Emergency help with chemical skin burn and home treatment

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Chemical burn - tissue damage that occurs as a result of the action of chemically active substances.

Burns are classified according to the severity and depth of the lesion.

Contents of the article:
  • Possible causes
  • Characteristic symptoms
  • General recommendations
  • How to treat folk remedies?
  • What is not recommended?
  • Preventive measures

Possible causes

Chemical burns of the skin are manifested during the action of alkalis, acids, caustic liquids, heavy metal salts and other active substances. Burns can occur as a result of injuries in the workplace, due to non-compliance with safety regulations, accidents in the home, as a result of suicide attempts and so on.

Chemicals interact with protoplasmic cells in tissues. As a result, tissue dehydration occurs, which is accompanied by heat and overheating, resulting in coagulation of proteins and the appearance of a dry, dense scab.

The severity of the injury is determined by the depth and size of the burns, which in turn depend on such factors:

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  • the concentration of the chemical and the amount that is trapped on the skin.;
  • type of chemical reaction, which caused burns, the amount and speed of action of the traumatic substance released during the reaction;
  • the depth of penetration of the chemical into skin tissues;
  • duration of action of the defeat factor.

Symptoms of

The symptoms of a chemical skin burn differ depending on its degree:

  • 1 degree ( the upper layer of the skin of the epidermis is affected).In this case, there is a swelling of the skin and a slight redness. There may also be mild pain.
  • 2 degree .On the reddened edematous skin appear bubbles, inside which there is a transparent content.
  • 3 degree .Deeper layers of the skin are affected to subcutaneous adipose tissue. In this case, there are bubbles, inside of which there is a cloudy liquid or bloody contents. Sensitivity is broken, there are no pain sensations on the burn zone.
  • 4 degree .All skin tissues, muscles, tendons and even bones are affected.

The most common chemical burns are 3 and 4 degrees. If the cause of the burn is acid or alkali, a crust( scab) is formed in its place. After an alkali burn, it will be soft, loose and whitish, affecting adjacent tissues without clear contours. Alkaline liquids are more dangerous than acidic liquids because they can penetrate the depths of tissues.

If a burn has provoked acids, the scab is usually hard and dry, with clear lines at the points of transition to undamaged areas. Such burns are usually superficial. The shade of damaged skin will be determined by the color of the chemical.

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General recommendations

A chemical burn requires immediate first aid. It should be aimed at accelerating the cessation of the action of the substance and reducing its concentration.

It is necessary to rinse the affected area as soon as possible under running water , and do this for 10-15 minutes and more in cases when help is carried out later than necessary.

Exceptions in this case are burns, in which contact of water and aggressive substance is not allowed due to the exothermic reaction of .For example, aluminum and its organic compounds can ignite when reacting with a liquid.

If water gets into the quicklime and concentrated sulfuric acid, a reaction with heat is manifested. This can cause additional thermal damage.

After rinsing, it is necessary to neutralize the residues of the substance that caused the burn, since some part of it can penetrate deeply into the tissues even in the case of jet spraying with their liquid.

In the future, local and general treatment will be the same as treatment of thermal burns, but it is necessary to take into account the possible toxic effect on the organs and systems of the body.

In some cases, urgent medical attention is needed for .It should be addressed in such situations:

  • If the victim has signs of shock. It can be a blanching of the skin, shallow breathing, fainting.
  • If the burn has penetrated beyond the first layer of skin and captured a section with a diameter of more than 7.5 cm.
  • If the burn affected the eyes, face, limbs, groin and buttocks, large joints, mouth or esophagus( if the patient drank a chemical).
  • If the victim feels severe pain, which does not go away after using analgesics that are dispensed without a prescription.
Before you go to the emergency room, grab a container with a chemical substance or a detailed description of it - this will help to identify it. As a result, specialists will be able to neutralize it faster, which is difficult at home.

How to treat folk remedies?

There are home recipes that can help with chemical burns. Before using them, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

  • Crude potatoes .You need to rub it to the state of gruel, which must be applied to the burn. This will help to remove inflammation, accelerate the healing processes on the skin and improve immunity.
  • Plantain or burdock .It is necessary to grind one fresh leaf of a plant, to impose the received gruel on damage, on top to put on a dressing from gauze. It helps to relieve pain, reduce inflammation and accelerate the healing of affected tissues.
  • Pumpkin Juice .Pumpkin juice should be lubricated several times a day affected areas. It helps to restore the skin, has a good analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. Juice of aloe or Kalanchoe .The juice of these plants has an antiseptic and restoring effect. You need to wipe them burned areas every two hours, or grind the leaves with a blender and make a compress. It is also used to rinse the mouth if the tongue and mucous membrane have been damaged.
  • Oil of St. John's wort or sea buckthorn .A perfect tool for the treatment of burnt surfaces. You need to lubricate them every three to four hours.
  • Calendula .It can be used as a lotion for the treatment of burned areas. To do this, you need to use the pharmacy alcohol or water tincture of calendula. If you cook it yourself, you need to take 200 ml of boiling water on a tablespoon of dry raw material, insist for 15 minutes and strain.

What is not recommended?

First aid for burns should be correct and timely.

Errors can cause serious consequences.

Do not perform the following actions when using a chemical burn:

  • Do not treat the burn with oil and grease containing agents. They create a thin film on the surface, which only worsens the exchange of heat with the external environment and promotes the penetration of the burn into deeper areas. Also, such drugs can cause infection of the skin.
  • Do not use medication to treat wounds. The active substances that are contained in them can cause chemical reactions, which will only increase the damage.
  • Acid burns can not be treated with acids, and alkaline, respectively, with alkali.
  • Burns resulting from the action of sulfuric acid and quicklime should not be washed off with water. First you need to remove the substances with a tissue, and then you can wash it.
  • Do not rub them with a chemical eye burn.

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Preventative measures

The most effective prevention of burns is compliance with all safety rules in the process of working with chemicals, as well as in all matters relating to the rules for their storage.

Special wear and footwear, masks, goggles, protective screens and other similar devices are used in production for protection against harmful substances. Do not forget about safety in the home.

Before using any substance, be sure to read the instructions and clearly adhere to it. Work only in gloves and protective clothing, it is important to store chemicals in closed containers and in places not accessible to children.

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