following pathogenic conditions:

  1. Angina.
  2. Exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis.
  3. Acute otitis media.
  4. Sinusitis.
  5. Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
  6. Community-acquired pneumonia. Scarlet fever
  7. .
  8. Skin infections.
  9. Acute cystitis, pyelonephritis and other infections.

Some researchers highlight the antibiotic specificity of these wide-spectrum antibiotics as being low-toxic.

Allergic reactions from can be isolated from , and the main contraindication to is individual intolerance.

What important information can still be:

  1. Drugs of this group more often than other antibiotics cause allergies. Possible allergic reaction to several drugs from this group. If rashes, urticaria or other allergic reactions occur, stop taking the antibiotic and consult a doctor as soon as possible.
  2. Penicillins are one of the few antibiotic groups that can be used by pregnant women and children from an early age.
  3. Drugs, which include amoxicillin, reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.

Amoxicillin

List of penicillin preparations for ingestion with active ingredient - Amoxicillin :

  1. Amoxicillin ( miscellaneous), Amoxicillin DS ( Mecofar Chemical-Pharmaceutical), price from 9.8 to 119 rub.
  2. Amosin ( Synthesis OJSC), costs from 9.8 to 14 rubles.
  3. Flemoxin , the cost is from 18.86 to 29.1 rubles.
  4. Solutab ( Astellas), from 134.3 to 224.5 rubles.
  5. Hiconcil ( KRKA), from 41 to 69 rubles.

Explanation : A widely used antibiotic. Particularly suitable for the treatment of angina. It is used not only for respiratory tract infections, but also for treatment of peptic ulcer. It is well absorbed when taken orally. Usually 2-3 times a day. However, sometimes it is ineffective. This is due to the fact that some bacteria are able to produce substances that destroy this drug.

Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid

List of drugs for oral administration with active substance Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid :

  1. Amoxiclav ( Lek), costs from 199 to 267 rub.
  2. Amoksiklav Kviktab ( Lek dd), the price is from 319 to 504.5 rubles.
  3. Augmentin ( GlaxoSmithKline), the cost from 283.7 to 306 rubles.
  4. Panklav ( Hemofarm), from 100 to 256.2 rubles.
  5. Flemoclave Solutab ( Astellas), from 206.5 to 356 rubles.
  6. Ecoclave ( Avva Rus), from 100 to 279 rubles.

Explanations : Clavulanic acid protects amoxicillin from resistant bacteria. Therefore, this drug is often prescribed to people who have repeatedly been treated with antibiotics. It is also better suited for the treatment of sinusitis, infections of the kidneys, biliary tract, skin. Usually 2-3 times a day. More often than other preparations of this group causes a diarrhea and disturbances of function of a liver.

Macrolides - effective antibacterial agents

Antibiotics of this group are used mainly in the form of tablets and suspensions. They are somewhat slower than the antibiotics of other groups. This is due to the fact that macrolides do not kill bacteria, but stop their reproduction. Relatively rarely cause allergies.

The main indications of are:

  1. Infection with mycoplasma and chlamydia( bronchitis, pneumonia in people older than 5 years).
  2. Angina.
  3. Exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis.
  4. Acute otitis media.
  5. Sinusitis.
  6. Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
  7. Whooping cough.

The most frequent side effects of : allergic reactions, pain and discomfort in the abdomen, nausea, diarrhea. Basic contraindications : individual intolerance.

It should be borne in mind that:

  1. Macrolides quickly develop the resistance of microorganisms. Therefore, do not repeat the course of treatment with drugs of this group for three months.
  2. Some of the drugs in this group may affect the activity of other drugs, as well as worse assimilated when interacting with food. Therefore, before using macrolides, you should carefully study the instructions.

Azithromycin

List of drugs with active ingredient Azithromycin :


No. Product name Prices in rubles
1 Azithromycin ( different products) 106-174,85
2 Azitral ( Shreya) 168.03-375
3 Azitrox ( Pharmstandard) 80-197,6
4 Aziocide (Zentiva) 248-321
5 Zetamax retard( Pfizer) 470-790
6 Zi-factor ( Veropharm) 125-236
7 Sitrorolide ( valenta) 160-269
8 Sitrorolide forte ( Valenta) 209, 5-279,11
9 Sumamed ( Teva, Pliva) 460-571.4
10 Sumamed forte ( Teva, Pliva) 322-420
11 Chemomycin ( Hemofarm) 124,5-264
12 Ecomedes ( Avva Rus) 80-330

Note : One of the most commonly used formulations of this group. Better than others, it is tolerated and well digested. Unlike other macrolides, it inhibits the growth of a hemophilic rod, often causing otitis and sinusitis. It is advisable to take an empty stomach. Long circulates in the body, therefore it is taken 1 time per day. Possible short courses of treatment according to the doctor's prescription: from 3 to 5 days. If necessary, use with caution in pregnancy. Contraindicated in severe violations of the liver and kidneys.

Erythromycin

The drug with the active substance - Erythromycin : Erythromycin ( different manufacturers), costs from 26.1 to 58.8 rubles.

Note : A long-used antibiotic, which is why some bacteria are resistant to it. Nausea causes somewhat more often other representatives of this group of antibiotics. It inhibits the work of liver enzymes, which are responsible for the destruction of other drugs. Therefore, some drugs in the interaction with erythromycin are retained in the body and cause toxic effects. It is very important to apply the drug on an empty stomach. Can be used in pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Clarithromycin

List of drugs with active substance - Clarithromycin :

Name drug prices in rubles
1 Clarithromycin ( different mfr.) 95-222,6
2 Klabaks ( Ranbaxy) 200-289
3 Klabaks OD ( Ranbaxy) 180-267
4 Klatsid ( Abbott) 773-979,5
5 Klatsid CP ( Abbott) 424-551,4
6 Fromilid ( Krka) 499-730
7 Fromilid Uno ( Krka) 187-259
8 Ekozitrin ( Avva Rus) 470-759

Note : Not only for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, but also for terFDI ulcer disease to kill the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. It is active against chlamydia, therefore it is often included in treatment regimens for sexually transmitted diseases. Side effects and drug interactions are similar to those of erythromycin. It is not used in children until 6 months of age, during pregnancy and lactation.

Meadecamycin - Macropen

Preparation with active substance - Meadecamycin, midecamycin acetate : Macropean ( CRKA), the price is from 205.9 to 429 rubles.

Note : A classic macrolide antibiotic, often used in the form of a suspension for the treatment of infections in children. Well tolerated. It is advisable to take 1 hour before meals. It is quickly removed from the body, therefore the minimum frequency of reception is 3 times a day. Drug interactions are less likely. At pregnancy it is possible to use only in exceptional cases, at feeding by a breast do not apply.

Roxithromycin - Рулид

The drug with the active substance - Roksitromitsin : Рулид ( Sanofi-aventis), costs from 509.6 to 1203 rubles.

Note : Well digested, well tolerated. Indications and side effects are standard. Not applicable for pregnancy and lactation.

Fluoroquinolones, the strongest antibiotics

The main shows in cases when observed:

  1. Severe external otitis media.
  2. Sinusitis. Escalation of chronic bronchitis.
  3. Community-acquired pneumonia.
  4. Dysentery.
  5. Salmonellosis.
  6. Cystitis, pyelonephritis.
  7. Adnexit. Chlamydiosis and other infections.

Their features: powerful antibiotics, which are used most often for serious infections. They may violate the formation of cartilage, in connection with which they are contraindicated to children and future mothers.

The most frequent side effects: allergic reactions, pain in the tendons, muscles and joints, pain and discomfort in the abdomen, nausea, diarrhea, drowsiness, dizziness, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet rays.

Basic contraindications: individual intolerance, pregnancy, breast-feeding, age to 18 years.

What you need to know about fluoroquinolones:

  1. Fluoroquinolones for oral intake should be taken with a full glass of water, and in total during the period of treatment drink at least 1.5 liters per day.
  2. For complete absorption, it is necessary to take the medication at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after taking antacids( means for heartburn), iron, zinc, bismuth preparations.
  3. It is important to avoid sunburn during the use of drugs and for at least 3 days after the end of treatment.
Ofloxacin

number of drugs with the main active substance - Ofloxacin :

Name drug prices in rubles
1 Ofloxacin ( different mfr.) 8,5-16
2 Zanotsin ( Ranbaxy) 130-200
3 Zanotsin OD( Ranbaxy) 166-360
4 Zofloks ( Mustafa Nevzat Ilach Sanai) 166,5-249
5 Ofloksin ( Zentiva) 131,5-207
6 tarivid ( Sanofi-Aventis) 125-413

Note : Most commonly used in urology, gynecologyoology. When respiratory infections are not used in all cases. It is indicated for sinusitis, bronchitis, but is not recommended for angina and pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia.

Moxifloxacin-Avelox

The drug with the active ingredient Moxifloxacin : Avelox ( Bayer), costs from 719 to 1080 rubles.

Note : The most powerful antibiotic of this group. It is used for severe acute sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. It can also be used in the treatment of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis.

Ciprofloxacin

List of drugs with working substance - Ciprofloxacin :

name drug prices in rubles
1 Ciprofloxacin ( different Manuf.) 8-14,8
2 tsiprinol ( Krka) 46,6-81
3 Tsiprobay( Bayer) 295-701,5
4 Cyprolet ( Dr. Reddy's) 49-63,5
5 Cipromed ( PROMED) 113-175
6 Numeric ( Runbaxy) 40-51,85
7 Numeric OD( Ranbaxy) 155-216
8 Ecocylol ( Avva Rus) 35,7-77,1

Note : The most commonly used drug from the group of fluoroquinolones. Has a wide spectrum of action, including against the causative agents of severe infections. The indications are the same as that of ofloxacin.

Levofloxacin

List of drugs with active substance Levofloxacin :

No. Product name Prices in rubles
1 Levofloxacin ( different products) 80-501,5
2 ( Dr Reddy's) 100,9-267
3 Glevo ( Glenmark) 163-429
4 Lefoccin( Shreia) 247.7-663.2
5 Tavanic ( Sanofi-aventis) 281-415.5
6 Flexible 366-511
7 Floracid ( Valenta, Obolenskoye) 212,5-323
8 Highleaf ( Highgland Laboratories) 275-393
9 Ecolevel ( Avva Rus) 181.4-404
10 Eleflox ( Runbaxi) 130-320

Note : The drug has a very broad spectrum of action. It is active against all pathogens of respiratory tract diseases. It is especially often prescribed for pneumonia and sinusitis. It is used for ineffectiveness of penicillins and macrolides, as well as in cases of severe course of bacterial diseases.

Here we are with you and completed a review of antibacterial agents. The choice of the drug - trust your doctor. Do not self-medicate, otherwise in a critical situation, the desired antibiotic may be ineffective. And doctors - will divorce, not understanding, why the means chosen by them for treatment does not help.

Publication source: redaction http: //www.aif.ru/health/leksprav/ 1066221


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