Plantar warts (spines, plantar warts) are benign neoplasms, the cause of which is the human papillomavirus (HPV). They arise, mainly, in young people and do not pose a particular danger, since the degree of their oncogenicity is too low.
But, nevertheless, for removal of outgrowths it is better to address to the dermatologist. Modern instrumental methods of excision of warts are much more effective than banal celandine, and even surgical intervention, but they are used exclusively for the purpose of the attending physician.
This therapy reduces the risk of recurrence of the pathological process to a minimum, and also prevents further rooting and reproduction of skin lesions on the soles of the feet.
A wart is a cutaneous neoplasm of benign nature. The appearance of the spine is due to the penetration of the human papilloma virus into the human body, of which there are about 100 varieties.
After penetrating into the human body, HPV can for a long time not reveal anything by itself, being in a "dormant" state. But as soon as favorable conditions are created for him, he is activated and immediately begins to multiply, first affecting soft tissues, and then - and layers of the dermis, which sooner or later leads to the formation of warts.
The "sleeping" state of HPV is due to:
- strong immunity;
- phagocytosis (specific protective reaction, activated by the penetration of pathological agents into the human body).
The risk of HPV infection depends on:
- the state in which the virus is located in the body of the infected person;
- character of contact (direct / indirect);
- the state of immunity of the HPV carrier.
People with weak immunity are most susceptible to papillomatosis. But other factors can influence the formation of plantar warts:
- constant stress;
- non-observance of hygiene rules;
- exhaustion of the body;
- uncomfortable or tight shoes;
- wounds, scratches, ulcers on the surface of the skin of the feet.
To penetrate the human body HPV can through:
- use of towels or other items belonging to the carrier of the virus;
Factors predisposing to the formation of spinules include:
- excessive sweating of the feet;
- frequent contact with household chemicals (even if washed laundry was thoroughly rinsed);
- trauma, leading to a violation of the integrity of the skin of the legs;
- calluses, corns;
- diseases of the endocrine and cardiovascular system;
- use of non-sterile instruments for nail care;
- visiting public baths, saunas, swimming pools, beaches.
The human skin consists of several layers, which are:
- subcutaneous fatty tissue.
Getting into the human body, the papilloma virus affects the basal layer of the epidermis (peel) and begins to actively multiply. The cells infected with papillomavirus gradually rise through the entire epidermal scrap, localizing eventually to the stratum corneum of the epithelium. Thus, coarsening and keratinization of the skin takes place, which forms the wart.
The incubation period for each person lasts differently. On average, it ranges from a few weeks to six months. During this time, the number of cells infected with the virus is rapidly increasing. But since the DNA gene of the type of HPV that causes the formation of plantar warts does not penetrate into the cell nucleus, the risk of developing the oncological process is almost completely excluded.
Plantar warts are a solid cutaneous lesion that has clear boundaries and an oval or round shape. The size of the built-up edge varies within 1-2 cm in diameter. The Spitz has a rod that extends deep into the dermis, and it is during walking that causes discomfort and pain. It protrudes above the skin surface by approximately 1-3 cm. The neoplasm can have a normal color, or a light brown or pinkish tinge.
At the initial stage of formation of the cutaneous growth, its surface is smooth, however, as it "ripens", its coarsening takes place, as a result of which it becomes rough. Its shade becomes gray-yellow, and a crater-like depression may appear in the center. The appearance of brown dots on the surface of plantar warts is also a frequent phenomenon. They appear due to the flow in the tissues of the neoplasm of the process of thrombosis of the surface capillaries.
In most cases, plantar warts are single outgrowths. However, in some situations, the formation of daughter spines, which indicates the excessive activity of papillomavirus. A large number of neoplasms creates a specific mosaic pattern in that part of the skin where they are localized, therefore they are also called "mosaic warts".
Sometimes a syringe can disappear itself, without the need for treatment. In this case, a person does not have a trace on the place where it is localized. However, this occurs infrequently, since the stop is the place where the lesion is often injured. As a result, its self-liquidation becomes practically impossible. On the contrary, it can constantly become inflamed, bleed and cause pain.
How plantar warts look like: photo
To understand how the heel looks on the foot of an adult, you can view the photos below.
In most cases, for the diagnosis of plantar warts, any diagnostic procedures should be performed it is not necessary - the diagnosis is based on a visual examination by a dermatologist of the affected areas of the foot.
However, if there is a need to choose a method for removing the cutaneous neoplasm, a laboratory examination of the scraping taken from the surface of the spine may be necessary.
How to treat plantar warts: basic principles
Often enough for the treatment of plantar warts is quite enough local treatment. However, if the virus is too active and there are daughter neoplasms, the physician can be assigned a systemic Therapy, based on the intake of antiviral and immunomodulating medications. They help suppress the activity of papillomavirus and strengthen immunity, which, in turn, helps prevent deeper penetration of HPV and damage to healthy areas of the skin.
However, preference, nevertheless, is given to local treatment, which not only removes the upper part of the spike, but also removes its rod. But it should be noted at once that the use of widely known folk remedies for warts is often not very successful, therefore it is better, nevertheless, to seek help from a dermatologist, to undergo a test and the subsequent treatment.
The most effective and often used methods of treatment of plantar warts are:
- Chemical destruction. With the help of special medications, cautery of skin lesions is performed, which leads to complete destruction of the structure of their tissues. It is on the cauterizing property of certain herbs and remedies that the treatment of spines is based on folk remedies.
- Use of cytotoxic drugs for topical use. The highest effect is possessed by means based on 5-fluorouracil, and also ointments Kolhamin, Podophillin, and others.
- Freezing plantar warts with liquid nitrogen. This procedure is called cryodestruction. With the help of a special device, where the necessary preparation is filled, the build-up is frozen (the exposure temperature reaches -220 ° C) and its subsequent removal. Manipulation is performed under local anesthesia and requires careful skin care after the end.
- Surgical intervention. In this case, resort to the process of scraping warts with a special medical device - a spoon Volkmann. Perhaps an ordinary excision of spines with an ordinary scalpel, but this procedure has long been obsolete.
In addition to the above manipulations, the removal of plantar warts is also carried out with the help of modern instrumental techniques. Among them, the following are very popular:
- Laser coagulation, which helps get rid of skin growths in just 1 session.
- Electrocoagulation. With the help of a special electric scalpel, the spiky is carefully removed. After the procedure, wounds and small scars can remain, so they do not use it as often as laser coagulation.
- Radio wave removal of plantar warts. Manipulation is performed due to the use of ultrasonic frequencies emitted by the "Surgitron" preparation. The procedure is as popular as cryodestruction or laser coagulation.
- Ozone therapy.
Instrumental removal of plantar warts can be supplemented with local therapy, while preparations that have an antiviral effect are used. This combination of drugs significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of the pathological process, significantly increasing the overall effectiveness of treatment. For this, the patient is prescribed ointments or subcutaneous injections of interferons, as well as applications with Proteflazide.
Before using medications, a course of treatment is carried out, aimed at softening the cornified layer of the epidermis on the surface of the spike. For this purpose, keratolytics are used, which, however, do not remove the build-up itself, therefore, as an independent agent in papillomatosis, they are not suitable. You can use not only ointments - most often doctors recommend gluing corn or bactericidal patches (Salipod). A few days are enough to soften the wart, after which you can go directly to the main treatment.
Because the spike is prone to frequent inflammation, and the risk of secondary infection is too high, the patient may need to use antibacterial or anti-inflammatory medications. However, in this case a special place is given to local treatment.
Removal of plantar warts by laser
Today, laser coagulation is one of the most popular and highly effective instrumental methods for removing plantar warts. There are several varieties of carbon dioxide laser, with the help of which the destruction of the cutaneous neoplasm is carried out. Thanks to this, a separate kind of laser is used for each type of build-up, which contributes to the complete excision of the wart and prevention of its new appearance at the treated site.
The principle of the action of the laser beam is simple. Due to high temperatures, evaporation of liquids from the tissues of the plantar wart occurs, as a result of which necrosis occurs. And although this process takes a certain time, lazer coagulation allows you to remove non-aesthetic and sore neoplasms in just 1 procedure. The main advantage of this technique is not even its high efficiency, but almost complete absence of contraindications and side effects. Minus is the high cost of the procedure, so not every patient can afford to do it.
To select the best option for the removal of spines, only a qualified specialist - a dermatologist doctor. He will also recommend how to prepare for the procedure, and also tell you what measures to take to prevent the re-emergence of plantar warts.
Pharmacy ready-made products
If the plantar wart has not yet been deeply rooted and coarsened, it can be removed with the help of ready-made solutions and ointments freely released in pharmacies. The composition of each of the means includes alkali or acid, so you must strictly follow the instructions for the use of the selected drug.
Among the most effective pharmacy products from warts it is necessary to note:
- Super Cleaner - a solution that contains sodium or potassium hydroxide, and promotes effective burning out of skin growths;
- Verrukatsid is a domestic medicinal product designed to remove a number of benign formations on the skin (warts, papillomas, genital warts, dry calluses, keratomas);
- Solkoderm - acids, intended for external use with various manifestations of papillomatosis.
Another good remedy for spines is salicylic or boric acid, used in the form of ointments or appliques.
In the arsenal of traditional medicine, too, there are many recipes that are highly effective in combating various types of warts - including plantar ones. But to use them as independent means is inexpedient - in most cases they need to be combined with drugstores.
Here are the most effective recipes:
- Juice of celandine. Perhaps, this is one of the most popular and effective folk remedies used to treat various types of skin growths. Process growths need only fresh juice 2-3 times a day until they disappear completely.
- Juice of garlic. This drug has a powerful antiviral, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effect. Before its application for the treatment of plantar warts, the build-up should first be steamed and cut slightly, after which it should be smeared with garlic juice and wrapped with a bandage. The procedure should be carried out daily. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks.
- Acetic acid. To prepare a remedy, you must insist onion in acetic acid for 2-3 hours, then make a compress and fix it with a bandage. Leave it overnight.
- Kashitsa, made from berries of mountain ash.
However, the most effective means in the fight against warts are not drugs, not the above recipes traditional medicine, and not even modern instrumental methods for their removal, but a strong immune system. People who had positive changes in their immune status experienced cases of self-extinction of cutaneous neoplasms on their feet.
Strengthen the immune system in many ways: sports, walking outdoors, proper nutrition, rejection of bad habits and, finally, with special medicinal preparations - immunomodulators. Whatever it was, namely, strong and strong immunity is the guarantee of the absolute health of the whole organism.
Primary prevention of plantar warts is aimed at preventing the infection of HPV. To do this you need:
- have individual shoes when visiting public pools, baths, saunas;
- use only their own towels and personal hygiene products;
- wear comfortable shoes;
- to struggle with a sweating of feet;
- handle any wounds, cracks and even minor scratches on the legs.
For the secondary prevention of plantar warts, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system, using antiviral and immunomodulating drugs. It is necessary to start taking medications prescribed by a doctor right after the procedure for removing the cutaneous neoplasm, which in itself is a stress for the body.
The therapeutic course is extremely necessary to complete, since its interruption will reduce all efforts to zero, so even a qualified specialist can not rule out the risk of re-formation of plantar warts.
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