Ascariasis is one of the most common human diseases associated with the penetration of parasites into the body. According to medical statistics, they suffer more than a billion inhabitants of the planet. It's very easy to get infected. The course of the disease, its symptoms and possible complications depend on how late the problem is detected. Therefore, if there is a suspicion in yourself or a child for ascarids, treatment should begin immediately.
- What are ascarids
- Symptoms of infection
- Treatment with medicines
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Preventive measures
How to get rid of parasites folk ways How to get rid of parasites in the human body folk ways What are ascarids - the symptoms of infection and treatment Medicines to combat worms in adults Symptoms and treatment of lamblia in the liver
What are ascarids
Ascarids belong to a group of roundworms. They enter the human body orally, in the form of eggs. The infection passes in several stages. After swallowing, the eggs enter the intestine, where they turn into larvae, which, in turn, with blood are consistently transferred to the lungs, bronchi and pharynx.
Upon repeated swallowing, the larvae settle in the small intestine, where they become fixed, become sexually mature, begin to lay eggs. An adult ascaris is a reddish worm that becomes light yellow after death. Male helminth may be up to 25 cm in length, females - up to 40 cm.
In the small intestine, roundworm live about a year. In this case, the female lays up to 240,000 unfertilized eggs every day. With feces they go out into the soil, and then again into the human body.
Attention! It is impossible to get infected with ascariasis from a person by airborne droplets! Eggs of this parasite must undergo the process of maturation in the earth.
Despite the fact that the main "habitat" of worms is the intestine, during migration, larvae can settle anywhere (heart, liver, lungs, brain, etc.). In this case, the formation of an adult does not occur, but the larvae do great harm. They destroy the organ in which they settled. If the process is not stopped on time, it can result in serious complications.
The source of helminth eggs can be:
- dirty hands and dishes;
- raw water;
- peddlers of eggs - flies;
- poorly washed vegetables and fruits.
Often ascarids infect children. The famous pediatrician, Dr. Komarovsky, considers the most dangerous age from 1.5 to 5 years. This is the time when kids show special interest in the surrounding world, objects and animals. They touch everything that surrounds them, and the rules of hygiene are observed without special care. As a result, the probability of helminthiasis increases many-fold.
Symptoms of infection
Symptoms of the disease, in the first place, depend on the degree of development of the worm in the body. Doctors distinguish two stages of the disease: migratory (early) and intestinal (late) - their symptoms are very different. The age of the patient also influences the course of the disease.
In adults, the migratory stage passes almost asymptomatically. Infection with helminths may coincide in manifestations with many other diseases. Specialists distinguish the following characteristics of helminth infection:
- increase in body temperature (up to 38 ° C);
- muscle and joint pain;
- coughing (usually dry) and mild chest pain cause movements of the larvae in the lungs and bronchi;
- pressure jumps.
In some cases, infection with ascarids can trigger an allergic reaction, which often manifests itself as a rash, swelling, hives and itching. Less severe complications occur: allergic myocarditis and hepatitis, an increase in lymph nodes, anaphylactic shock.
The following symptoms are typical for the intestinal phase:
- stool (alternating diarrhea and constipation);
- decreased appetite;
- severe pain in the abdomen;
- weight loss;
- skin rashes;
- sleep disturbance;
- lowering of pressure;
- general decrease in immunity.
In children, the disease is much more difficult. The younger the child, the more pronounced the symptoms. In the early stages, ascaridosis in infants, as in adults, may be weakly expressed. In case of large-scale infection, signs of intoxication will manifest even in the migration period. Ascarids in children show themselves as follows:
- severe diarrhea (or constipation);
- general exhaustion;
- persistent or recurrent nausea;
- skin rashes;
- itching in the anus;
- abdominal pain;
- lag in development.
In childhood, the above symptoms are complicated by relapses in the form of pustular lesions on the skin and mucous membranes. Against the background of weakened immunity, chronic diseases worsen. The child is prone to infectious and inflammatory processes, which take place more severely.
The cause for concern at the initial stage of the disease can be frequent urination in the toilet. The baby becomes capricious, shows increased anxiety. Early detection of parasites in the body will help to avoid negative consequences.
Attention! Helminths poison the entire body with the products of their vital activity! Therefore, the more of them, the worse the health deteriorates.
In itself, ascaridosis is not a very dangerous disease for a person. Many live with these parasites for years, not knowing about the infection. But, if it is not treated, you can get very serious complications. Here are the most common of them:
- Intestinal obstruction arises from the clogging of the small intestine with helminths. Pathology manifests itself in abdominal pain, swelling, constipation. In the absence of medical care, vomiting with fecal odor occurs. The most dangerous complication is intestinal rupture and peritonitis.
- Liver abscess is a consequence of the penetration of ascaris into the organ and its damage.
- Purulent cholangitis and mechanical jaundice arise as a result of blockage by adult ascarids of bile ducts. These pathologies are characterized by such signs: inflammation, the temperature rises to critical values, there is a chill and severe pain in the right hypochondrium.
- Acute pancreatitis is the result of blockage of the pancreatic duct. The patient has a strong cutting pain at the top of the abdomen, intense vomiting. Without medical assistance, this may result in pancreatic necrosis.
- Pneumonia is characteristic of the early stage of helminthiasis. During the migration, ascarids damage the capillaries and alveoli of the lungs and bronchi. The breathing of the patient becomes more frequent, the wheezing is heard, the heat begins.
An often frequent complication of ascariasis is appendicitis. The fact is that the consequences caused by ascarids are in most cases associated with their movement, during which parasites damage the tissues of the organs. Including, getting into the blind intestine, injuring her, causing an attack of acute appendicitis. So, if you felt the pain in the right lower abdomen, shooting at the navel, the temperature increased, vomiting began - immediately call for an ambulance. This is life threatening condition.
Cases of ascarid cramping through the esophagus into the pharynx and the respiratory tract and the asphyxia caused by it are described.
Attention! Especially dangerous is ascariasis in pregnant women! It causes very strong toxicosis, can lead to a delay in fetal development of the fetus and disrupt the labor activity.
In children, ascarids can cause the same complications as adults, but in a more severe form. This is due to the fact that the children's body is not yet sufficiently strengthened. Mechanical damage to organs and tissues during migration of larvae causes bleeding of varying intensity and necrosis. The above-mentioned consequences can be avoided only by timely medical assistance.
To detect eggs of worms with the naked eye is impossible because of their microscopic size, and the symptoms have many variations. Therefore, ascariasis can only be accurately determined using diagnostic methods. These include:
- Stool analysis is the most common diagnostic method for determining the presence of pinworms in the body. It has some drawbacks. Identify the problem, it is only capable at the last stage, when the ascarids are already in the small intestine and at the time when they lay eggs. If there are still persistent suspicions of infection - the feces are given several times, approximately every 10 days.
- A blood test also does not always give unambiguous results. Elevated levels of leukocytes and eosinophils are in the early stages of the protective reaction of the body to helminthic invasion. It is not always observed, it can talk about the presence of another disease. The serological method allows to accurately detect the presence of ascarids by the presence of antibodies to them in the blood serum.
- In some cases, larvae are found in other biological fluids (eg, sputum). This can be done two or three months after the fact of infection.
- Biochemical analysis of urine sets the problem by the presence of volatile fatty acids. The method allows to diagnose at the earliest stages, but it can be erroneous, since such indicators are characteristic for many other diseases.
Less often doctors conduct X-ray examinations and ultrasound for the detection of helminths. These techniques show the infiltration of the lungs during the migration of the parasite. In the intestinal stage, changes in the mucous membranes of the small intestine are seen on the x-ray.
There are also cases when ascarids are discovered accidentally, during surgical interventions. In any case, it may take several weeks to produce an accurate diagnosis. At this time, and possible complications, which allows you to appoint a full and competent treatment.
Treatment with medicines
The approach to treatment of ascaridosis is complex. It is aimed at both destroying the parasites themselves, and treating the symptoms and possible complications. Medicines and the scheme of reception are chosen by the doctor.
Today, the pharmaceutical industry offers a wide range of highly effective anthelminthic drugs. Their effectiveness is from 80%. The choice of medicines depends on the stage at which the disease was found:
- in the migratory phase, commonly prescribed tablets of a wide range: Vermox, Wormin Thermox, Mertect, Nemozol and others;
- when the disease passes into the intestinal stage, a positive result is shown: Decaris, Pirantel, Combantrin, Helminthox, Piperazine, Vermox, Wormin, Nemozol and their analogues.
Also in complex treatment, a high protein diet and sorbent therapy are used. As such, it is usually recommended: Polysorb, Polyphepan, or regular activated charcoal. They should start drinking about three days after the end of the course of anthelminthic drugs in order to minimize the risk of intoxication.
In the case when the disease has become severe or medication is contraindicated, the patient is injected with oxygen through the probe into the gastric cavity. The procedure is carried out once a day, for three days. This method of treatment has a number of contraindications, including: ulcer and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
When treating children, pregnant women and women during breastfeeding, the doctor always tries to choose the most sparing drugs. Most often in such cases appoint Piperazine and Geptyresorcin. It is worth noting that these drugs are much less effective. The doctor is determined with the advisability of their application, based on the state of health of the baby, or the future mother.
Attention! Anthelminthic drugs are very toxic! Take them without prescribing a doctor (for prophylaxis) is impossible!
At home, you can try to withdraw the worm from the body at home with the help of traditional medicine recipes.
Treatment with folk remedies
To folk remedies in the treatment of helminthiasis resorted to because the medicinal preparations that destroy pinworms are sufficiently poisonous for the human body. The only thing that you want to pay attention to - before you start using any folk remedy, consult a doctor. In some cases, they may be useless, and time will be missed.
With ascariasis in uncomplicated form, some recipes are very effective. Here are some examples of the most popular of them:
- Crush the head of garlic, add a glass of milk and cook the broth. Strain, cool to room temperature and use for enemation before bed. Such treatment should last for seven days.
- Popular in the people and onion tincture. Chopped onions are put in any dishes, so that it takes half the capacity, topping up alcohol. Insist 10 days and drink 1 tbsp. l. twice a day. For children, the onions are not filled with alcohol, but with boiling water and insist for 12 hours.
- Take the unpeeled pineapple and make the broth (cook along with peel and leaves). Take six times a day.
- 500 g of peeled pumpkin seeds must be crushed and, stirring, pour 50 ml of boiled water. Take 1 meal before meals. l. For sweetness, you can add honey. Such a tool to give to children, only put on pumpkin seeds: a child under two years old - 50 grams, for 3-4-year-old children will need 80 grams, 5-7 years - 100 grams. After three hours, drink magnesia.
- Adults to get rid of worms are prepared tincture of wormwood and pumpkin seeds. To make it in the same proportions, you need the leaves of the plant and the crushed pumpkin seeds. Take a third of the dry mixture and two thirds of alcohol. Insist 21 days in the dark and drink 50 ml, twice a day for half an hour before meals, until the time of complete cure.
- 4 tbsp. l. green walnuts crush and add a glass of salted water. Infuse 20 minutes, drain and drink for a day. In addition, you can take a laxative.
Help to get rid of parasites and infusions and decoctions of herbs. They are suitable for cooking: chamomile, tansy and others.
Modern medicine allows you to get rid of any parasites, but it is better, of course, not to allow their penetration into the body. Especially in the case with ascarids, it is not difficult to do this. It is enough to execute a few simple rules:
- after any contact with the soil, wash your hands thoroughly;
- Wash vegetables, fruits and greens well;
- regularly do wet cleaning at home;
- Destroy the vectors of the disease (flies).
If the house has small children, carefully monitor their hygiene. Teach your child to wash his hands and do not pull everything into his mouth: the ground and foreign objects. In the sandbox, regularly perform loosening, do not let the child play with stray animals. Compliance with these simple rules will help get rid of many serious health problems.
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize once again the danger of ascaridosis for children and adults. This disease requires careful diagnosis. Regular examinations in a medical institution and observance of simple rules of personal hygiene will avoid infection and prevent complications.