What can be dangerous inflammation of the lungs?
Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) is an ailment that affects people of any age. Not everyone knows about the dangerous inflammation of the lungs. Although many will call the symptoms of the disease, they say that it is treated with antibiotics, and after the illness the body will recover for a long time.
To make sure of the danger of pneumonia, you must first understand what it is.
What is pneumonia?
This disease is caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses.Normally, for each person, pathogenic microorganisms live on the pharyngeal mucosa, nose, and lungs. But as soon as the body's immunity decreases, pathogenic microbes begin to multiply at a tremendous rate, causing pneumonia. Inflammation can begin directly in the lungs or get there gradually, starting its "journey" from the throat or nose. In such cases, doctors explain that "the infection has subsided."Inflammation can be exposed to the whole lung or part of it.
Symptoms of this disease are: pain in the side, intensifying with deep inspiration or cough, very high body temperature, dry or wet cough, shortness of breath, chills. For the correct diagnosis, you will need a radiographic examination of the lungs, a blood test and sputum. These studies will help establish the nature of the disease and begin adequate therapy.
When treating pneumonia, doctors usually prescribe antibacterial drugs. Depending on the severity of the disease, the patient can be placed in the hospital, where he is injected several times a day. With properly selected antibiotic, the patient's condition improves after 5-6 days from the beginning of treatment. If no improvement occurs, doctors usually prescribe a different drug to the patient. Further it is important to dilute and withdraw from the lungs formed sputum. To this end, the patient may be prescribed inhalation, massage. In parallel, the patient is prescribed antiviral and immunomodulating drugs. Complete recovery usually occurs 3-4 weeks later.
Inflammation of the lungs is a very serious disease, from which, despite a wide range of modern antibiotics, people continue to die. About self-treatment speech can not even go. This is fraught with serious consequences.
Danger of pneumonia for childrenFor a child's organism pneumonia is a very serious test, even if the child has received medical help on time. Most often, infirmity affects children of preschool age. Doctors believe that up to 6 years the child is developing immunity. During this period, they are very vulnerable to all kinds of infections, including streptococcal, which in most cases causes babies pneumonia.
In addition to the symptoms of pneumonia listed above, the nasolabial triangle (cyanosis) is often marked in children. This is a very serious indicator, indicating that the disease is not all right with the cardiovascular system of the child.
The danger of pneumonia is also that in the course of the disease the lungs can not continue to function in full: the baby's breathing becomes shallow, he has a feeling of lack air. Therefore sick children sleep very badly, eat, show constant concern.
The following factors aggravate the situation:
- Later, seek medical help.
- Presence of concomitant chronic diseases in the baby.
- Incorrect treatment of the child.
Another dangerous consequence of untreated pneumonia in children is neurotoxicosis. It is characterized by first increased activity of the child, his excitement, frequent crying, whims. This state is smoothly replaced by the opposite: the child is apathetic, does not eat, sleepy, muscle tone is reduced. At the third stage, the temperature rises, the child has convulsions, develops pulmonary insufficiency (until the breath stops).To reduce the risk of developing a baby's inflammation of the lungs, my mother has to adhere to a few simple rules:
- Try to breast-feed at least 1 year.
- Do not give up vaccinating the baby.
- Ensure the child's diet of foods rich in zinc.
- Engage in tempering a child, spend a lot of time walking in the open air.
- Observe the basic rules of home hygiene: more often to ventilate the premises and conduct wet cleaning.
Effects of pneumonia in adults
No less dangerous is pneumonia and for adults. The most common consequences:
- Abscess of the lung.
- Fibrosis of the lung.
- Bronchial asthma.
- Heart failure.
- Respiratory failure.
Abscess of the lung is the decomposition (decay) of the lung tissue in the part where there was inflammation. The hearth can be one. Sometimes there are several. During the period of abscess formation, the patient's fever rises, weakness, lack of appetite, difficulty breathing, severe pain in the chest, cough. In the next stage, the formed abscess is opened, sputum in large quantities (up to 1 liter per day) exits through the respiratory tract. With the right treatment for several years, the tissue of the lung becomes scarred, and a full recovery comes.
Fibrosis of the lung is a condition of the patient, in which the connective tissue begins to form on the site of the damaged pulmonary tissue. Lungs can not work at full power, breathing becomes difficult, chest pain occurs. The disease progresses very quickly, so it requires immediate treatment in a medical institution. It is impossible to get rid of lung fibrosis completely. Treatment is usually aimed at alleviating the symptoms and preventing the further development of the disease. In extreme cases, the patient is shown lung transplantation.
How to avoid the negative consequences of pneumonia?
The mortality from pneumonia in our country, despite the sufficient level of development of medicine, remains quite high.
To quickly recover and avoid negative consequences, you need to be very attentive to health..
In Russia it is accepted to go to the doctor when there are already very serious problems. It is not right. In the case of pneumonia, this can lead to death. Medical care should be handled as soon as the first symptoms of the disease have appeared, and the temperature is still not so high. Do not neglect and analysis, which appoints the doctor. Their results will help the doctor immediately make a scheme for effective treatment.
Mom, caring about the health of her baby, should know that at the slightest suspicion of any disease she must show the child to the doctor. Statistics show that the largest infant mortality from pneumonia is observed among toddlers under the age of 1 year. In the case of children's pneumonia, do not neglect hospitalization..
Both adults and children will be protected from pneumonia by physical training, proper nutrition, vitamins and microelements, hardening, frequent stay in the open air and close attention to your health.
The first signs of pneumonia in children and adults
Pneumonia is a disease that has an infectious origin and is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue in the event of provoking physical or chemical factors such as:
- Complications after viral diseases (influenza, ARVI), atypical bacteria (chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella)
- Effects on the respiratory system of various chemical agents - poisonous fumes and gases (see. chlorine in household chemicals is hazardous to health)
- Radioactive radiation, to which infection is attached
- Allergic processes in the lungs - allergic cough, COPD, bronchial asthma
- Thermal factors - hypothermia or burns of the respiratory tract
- Inhalation of liquids, food or foreign bodies can cause aspiration pneumonia.
The cause of the development of pneumonia is the emergence of favorable conditions for the multiplication of various pathogenic bacteria in the lower respiratory tract. The original causative agent of pneumonia is the aspergillus mushroom, which was the culprit of the sudden and mysterious deaths of researchers of the Egyptian pyramids. Owners of domestic birds or lovers of urban pigeons can get chlamydial pneumonia.
For today, all pneumonia is divided into:
- out-of-hospital, arising under the influence of various infectious and non-infectious agents outside the walls of hospitals
- hospital, which cause hospital-acquired microbes, often very resistant to traditional antibiotic treatment.
The frequency of detection of various infectious agents in community-acquired pneumonia is presented in the table.
|Causative agent||Average% detection|
|Streptococcus is the most frequent pathogen. Pneumonia caused by this pathogen is the leader in the frequency of death from pneumonia.||3, %|
|Mycoplasma - affects most children, young people.||1, %|
|Chlamydia - chlamydial pneumonia is typical for people of young and middle age.||1, %|
|Legionellae - a rare pathogen, affects weakened people and is the leader after streptococcus by frequency of deaths (infection in rooms with artificial ventilation - shopping centers, airports)||, %|
|Hemophilus rod - causes pneumonia in patients with chronic bronchial and lung diseases, as well as in smokers.||, %|
|Enterobacteria are rare pathogens, affecting mainly patients with renal / hepatic, cardiac insufficiency, diabetes mellitus.||, %|
|Staphylococcus is a frequent pathogen of pneumonia in the elderly population, and complications in patients after the flu.||, %|
|Other pathogens||, %|
|The causative agent is not installed||3, %|
When the diagnosis is confirmed, depending on the type of pathogen, the patient's age, the presence of concomitant diseases, a corresponding therapy, in severe cases, treatment should be performed in a hospital setting, with mild forms of inflammation, hospitalization of the patient is not is required.
Characteristic first signs of pneumonia, the vastness of the inflammatory process, acute development and danger of serious complications in untimely treatment - are the main reasons for the urgent circulation of the population for medical help. At present, a sufficiently high level of medical development, improved diagnostic methods, and a huge the list of antibacterials of a wide spectrum of action has considerably lowered a death rate from an inflammation of lungs (cm. antibiotics for bronchitis).
Typical first signs of pneumonia in adults
The main symptom of the development of pneumonia is a cough, usually it is first dry, obtrusive and persistent. protivokashlevye, expectorants with a dry cough), but in rare cases cough at the beginning of the disease can be rare and not strong. Then, as the inflammation develops, the cough becomes pneumatic with pneumonia, with a discharge of mucopurulent sputum (yellow-green color).
Any catarrhal virus disease should not last more than 7 days, and a sharp deterioration of the condition later 4-7 days after the onset of an acute respiratory viral infection or influenza indicates the onset of an inflammatory process in the lower respiratory ways.
Body temperature can be very high up to 39-40C, and can remain subfebrile 3, -3, C (with atypical pneumonia). Therefore, even with a low body temperature, coughing, weakness and other signs of malaise, you should definitely consult a doctor. Caution should be a repeated temperature jump after a light gap during the course of a viral infection.
If the patient has a very high temperature, one of the signs of inflammation in the lungs is the inefficiency of antipyretic drugs.
Pain with deep breath and cough. The lung itself does not hurt, as it is devoid of pain receptors, but involvement in the pleura process gives a pronounced pain syndrome.
In addition to cold symptoms, the patient has dyspnea and pale skin.
General weakness, increased sweating, chills, decreased appetite are also characteristic for intoxication and the onset of the inflammatory process in the lungs.
If such symptoms appear either in the midst of a cold, or a few days after the improvement, these may be the first signs of pneumonia. The patient should immediately consult a doctor to undergo a complete examination:
- To pass blood tests - general and biochemical
- To make a roentgenography of a thorax, if necessary and a computer tomography
- Sputum for culture and sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics
- Sputum for culture and microscopic determination of mycobacterium tuberculosis
The main first signs of pneumonia in children
Symptoms of pneumonia in children have several characteristics. Attentive parents may suspect the development of pneumonia with the following discomforts in the child:
Body temperature above 38C, lasting for more than three days, not knocked down by antipyretics, there may also be a high temperature of up to 3, especially in young children. At the same time, all signs of intoxication are manifested - weakness, increased sweating, lack of appetite. Small children (as well as elderly people), can not give high temperature fluctuations with pneumonia. This is due to imperfect thermoregulation and immaturity of the immune system.
There is frequent shortness of breath: in children up to 2 months of age, 60 breaths per minute, up to 1 year, 50 breaths, after a year, 40 breaths per minute. Often the child spontaneously tries to lie down on one side. Parents may notice another sign of pneumonia in the child, if you undress the baby, then when breathing from the patient lung can be noticed the retraction of the skin in between the ribs and the lag in the process of breathing one side of the chest. There may be irregular breathing rhythm, with periodic stops of breathing, changes in the depth and frequency of breathing. In infants, shortness of breath is characterized by the fact that the child begins to nod his head in time with the breath, the baby can stretch his lips and inflate his cheeks, foamy discharge from the nose and mouth can appear.
- Atypical pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs caused by mycoplasma and chlamydia differ in that first the disease passes like a cold, there is a dry cough, runny nose, swelling in the throat, but the presence of dyspnea and a stably high temperature should alert parents to the development pneumonia.
- Character of cough
Because of the perspiration in the throat, only coughing can appear first, then the cough becomes dry and painful, which is amplified by crying, feeding the baby. Later, the cough becomes wet.
- Behavior of the child
Children with pneumonia become capricious, whiny, sluggish, they are disturbed by sleep, sometimes can completely refuse to eat, and also to appear diarrhea and vomiting, in babies - regurgitation and rejection of breasts.
- Blood test
In the general analysis of blood, changes are detected that indicate an acute inflammatory process - increased ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia. Shift of the leukoformula to the left with increasing stab and segmented leukocytes. In viral pneumonia, along with high ESR, there is an increase in leukocytes due to lymphocytes.
With timely access to a doctor, adequate therapy and proper care for a sick child or adult, pneumonia does not lead to serious complications. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of pneumonia, the patient should be given medical care as soon as possible.
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults
Pneumonia is an infectious disease. It remains one of the most common in the world. It is the leader among nosocomial infections leading to death. It is important to know the symptoms of pneumonia in adults in order to take timely action. Treatment of pneumonia and the prognosis of the development of the disease depends on the nature of the infection, age and general condition of the patient.
What is pneumonia and how dangerous it is
Inflammation of the lungs in an acute form is called pneumonia. It is caused by infections that can be transmitted in various ways, affecting the lung tissue. In the list of diseases that caused death, she is in fifth place, and medicine does not always help. Lethal outcome among adults from pneumonia is 10-33%. Intrahospital and atypical form of the disease takes even more lives - the risk of dying increases to 50%. In elderly people, people with weakened immunity, the prognosis of pneumonia is often disappointing.
From usual pneumonia, 1-3% of young patients who do not have diseases that die, can die. Among elderly patients, the mortality rate is up to 40-50%. Causes of death from pneumonia:
- Concomitant diseases, such as cardiac pathologies, existing respiratory diseases (such as bronchitis), diabetes mellitus, problems in the genitourinary system;
- bad habits (smoking, especially lengthy experience, drug addiction, alcoholism);
- dysfunctional living conditions;
- weakened immunity.
A special risk of inflammation of the lungs is for pregnant women. The disease itself is heavy due to dangerous pathologies. For a woman who carries a child, she is doubly dangerous - for the future mother and fetus. In early terms, pneumonia is threatened by an embryo, the tissues and organs of which are not yet formed. In the last trimester for a child, pneumonia is less dangerous than for a mother. Prevention is simple: strengthening the immune system of the mother.
The first signs of pneumonia
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults depend on the type of infection that caused the disease. There are several types of pneumonia, and each has its own clinical picture. The provoking factor for the onset of pneumonia is hypothermia affecting the upper respiratory tract. In the elderly, it often goes into a pathological form. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults are several: they are divided into varieties of insidious disease. The common form of pneumonia is viral, occurs in half the cases. Other reasons:
A disease that occurs without symptoms characteristic of pneumonia is called atypical. The latent inflammation of the lungs is dangerous because it is delayed for its treatment, when many complications appear. Pulmonary manifestations fade into the background, the patient is more concerned about general intoxication. The X-ray does not show changes in the airway. Signs of atypical inflammation:
- dry cough;
- sore throat;
- muscle pain;
Aseptic atypical pneumonia is caused by Legionella, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, therefore, it is treated with antimicrobials. After infection, the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in a period of 2 to 10 days. Changes in the lungs begin later than with a typical pneumonia. The temperature rises, the patient starts to suffocate, he does not have enough air. A large percentage of patients can be cured at home, but sometimes the ailment is difficult. The mortality from this type of disease is 3-5%, the cause is cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
This type of disease is caused by several viruses. In the first place - the flu. At the onset of pneumonia, triggered by the influenza virus, malaise is noticeable during 3-5 days. Then the condition worsens, shortness of breath starts, chest pains appear. Pneumonia is treated with rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir. Viral pneumonia is caused by cytomegalovirus.
Serious complication of viral pneumonia is SARS, respiratory syndrome. It is caused by the viruses of Paramyxoviridae (they are also the cause of measles and mumps). The syndrome poses a great danger. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults with viral pneumonia are:
- very high temperature accompanied by chills;
- dry cough (unproductive);
- headache and muscle pain;
- fatigue without reason.
The cause of pneumonia in this case are bacteria: pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus. Bacterial pneumonia begins with a sharp temperature jump to a mark of 41 degrees. It lasts up to 3 days, and this symptom is considered a clear sign of bacterial infection. If the temperature then falls, then rises - this is a viral picture. Pneumococcal pneumonia is accompanied by the escape of "rusty" sputum, cardiac contractions become more frequent (tachycardia), breathing becomes more difficult. Treat the disease with antibiotics.
The most dangerous variant of pulmonary inflammation is fungal infection. It is due to the fact that fungal pneumonia is not manifested at first, and people do not know that they are sick. The disease is diagnosed late. The onset of the process of inflammation of the lung tissue is like atypical pneumonia, but with the exacerbation of symptoms, the nature of lung damage changes, cavities are formed. A frequent causative agent of such pneumonia is Candida albicans, a fungus. Initially, the patient has catarrhal symptoms: fever, cough, fatigue and shortness of breath. Then, when pussy is pus, then the correct diagnosis is made.
The main symptoms of pneumonia in an adult
The cold, the flu, should not last more than 7 days, if in 4-7 days after the onset of an acute respiratory infection the condition of the patient worsened, this signal starts in the lower respiratory tract of a dangerous inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia in adults include pallor and dyspnea. If they have a cold, they are accompanied by weakness, sweating, decreased appetite - this is typical for intoxication in the beginning of pneumonia.
Temperature with pneumonia
With atypical pneumonia, body temperature is not always greater than 3,. In the usual cases, a sharp increase to 40 degrees is typical. With pneumonia, antipyretic drugs do not work. If you can not bring down the temperature - it's a sign of pneumonia. The temperature begins to drop when antibiotics work. It is dangerous if the disease runs without temperature: the patients sometimes do not take measures until the condition worsens. How much the temperature lasts depends on the pathogen: a fungus, a bacterium or a virus.
What a cough with pneumonia
At the beginning of the disease, a cough is dry, this is called unproductive. He becomes obtrusive, constant, exhausting. Inflammation develops - this symptom also changes. The sputum departs, the color of which depends on the nature of the infection: yellow-green, purulent, "rusty." Nasal cough, which does not pass for 7-10 days, is a clear sign of the inflammatory process in the lungs.
The doctor can recognize the symptoms of the disease, assessing the patient's jittery response. The patient says words where there are several "p" sounds, and the doctor puts his hands on his chest, and determines the voice trembling. With pneumonia, part of the lung, or it is whole, becomes denser. This will be noticed by the medical doctor who conducts the diagnostics, by the fact that the voice tremor is amplified.
Diagnosis of the disease
If there is a suspicion of an inflammatory process in the lungs, a comprehensive diagnosis is performed. Sometimes already at the primary admission the doctor can determine the disease by conducting an auscultation, that is, having listened to the chest with a phonendoscope. But the main method of diagnosis in an adult is an X-ray. Necessarily the patient will take blood for general and biochemical analysis. If the patient is in the hospital, examine the culture of sputum, urine, check blood for antibodies to viruses.
Types of pneumonia
The mild forms of pneumonia, found in the initial stage, are treated at home. Remember that even mild pneumonia will complicate with improper care. It is necessary to adhere to the doctor's recommendations how to treat pneumonia in the home:
- antipyretic drugs, anti-inflammatory;
- an abundant drink is prescribed;
- an important component of the treatment is a diet: the body is poisoned by toxins, light foods, more fluids are required.
How to treat pneumonia, how long the process will last depends on the severity and variety of the disease. Infection is sometimes found in the lung tissue for years, leading to a chronic illness. Fibers and connective tissues are damaged, they press on the pulmonary vesicles, which leads to hardening of the lungs, pneumosclerosis. The patient feels discomfort, constantly coughs. It is a slow, prolonged illness, which gradually leads to complications.
Conventional pneumonia is divided into mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe in severity, it depends on how the disease proceeds. Severe acute forms include pleuropneumonia, when one or more of the lungs are inflamed. There is pneumonia in the localization:
- Focal (concentrated in the focus of inflammation);
- segmental or polysegmentary, depending on whether one or more segments are located;
- share - does not exceed one share;
- total - covers all the lungs.
One-sided and two-sided
The inflammatory process is concentrated either on one side or it is bilateral. Unilateral pneumonia is divided into two types:
- Right-sided - occurs more often, the right bronchus is wider than the left and shorter than it, the infection penetrates there freer.
- Left-sided - develops less often, with it there are stagnant processes in the lung.
Two-sided covers both lungs: all lung tissue becomes inflamed, and the disease is provoked by bacteria (pneumococcus, hemophilic rod). Against the background of one infection, other harmful microorganisms are multiplied, mixed-infection develops. In the fight against a person enter several pathogens, to select antibacterial drugs for treatment is difficult.
The focus of inflammation, located along the root of the lung, is difficult to diagnose. Such cases are called basal pneumonia. In the diagnosis of computed tomography. The doctor should exclude tuberculosis and lung cancer, the focus of inflammation is similar to a picture on a tumor. Tuberculin tests are carried out. If you mistakenly prescribe drugs against tuberculosis, but they do not give an effect - this is considered a diagnostic sign.
Bronchial pneumonia characterizes the lesion of small branches of the bronchial tree of the patient. Bronchopneumonia refers to focal. The process of recovery will take a long time. Sometimes the disease is secondary, develops against the background of bronchitis. A person tries to cure bronchitis, that is prolonged, the condition worsens, weakness appears, temperature jumps. The cough that accompanies bronchitis intensifies, unpleasant purulent sputum is separated, at times - with veins of blood.
Important symptoms of this disease: shortness of breath, increased heart rate to 110 strokes for a minute, chest pain. To the development of bronchopneumonia leads not only bronchitis, but also ARVI. Often this type of pneumonia and viruses cause this kind of pneumonia, in order to treat the disease correctly, establish a pathogen, prescribe antiviral drugs or antibacterial. How much the disease is treated depends on the type of pathogen.
In addition to community-acquired pneumonia, which develops under normal conditions, there is a serious form of illness - hospital, it is also hospital-acquired. The diagnosis is made when the inflammation appears after two days and more after placing a person in a hospital clinic with a completely different diagnosis. This is the most ruthless species, killing 50% of patients. The disease is caused by microorganisms. Types of nosocomial pneumonia:
- associated with artificial ventilation;
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized in serious condition.
Immunity of patients is weakened, the body struggled with another disease, was not ready to invade new microbes. To save the situation, patients are placed with droppers, use intravenous nutrition to maintain the vital forces of the body, use drugs of a new generation, potent drugs. Cure nosocomial pneumonia can not always. Treatment of pneumonia in this case is excluded.
Fracture pneumonia affects the lobe of the lung and the pleura. With this type of pneumonia, it is important to schedule injections of antibiotics, the duration of which is determined by the doctor. Applied physiotherapy, detoxification. Partial pneumonia begins suddenly and sharply. There are three forms of the disease:
- Upper-lobar - it is difficult, with neurological disorders;
- lower-lobed - gives a pseudo-picture of the "acute abdomen which confuses during diagnosis, chills and "rusty" sputum are characteristic;
- central - inflammation develops deep in the lung, symptomatology is poorly defined, difficult to define.
Croupous pneumonia proceeds acutely. The nature of the defeat of the lungs is bilateral. If the pathology is not recognized and the treatment is not started quickly, the patient will die from cerebral hypoxia and cardiovascular insufficiency. The first day the patient has a dry cough. The next day, sputum is rusty, vomiting occurs. On the third day, it becomes worse, dyspnea appears, tachycardia develops. The patient is not able to climb to one floor. Treat croupous pneumonia in pulmonology, in a hospital or resuscitation. Pulmonary lobes of the patient are totally affected on both sides.
Video: types and symptoms of pneumonia
Pneumonia is a dangerous disease, it is important to determine it in the early stages, when the treatment is effective even with folk remedies at home. In the video offered below, experts will tell in detail about the symptoms of pneumonia, teach what to look for if pneumonia occurs without the typical symptoms. Timely detection will avoid irreversible consequences.
Symptoms of pneumonia of the lungs
Before discussing the symptoms of pneumonia, it is necessary to understand a little the nature of the disease and clarify the meaning of terms describing the inflammatory processes in the lungs.
The nature of the disease and its causesUntil the beginning of the 21st century, Soviet medicine extended the expanded interpretation of the term "pneumonia." It was used to describe any acute focal inflammation of the lung tissue regardless of the cause. In the Russian classification of the disease "acute pneumonia" there were isolated such forms as "pneumonia from exposure chemical and physical factors allergic pneumonia infectious-allergic pneumonia "and others options.
Currently, in accordance with international standards, the term "pneumonia" refers to acute infectious diseases of the pulmonary tissue of predominantly bacterial nature. It is characterized by a local (focal) lesion of the respiratory tissue of the lung with the swelling of the inflammatory fluid into the pulmonary vesicles. Symptoms of inflammation in the lung tissue are revealed when the patient is examined by a doctor and an x-ray examination of the chest organs. For inflammation of the lungs are characterized by: acute febrile reaction (fever) and severe intoxication.
Since this disease by definition is an acute infectious disease, the definition of "acute" before the word "pneumonia" in the diagnosis became redundant and out of use.
Is there a chronic pneumonia?
The term "chronic pneumonia" in modern medicine is also not used, as it lost a real clinical basis. "Chronic pneumonia" of the 20th century was divided into several diseases of different nature. Distinguish them was made possible by improving the methods of examination and the progress of medical science. Chronic inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary ways takes place with all these diseases, which have received separate names and special methods of treatment. The most common of these is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a constant companion of tobacco smokers. Chronic bacterial infection is also characteristic of bronchiectasis.
What external signs does pneumonia have?The first symptoms of inflammation of the lungs, which tell patients:
- sudden onset of the disease;
- acute fever (body temperature increase 8 8 ° C);
- tremendous chills;
- acute chest pain, worse with coughing and breathing;
- cough dry or unproductive;
- expectoration of a rusty color in a small amount;
- pronounced general weakness, fatigue;
- sweating at night and with minimal physical exertion.
The thought of pneumonia should occur when a combination of body temperature increases with complaints of coughing, sputum separation, dyspnea, chest pain. Also, patients with pneumonia, complain of unmotivated weakness, fatigue, increased sweating at night.
How to recognize the latent form of the disease?
Almost in all age categories - in children, adolescents and adults, inflammation of the lungs has a similar clinical picture. But it is possible and hidden, sluggish form of the disease. Symptoms such as chest pain with coughing, fever and other signs may not be present in weakened adolescents or adults.
The latent symptomatology of pneumonia can be observed in the elderly. In 25% of patients aged> 65 there is no increase in body temperature, and the disease can manifest as fatigue, weakness, nausea, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, impaired consciousness.
Objective signs of inflammation of the lungs
The next stage of diagnosis of the disease after questioning is examination of the patient, revealing the objective symptoms of pneumonia. These are signs of a disease that the doctor finds in the patient when examining, tapping the chest (percussion) and listening to the lungs (auscultation).
Classical objective symptoms are:
- Stupidity of percussion sound when tapping over inflamed areas of the lungs.
- Listening to hard breathing over a limited area of the lung tissue at the site of inflammation.
- Local listening to sonorous small bubbling rales over the inflamed area of the lung.
The main criterion that confirms pneumonia is the asymmetry of the lesion, that is, the presence of objective signs of inflammation of the lungs only on one side of the chest.
In almost 20% of cases, objective signs of pneumonia in patients may differ from the classical ones or absent. In these cases, latent symptoms can lead to diagnostic errors. Fortunately, in the arsenal of doctors there is a way to detect the inflammation of the lungs with the help of X-rays.
X-ray signs of pneumoniaThe main x-ray symptom of pneumonia is a local compaction (infiltration) of lung tissue found in a patient with external signs of acute inflammation of the respiratory system.
The consolidation of the pulmonary tissue in pneumonia usually has a one-sided nature. Two-sided infiltration is rare. This symptom is more typical for swelling of the lungs, metastases of malignant tumors, systemic connective tissue diseases with respiratory organs.
An x-ray study with suspicion of pneumonia is conducted in all patients without exception: newborns, adolescents, adults, pregnant and lactating women, elderly people. This rule is associated with the danger of a diagnostic error, high mortality when delayed in prescribing antibiotics for patients with pneumonia.
Symptoms of viral pneumonia
Acute viral respiratory infection and pneumonia itself are various diseases. Viral infection, of course, is a leading risk factor for inflammation of the lungs. However, painful changes in the lung tissue caused by respiratory viruses should be clearly delimited from pneumonia. After all, the treatment of these conditions is fundamentally different. True microbial pneumonia is qualitatively different from that of lungs by viruses, which is characterized by bilateral infiltration along the way of the pulmonary vessels.
Viral infection, especially highly pathogenic influenza ("pork "avian"), can occur in the form of bilateral lung damage with inflammation in the course of the pulmonary vessels. At laboratory confirmation of the presence of highly pathogenic influenza virus in the patient's sputum and the absence of other pathogens in it, the diagnosis of viral pneumonia is justified.
The first significant symptoms of viral influenza pneumonia are rapidly increasing dyspnoea, an increase in temperature bodies to very high figures (9 9 ° C), a painful cough with bloody frothy sputum, a sharp general weakness. Influenza pneumonia is a very dangerous condition requiring treatment in the intensive care unit.
What is croupous pneumonia?
The term "croup pneumonia" is a traditional name for pneumococcal pneumonia, which has all the classic symptoms of lung inflammation in its entirety. Croup pneumonia is practically the only of all forms of this disease, in which a preliminary diagnosis corresponds to an aetiological (pneumococcal infection).
Croupous pneumonia develops sharply, beginning with a tremendous chill and a swift rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C. An early sign is the appearance of chest pain on the side of the lesion, which is sharply aggravated by deep inhalation or coughing. First, the cough is dry, then on the second or third day of the disease, rusty or brown sputum appears. Characteristic signs are reddening of the face, especially on the side of the lesion, frequent shallow breathing to 30 per minute and more. Croup pneumonia usually affects one lung (usually the right one) and can capture 1, 2 or 3 lobes.
Atypical pneumonia in adolescentsThe term "atypical pneumonia" means the belonging of the causative agent to microbes, called "atypical flora". Atypical flora are intracellular infectious agents - mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella. Inflammation of the lungs, caused by mycoplasmas, most often affects young people in organized collectives - military service personnel, students, children, adolescents (20-30% of all pneumonia). And, on the contrary, at patients of the senior ages atypical pneumonia is diagnosed extremely seldom.
Atypical mycoplasmal or chlamydial infection is accompanied by muscle and headaches, chills, symptoms of ARI. Hemoptysis and chest pain are uncharacteristic of pneumonia caused by atypical flora.
Treat such a disease as atypical pneumonia, special drugs - antibiotics from a group of new macrolides (josamycin, rovamycin, spiramycin, klatsid). These drugs are approved for use in children and adolescents and do not cause intestinal dysbiosis.
Pneumonia in newborns
Pneumonia of the lungs in newborns - infectious inflammation of the lung tissue - is one of the most common infectious diseases. It is dangerous for any baby, especially when it comes to bilateral pneumonia in newborns. Unfortunately, statistics today are as follows: pneumonia in newborns is diagnosed in 1% of full-term and 10-15% of premature babies.
Types and causes of pneumonia in newborns
In medicine, the following types of pneumonia are distinguished depending on the cause of the disease:
- congenital transplacental (the causative agent penetrates the baby through the placenta from the mother);
- intrauterine antenatal, is caused by pathogens that have penetrated into the fetal lungs from amniotic fluid;
- intranatal, occurs when the baby passes through the mother's birth canal, infected with microorganisms;
- postnatal pneumonia, in which infection occurs after birth in a maternity hospital, in the department of neonatal pathology (nosocomial), or at home.
The most common causes of pneumonia in newborns are:
- infections of toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, rubella, herpes (with congenital transplacental pneumonia in newborns);
- streptococci of groups B and O, gestal mycoplasmas, tuberculous and hemophilic rods (with antenatal and intranatal pneumonia);
- streptococcus group B, cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, fungi of the genus Candida and herpesvirus type II (with intranatal pneumonia);
- Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, intestinal yucca, proteas, staphylococci (with nosocomial aspiration pneumonia in newborns);
- mixed bacterial-bacterial, viral-bacterial.
Acquired home pneumonia most often occur against the background of acute respiratory viral infection caused by adenoviruses.
Secondary pneumonia, which is a manifestation or complication of sepsis, aspiration syndrome, is often caused in newborns by streptococci, staphylococci or gram-negative flora.
Symptoms of pneumonia in newborns
Signs of pneumonia in a newborn in case of intrauterine infection doctors will find before extracts, because often the first signals of pneumonia begin to appear immediately after birth child.
If the mother and child are discharged home, during the first month they must be accompanied by a doctor for patronage. He will look after the state of the baby, and he needs to talk about all the alarming symptoms, to example, the child's lethargy, frequent regurgitation and liquid stool, breast failure, rapid sucking.
If the child has a fever, do not wait for another doctor to come. Urgently call an ambulance. Cough in infants may be mild, but it is important to pay attention immediately to coughing. Also, alert the appearance of discharge from the nose in the child and shortness of breath. Shortness of breath leads to symptoms of blue on the feet, on the face and hands. The sick child has a faster appearance of diaper rash.
To be afraid to pass pneumonia at the child it is not necessary, in fact signs of illness or disease rarely arise without rising of temperature. And it needs to be periodically measured for prevention purposes.
The doctor, who regularly examines and listens to the child, can easily detect pneumonia.
What treatment is prescribed for pneumonia in newborns?
Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are always used for the treatment of pneumonia. The child needs careful care to avoid overcooling and overheating. It is important to monitor the hygiene of his skin, often change the position of his body, feed exclusively from the horn or using a probe. Applying to the breast of a sick infant, doctors will be allowed only if it is in a satisfactory state, namely, with the disappearance of intoxication and respiratory failure.
In addition to these treatments, physiotherapy (microwave and electrophoresis), vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B6, B15, the use of immunoglobulins, mustard and hot wraps twice a day, plasma transfusions blood.
Consequences of pneumonia in newborns
Children who have had pneumonia (especially bilateral pneumonia in newborns) are prone to repeated illnesses. After discharge for them should be repeatedly conducted courses of vitamin therapy, give bioregulators (extract of aloe and eleutterococcus) for 3-4 months. And within 1 year the child will be under clinical supervision.
What does a person suffer from pneumonia?
If a person is sick with pneumonia, he needs to know what hurts when he has pneumonia. This disease is considered quite dangerous and unpredictable. Incorrect treatment tactics and late detection of the disease can lead to death. Signs of pneumonia are similar to the symptoms of such respiratory diseases, which leads to difficult diagnosis without the necessary medical examinations.
Treatment of the disease lasts a long time and completely depends on the degree of damage, the age of the patient and his state of health.
What is pneumonia and what are the predictions of the disease?
The disease, in which the destruction of lung tissue occurs, is called pneumonia.It can arise from infection with a virus, fungus or bacterial infection. Inflammation begins with some factors. In rare cases, pneumonia can occur as a consequence of prolonged bed rest.
Due to the fact that the center of infection is the person himself, the disease is contagious and spreads by airborne droplets. With chronic diseases of the nasopharynx, heart, reduced functioning of the immune system, the disease is diagnosed with a rather heavy burden. Inflammation of the lungs develops rapidly and is much more difficult, requiring the use of additional treatment methods.This disease can cause and microorganisms located in the nasopharynx or pharynx. Due to the fact that they move to the very depth of the respiratory tract, the process of inflammation begins. With weak immunity in a sick person, pneumonia of a more serious nature may develop.
Pneumonia can take place differently, since the nature of the disease depends entirely on the age criterion, the state of immunity, the causative agent of infection, the presence of chronic ailments, and the technology of treatment inflammation. Pneumonia can give complications if the pathogen is sufficiently resistant to the effects of medications or immunity is reduced. Particular danger of pneumonia is for infants, especially if its pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. With timely and correct treatment, the prognosis is significantly improved.
When the treatment of the disease is started in a timely manner and the course was correct, pneumonia ends in a complete recovery. As a rule, after pneumonia, changes in the lung tissue, expressed by a decrease in the segment of the lung tissue, and their wrinkling may remain. Very often the disease is eliminated.
Risk factors and clinical picture of pneumonia
Any person can get infected with a certain adverse factors, even if he is completely healthy. Most of this disease is subject to such categories of persons as:
- people of advanced age (over 60 years);
- children under 2 years of age, children with a reduced immune system;
- patients who abuse alcohol, drug users, smokers;
- patients with diabetes, patients with heart disease, hepatitis;
- patients with tuberculosis, bronchitis or asthma;
- people with epilepsy and head injuries.
Everyone who suffers from pneumonia should know clearly what can be ill with pneumonia, in order to identify the disease in time. The ailment makes itself known from the beginning with a sore throat, obstruction of the nasal passages. Then the disease can manifest itself in 2 ways:
In the case of extrapulmonary manifestations, the intoxication syndrome, including symptoms such as:
- an increase in body temperature to 39 ° C, accompanied by chills;
- weakness in the body, aches;
- pain in the muscles and bones;
- poor appetite, nausea, in some cases vomiting;
- insomnia, confused consciousness;
- tachycardia, pale skin.
Among other manifestations, you can distinguish a cough, which after the time can be with the release of sputum. In turn, phlegm can be in the form of mucus or with the presence of pus. In severe form of pneumonia, sputum may contain blood. When you cough, there is a pain in the chest and back in the affected area. In the case of progressive respiratory failure, dyspnea may occur with inhalation and exhalation.
Even with pronounced symptoms, medical confirmation of the diagnosis is necessary. Upon examination, the doctor listens to the chest area, reveals the presence of wheezing and blunting sounds. Pneumonia should be confirmed using an X-ray study. To do this, you need to go through a computer tomography and perform a blood test. In addition, the doctor can prescribe a sputum for analysis, in order to identify the causative agent of the infection. After that, the doctor prescribes the necessary medications. In case of complication of the disease, bronchoscopy, echocardiography or ultrasound should be used.
What does it mean pain in the back, side, stomach and chest with pneumonia?
The presence of pain in the side in case of illness speaks of inflammation of the lower lobe of the lung and lesions of the pleura..
Since the process involves the pleural membranes, on which a large number of nerve plexuses and vessels are concentrated, the patient can feel a pain in the chest, giving back and belly.
In pneumonia, the pain may be similar to the sensation that occurs with acute radiculitis or an acute form of myocardial infarction.
In order to distinguish pneumonia from other diseases, it is important to remember that a feature of the inflammatory process in the lungs is the connection with the process of breathing and the type of cough. Among additional clinical manifestations, the patient may develop a fever.
Complications after pneumonia and their treatment
The disease can give complications when untimely referral to a doctor or wrong treatment. Possible complications of the disease include the following:
- dry and exudate pleurisy;
- empyema of the pleura;
- destruction of lung tissue;
- syndrome of multiple organ failure.
Excess pleurisy is manifested by the concentration of fluid (exudate) of an infectious origin in the pleura. In the course of the complication, the patient's chest and side ache, there may be a heaviness in the side, dyspnea increases.
In order to facilitate the procedure for breathing, the patient has to repeatedly occupy a position in which the hands rest against a hard surface. In addition, with inflammation, there is a dull pain that radiates to the lower region of the chest, breathing can be weakened. During illness, patients can not be in a prone position, so they sleep in a sitting or semi-sitting position.
Dry pleurisy is an independent form of complication, which is a consequence of the inflammatory process of the pleura. With it, the filaments of fibrin fall between the pleura sheets, and then their gluing. As a result, the patient feels a sharp pain in the chest while breathing. In addition, the pain is felt in the back and side. If the pain is too strong, the patient has to do only superficial breaths.
A timely visit to the attending physician, faithful observance of all prescribed rules of therapy and the timing of the use of medications will make it possible to cure the disease much more quickly. Prevention of the disease depends on how correctly the disease is perceived by people..
Among the methods of treating the disease, antibiotic therapy is given. The following drugs are allocated: Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime, Roxithromycin and others. To reduce pain in the chest, drugs with anti-inflammatory action are prescribed. As a supplement to the general therapy, the doctor prescribes drugs that dilute sputum (Ambroxol) and useful vitamins, frequent drinking, and bed rest. For preventive purposes, you should stop smoking, vaccinate against influenza, and also be tempered.
Pneumonia from what arises? What consequences can be?
Pneumonia is the recovery of the lungs! It can easily arise from hypothermia (I, for example, picked up on a game of football in an unheated room playing in a T-shirt, in the winter, that air swallowed a cold) consequences - from mild fright to (if specifically run or on time the process of inflammation is not strangled) lethal outcome
Simply a severe form of cold. There were also deaths.
as a rule, flu or cold give complications. if a timely treatment is not forthcoming, a fatal outcome is likely. It is necessary to the doctor with such suspicions.
Pneumonia (from the Greek. pnéumon, Greek. Πνευμονία) (inflammation of the lungs) - inflammation of pulmonary tissue of infectious origin with the primary lesion of alveoli (development of inflammatory exudation in them) and interstitial lung tissue. The disease can be fatal.
The term "pneumonia" unites a large group of diseases, each of which has its own etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, radiologic signs, laboratory data and features of therapy. It can occur as an independent disease or as a complication of other diseases.
Non-infectious inflammatory processes in the lung tissue, usually called pneumonitis or (in case of primary lesion of respiratory sections of the lungs) by alveolitis. Against a background of similar aseptic inflammatory processes, bacterial, viral-bacterial or fungal pneumonia often develops.
The main diagnostic method is X-ray examination of the lungs, the main method of treatment is antibacterial therapy. Later diagnosis and delay with the onset of antibiotic therapy (more than 8 hours) worsen the prognosis of the disease.
Pneumonia can be
focal - that is, occupy a small hearth of the lungs,
segmental - spread to one or more segments of the lung,
share - to capture the share of the lung. A classic example of lobar pneumonia is croupous pneumonia.
total pneumonia is called, if it spreads to all the lungs.
In addition, pneumonia can be one-sided, if only one lung is affected, and two-sided if both lungs are affected.
Pneumonia can be primary if it acts as an independent disease, and secondary, if it developed against another disease, for example, secondary pneumonia in the background of a chronic bronchitis.
There are also
There are separate types of pneumonia caused by different pathogens.
This group includes pneumonia caused by various pathogens that have various epidemiological, clinical and anatomical manifestations, need different therapies and methods of prevention, pneumonia in HIV infection.
Pneumonia caused by various pathogens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent pathogen of pneumonia. Pneumococcal pneumonia
Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae Afanasyev-Pfeiffer's wand
Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila
Pneumonia caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Pneumonia caused by Escherichia coli
Pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pneumonia caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae
Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii
Aspergillosis of the lungs
The incidence of pneumonia depends on many factors: the standard of living, social and marital status, working conditions, contact with animals, travel, the presence of bad habits, contact with sick people, individual characteristics of a person, the geographical spread of one or another the pathogen.
Pneumonia remains one of the most common causes of death of children and elderly people in our time, especially in social institutions (children. houses, boarding schools). The frequency of pneumonia in elderly patients is sharply increased at the time when they are treated in hospital facilities for another disease. There are also sharp differences in the etiology of hospital and community-acquired pneumonia.