- Mesentery structure
- What role does it perform?
- Inflammation of the
- Video on the subject
The mesentery of the intestine is a leaflet of the peritoneum, with which the internal organs( stomach, thick, small intestine and others) are attached to the back wall of the abdomen.
Mesentery has a branched network of blood vessels, nerve endings and lymph nodes that participate in supplying the body with the necessary nutrients, transfer of nerve impulses and support the immunity of internal organs.
Mesentery of the mesentery
Some organs located in the peritoneal cavity have a serous membrane. The folds of the peritoneum that surround the loops of the small and large intestines are called mesentery. But it is worth noting that not all departments of the digestive tract have peritoneal sheets.
For example, at the level of the duodenum they are completely absent, and the mesentery of the small intestine is most developed. The back of the mesentery, which is attached to the wall of the abdomen, is the root of the mesentery. Its size is small and reaches about 16 cm.
The opposite edge, which affects the entire small intestine, is equal to the length of these two divisions. Next, the mesentery goes to the loops of the intestine and surrounds them in such a way that they are tightly fixed between the sheets of the peritoneum.
What role does it perform?
The main function of the mesenteria is to separate most organs from the posterior abdominal wall and prevent the organs from descending into the small pelvis in the body position vertically. Mesentery vessels provide the walls of the intestine with sufficient oxygen, which is simply necessary for normal functioning.
Nerve cells send impulses to the brain and take them back. The lymph nodes in the base of the mesenteria provide the protective function of the entire intestine.
The following are the main pathologies that should be differentiated from diseases of the intestine itself.
Miscarriage of the mesentery
Miscarriage of the mesentery and intestinal infarction occur as a result of disturbed circulation of the mesenteric vessels due to thrombosis or embolism. The main clinical manifestation of pathology is severe soreness in the navel. However, it should be noted that the palpation of the stomach remains mild and painless.
With time, the pain subsides, and with complete necrosis of the intestinal wall disappears altogether, which hinders a positive prognosis.
The patient's skin is pale, the tongue is dry and has a white coating. It happens that after a few hours from the beginning of the necrosis of the tissues, the effusion of fluid in the abdominal cavity( ascites) begins.
If you do not turn in time to the hospital, the disease begins to progress and the person becomes listless, apathetic. Even if you start taking the necessary measures after extensive necrosis, then coma and convulsive seizures may occur. To confirm the diagnosis specialists appointed ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, X-ray irradiation, laparoscopy.
Treatment consists in removal of all foci of necrosis
Cyst of mesentery
Benign thin-walled neoplasm, which has neither muscle layer nor epithelial. Cysts appear between two leaves of the mesentery of any part of the digestive system and are not associated with the intestine. The most common is the mesentery of the small intestine.
The process of appearance and growth of neoplasms takes a long time, so during this period the patient does not notice any manifestations. To make a correct diagnosis, palpation of the abdomen is carried out, at which the mobile mesenteric tumor is well felt, painless. Treatment of cysts is performed only surgically.
Malignant neoplasm, which leads to the disintegration of tissues. There is a pathology much less often than cysts. The clinical picture of tumors is similar to cystic formation. The first symptoms begin to appear only when the tumor is large and squeezes the internal organs.
Patients begin to complain of soreness in the abdomen of varying intensity, nausea and vomiting, belching, flatulence. Diagnosing oncology is quite problematic, but with the help of ultrasound and CT it is possible to identify the location of the tumor, its size, consistency. Treatment of cancer of the mesentery is surgical, chemotherapeutic and radial.
Occurs in the background of a trauma to the abdomen and is combined with a violation of the integrity of neighboring organs, in particular, the small or large intestine. The rupture of the mesentery occurs both with penetrating wounds and closed abdominal injuries.
The main symptom of the pathology is the development of shock in the first hours, then it weakens or is replaced by another sign - internal bleeding or the onset of peritonitis. The pattern of bleeding begins with the pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, the pulse weakens and gradually disappears, a small amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes will be noted in the general blood test.
Detecting the gap with radiation and clinical methods is very difficult.
The only effective way is to perform laparoscopy. During the same treatment is made( hematoma is removed, bleeding vessels are bandaged, damaged mesentery is sutured).
Inflammatory process, as a separate pathology occurs extremely rarely. Most often, it occurs against the background of peritonitis, as the serous membrane is involved in this disease. It is almost impossible to recognize inflammation of the mesentery, as the clinical picture can be diverse.
The most common symptom of the pathology is soreness in the navel area of different intensity. Mesenteric lymph nodes increase in size, there is swelling and reddening of the inflamed area. Over time, the mesentery tissue is replaced in some places by the connective tissue, turning into dense scars. As a result, the walls of the mesentery grow together and wrinkle.
Treatment of any disease is aimed at eliminating the inflammatory process. Several groups of drugs are used for the therapy: antibiotics, antispasmodics and analgesics. In addition, a prerequisite for recovery is the diet. In the case of a purulent process, surgical intervention with complete sanitation of the abdominal cavity is indicated.