To establish the exact cause of the disease, based only on external examination is almost impossible. This requires laboratory diagnosis. One of the most revealing is a biochemical blood test, the transcript of which allows to reveal many pathologies, even in the absence of severe symptoms.
- What is it needed for
- Preparation for biochemical analysis
- What is included in the biochemical blood test
- Table of decoding by indicators
- Possible diseases
- Biochemical analysis in children
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What is it needed for
Biochemistry is more detailed than the general analysis. It helps to identify the disorders of most human organs, even in those cases when the initial stage of the disease occurs without characteristic manifestations. This makes it possible to start treatment in time, and also to avoid serious consequences and complications.
Usually blood biochemistry is prescribed to patients with complaints about:
- fast fatigue;
- icterus of the skin;
- change in color and smell of urine;
- abdominal pain;
- arterial hypotension;
- constant desire to drink, etc.
Interpretation of the received results allows to come to a conclusion about presence of such infringements, as:
- failure of kidney and liver function;
- post-infarction states;
- pathology of the circulatory system;
- incorrect metabolic processes;
- dysfunction of the thyroid gland;
- problems of the musculoskeletal system;
- malfunctions of the digestive system and others.
Be sure to prescribe blood biochemistry to pregnant women in order to exclude the pathological development of the fetus. The fence is produced in the first three and the last three months of bearing the child. If there are suspicions of abnormal abnormalities, diagnosis can be conducted more often - to control the situation and to take timely appropriate measures.
Immediately after birth, biochemistry is made to exclude (or confirm) the congenital pathologies of a genetic nature (for example, phenylketonuria). To younger children, such diagnostics are recommended in the event that there is a backlog in mental or physical development. It allows you to decide on further treatment. The accuracy of the testimony of a laboratory test depends on the preparedness for it.
Preparation for biochemical analysis
The material for biochemistry is taken from the vein at the elbow. To get a full picture, 5 ml is enough. Indicators should be within the limits of normative values. The presence of abnormalities can indicate the presence of a disease. The result of biochemistry can be influenced by the most insignificant at first glance factors. Therefore, it is very important to properly prepare for the diagnostic procedure.
To obtain reliable parameters it is necessary to observe the following conditions:
- the blood surrenders only to an empty stomach. Take food about 10 hours before taking blood;
- for two days it is desirable to minimize the consumption of fatty, fried and spicy, as well as alcoholic beverages;
- from 14 hours of the previous day to reduce the intake of coffee and tea in the body;
- the day before going to the laboratory to limit intensive training and excessive physical exertion;
- 24 hours before biochemistry, it is not recommended to visit the sauna, sauna and other stressful procedures for the body;
- avoid emotional overstrain;
- at course use of medicines, the blood must be taken before the next intake;
- 24 hours before the scheduled analysis, interrupt the use of hormonal, blood thinning and diuretics;
- immediately prior to blood sampling it is necessary to sit quietly to stabilize breathing and palpitation;
- When diagnosing the glucose content, give up not only the morning drinks, but also the paste when brushing your teeth. Its taste can promote the activation of the pancreas;
- if you need to determine the cholesterol level against the background of statin use, they should be discontinued after 10 days (by consulting a doctor).
Attention! If further analysis is required to refine the results, biochemistry should be carried out under conditions as close as possible to the first fence.
Failure to comply with the above conditions leads to the receipt of distorted results and the formulation of an incorrect diagnosis.
What is included in the biochemical blood test
Biochemistry makes it possible to analyze many indicators. During the diagnosis, the doctor examines the data that allows you to confirm or exclude the alleged problem. The most frequently analyzed content of such substances as:
- Glucose (in the English designation - glu) is an indicator of carbohydrate metabolism and signals about abnormalities in the functioning of the endocrine system, as well as the liver;
- Hemoglobin characterizes the possibility of blood transporting oxygen to peripheral tissues;
- bilirubin reports on liver and spleen functions;
- Creatinine shows the features of kidney function and tissue energy exchange;
- urea - the final product of protein processing;
- Cholesterol - a marker of fat metabolism;
- aspartate aminotransferase (AST) cellular enzyme. By its level, one can judge about the amino acid metabolism;
- alanine aminotransferase (ALT) marker of liver pathologies. It appears in the bloodstream during the decay of the cells of this organ and heart;
- protein fractions "control" the metabolic processes;
- Amylase, the amount of which is rejected from the norm in case of stomach and pancreas failures;
- Haptoglobin specific protein binds hemoglobin and promotes iron retention;
- electrolytes (potassium, chlorine, sodium) are necessary for a complete water and electrolyte balance;
- rheumatoid factor indicates the presence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
- triglycerides characterize lipid metabolism.
If necessary, studies are conducted on the content of other substances. Normative indicators differ in people of different sex and age group.
Table of decoding by indicators
The doctor makes a conclusion about the content of a substance, based on these normative indicators. They were formulated on the basis of laboratory studies of healthy people and patients with any pathologies.
Some of the normative values for adults are presented in the table:
|Index||Normal for men||Normal for women|
|Total protein (tp)||63-87 g / l|
|Albumins (albu)||35-45 g / l|
|globulins (α1, α2, β, γ)||21.2-34.9 g / l|
|Urea||2.5-8.3 mmol / l|
|Creatinine||62-124 mmol / l||44-97 μmol / l|
|Uric acid||0.12-0.43 mmol / L||0.24-0.54 mmol / l|
|Glucose||3.5-6.1 mmol / l|
|Total cholesterol||3.3-5.8 mmol / L|
|LDL||less than 3 mmol / l|
|HDL||1 mmol / l||1.2 mmol / L|
|Triglycerides||less than 1.7 mmol / l|
|Total bilirubin (tbil)||8.49-20.58 μmol / l|
|Indirect bilirubin (dbil)||1-8 μmol / l|
|Direct bilirubin (idbil)||2.2-5.1 μmol / l|
|Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)||up to 38 U / l|
|Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)||Up to 42 U / L|
|Alkaline phosphatase (APF)||up to 260 U / l|
|Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)||up to 33.5 U / l||up to 48,6 U / l|
|Creatine kinase (QA)||up to 180 U / l|
|Fibrinogen (fg)||2-4 g / l||up to 6 g / l (during pregnancy)|
|A-amylase||up to 110 U / l|
|Sodium||130-155 mmol / l|
If the biochemistry data fits within the regulatory limits, this means that the alleged diagnosis has not been confirmed. Their deviations signal a probability of pathological processes.
There are no "superfluous" elements in the body. Everyone is responsible for the processes that take place in this or that organ. Their excess, as well as a lack, report the presence of the disease.
Thus, the following reasons can lead to a reduced content of protein fractions in blood:
- pathology of the liver;
- presence of worms;
- kidney disease;
- intestinal diseases;
- blood loss of various etiologies;
- malignant tumors;
- taking certain medications (for example, glucocorticosteroids).
An increase in the amount of protein can cause:
- dehydration of the body;
- infectious processes;
One of the most revealing in the diagnosis is the analysis of the level of glucose in the blood. He speaks about the state of metabolic processes in the body and helps to establish at an early stage many dangerous diseases.
Hypoglycemia (low sugar level) occurs against the background of:
- improperly selected diet;
- gastrointestinal and hepatic problems;
- adrenal diseases;
- illiterate intake of insulin and similar drugs.
Hyperglycemia is caused by:
- adrenal and thyroid gland diseases;
- a pituitary tumor;
- constant stress.
Both these states are equally risky and need constant medical supervision.
Note! Bilirubin is a product of the decay of red blood cells. The change in its content indicates diseases of the biliary tract and liver pathologies.
Free bilirubin increases during such diseases as:
- hepatitis of various nature (viral, medicinal, toxic);
- hemolytic anemia;
- hepatic tumors.
Associated bilirubin increases if the output of bile is disturbed against the background of the problematic ways of its outflow and pancreatic diseases.
Level of content of enzymes - aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and others - allows you to get information about the condition of internal organs.
Increased or decreased levels of these components help diagnose the following diseases:
- myocardial infarction;
- muscle pathologies;
- thromboembolism of the artery of the lung;
- necrosis of the liver;
Lowering the level of enzymes can also occur in case of toxemia at the beginning of pregnancy. If necessary, an advanced analysis is carried out that takes into account a larger number of substances, which makes it possible to recognize the disease and its stage with maximum accuracy.
Deviations from the norm of the amount of nitrogenous compounds (urea, creatinine, uric acid and others) indicate the pathologies of the liver and kidneys (their producing and excreting) and the excessive disintegration of proteins.
Elevated figures in this group of markers are typical for:
- insufficient functionality of the kidneys and liver;
- exposure to toxins;
- acute course of infectious lesions;
- arterial hypertension;
- oncological formations;
- adrenal diseases.
The decrease in the number of nitrogen compounds occurs with polyuria, liver failure, metabolic disorders. Sometimes it occurs against the background of hemodialysis.
Leaps in electrolyte levels are among the most dangerous conditions for humans. So, the sodium content depends on the pressure in the tissues and the acid-base balance in the body. Deviation from the norm of this substance can cause different conditions: from a slight deterioration of well-being to coma.
Potassium takes a direct part in the organization of the normal operation of the heart. Abnormalities can cause a complete cessation of the contraction of the heart muscle and lead to death. Insufficient electrolyte content is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- weakening of muscles;
- nausea (possible vomiting);
- reduction of cardiac output (weakness of the heart muscle);
- difficulty breathing.
Attention! To life-threatening conditions may lead to an increase in potassium to 7.15 mmol / l or more, as well as a decrease to less than 3.05 mmol / l.
The norm characteristic for pregnant women has significant differences. Women during child-bearing require individual examination and analysis of each specific case. Other diagnostic values are also taken into account by pediatricians.
Biochemical analysis in children
A biochemical blood test is performed by the baby immediately after birth. It helps to determine the condition of the newborn and the functioning of its internal organs. For babies up to 30 days, blood sampling is conducted through the heel with a thin needle. After a month, the procedure is performed through a vein on the elbow.
The norms for children vary in age groups:
|Index||0 to 30 days||30 days to 1 year||From year to 14 years|
|Total protein, g / l||49-69||57-73||62-82|
|Albumin, g / l||34-44||36-49||37-55|
|Amylase, E / L||Up to 120|
|ALT, AST, E / L||Up to 40|
|Bilirubin total, μmol / l||17-68||3,4-20,7|
|Bilirubin direct, μmol / l||4,3-12,8||0,83-3,4|
|Bilirubin indirect, μmol / l||12,8-55,2||2,56-17,3|
|Cholesterol, mmol / l||1,6-3||1,8-4,9||3,7-6,5|
|Glucose, mmol / l||1,7-4,7||3,3-6,1|
|Urea, mmol / l||2,5-4,5||3,3-5,8||4,3-7,3|
|Creatinine, μmol / L||35-110|
|Uric acid, mmol / l||0,14-0,29||0,14-0,21||0,17-0,41|
Biochemical analysis is recommended for a small child if there are suspicions of:
- genetic pathologies;
- infection in the womb;
- negative changes in internal organs;
- with a view to clarifying the causes of jaundice infants.
Such a study is also carried out to monitor the effectiveness of the prescribed therapeutic manipulations and clarify the diagnosis. This is especially important in childhood, because the medical effect carried out in this period affects the whole life of a person.
Summarizing, I want to emphasize that you can not do self-diagnostics. Read the result of such a complex blood test, like biochemistry, can only be a qualified specialist. He, based on these indicators, will be able to deliver the correct diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment.