Atrophic gastritis and its symptoms, causes and treatment

Violation of the stomach and the formation of glandular cells leads to the onset and development of atrophic gastritis. As a result, the walls of the stomach are subject to degenerative-destructive changes, which requires timely and prolonged treatment.

Content:
  • Atrophic gastritis: what is it?
  • Causes of the disease
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Atrophic chronic gastritis
  • Acute atrophic gastritis
  • Atrophic gastritis in children
  • With low acidity
  • With high acidity
  • Diagnosis and medication
  • Folk remedies
  • Herbs
  • Sea buckthorn oil
  • Chamomile
  • Juices
  • Compliance with diet
  • Prevention
Related articles:
  • Learn what you can eat with gastritis
  • What are the symptoms and treatment of gastritis with high acidity - diet
  • Symptoms of gastritis in adults and its treatment
  • What is gastritis hyperacid - its symptoms and treatment
  • What drugs are used to treat gastritis and stomach ulcers?

Atrophic gastritis: what is it?

When atrophic gastritis occurs, atrophy of the walls of the stomach, which lose their functional capacity to produce gastric juice, which disrupts the whole process of digestion and absorption of nutrients. Cells responsible for the formation of glands covering the walls of the stomach, begin to produce mucus instead of gastric juice.

The danger of this disease is that it is a precancerous condition, which is recognized at the global level in the field of oncology. Given the morphology of cells, the mucosal development improves the risk of developing oncological diseases of the stomach, which are detected at later stages and are therefore incurable.

Important!If there are any manifestations or pain in the stomach, and at the age of 30, irrespective of sex, it is recommended to undergo an endoscopic examination at a frequency of once a year.

The examination can be carried out in a polyclinic at the place of residence. If you suspect any abnormal changes in the cells of the gastric mucosa, the endoscopist must do a biopsy and send the resulting material to a histological examination. This gives the maximum information picture of this pathology.

Causes of the disease

There are several possible causes of this disease.

  1. Bacterial - the development of atrophic gastritis is often associated with inflammatory processes caused by the bacterium Helicobakter pylori. First of all, it causes superficial gastritis, lack of appropriate treatment, which already leads to the development of other forms of gastritis, gastric ulcer, stomach cancer.
  2. Autoimmune failure in the process of formation of mature gland cells, suppressing their specialization. As a result, the cells do not carry their direct function, which disrupts the physiological process of regeneration of the glandular cells of the stomach.

Other causes of atrophic gastritis can be called provoking factors, since there is no direct connection with its development in this case:

  • unbalanced nutrition;
  • bad habits such as drinking alcohol, smoking, excessive consumption of fatty, spicy and fried foods;
  • heredity.

Important!Together with us you can learn more about erosive gastritis.

Symptoms of the disease

For this type of gastritis is not characterized by pain syndrome. Patients, as a rule, do not experience painful sensations and in the early stages of the development of the disease, there is no significant discomfort. Slight soreness can be observed with palpation of the abdomen in the epigastric region, in other words, at the site of the projection of the stomach.

At an early stage of pathogenesis, symptoms can be mildly expressed, so it is very important to pay attention to any changes in the work of the gastrointestinal tract for the timely detection of the disease. Signs of gastritis appear at later stages of its development.

Symptoms that accompany the appearance of atrophic gastritis:

  • feeling of fullness of the stomach, regardless of the amount of food eaten;
  • feeling of heaviness in the stomach;
  • deterioration of appetite;
  • the appearance of burping with an unpleasant aftertaste and subsequent heartburn;
  • weight loss on the background of a violation of the secretory function of the stomach;
  • rumbling and gurgling in the abdomen;
  • disruption of the bowels, accompanied by diarrhea and constipation;
  • deterioration of general well-being: weakness after eating, sweating, dizziness.

Because of the deterioration in the absorption of the contents of the stomach, there is a lack of necessary vitamins and trace elements. This is expressed in the deterioration of the skin, hair, nails, which become dry and brittle.

Atrophic chronic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis develops in chronic form. This pathology is characterized by mild symptomatology, it takes a long time without significant discomfort.

  1. However, the atrophy of cells of the glandular tissue progresses over time, the inflammatory processes displace the destructive ones.
  2. There is a change in the secretory, motor, and absorbed functions of the stomach. The work of the digestive tract as a whole is disrupted.
  3. Gastritis occurs against the background of a decrease in acidity.

Acute atrophic gastritis

Acute atrophic gastritis develops as a stage of chronic gastritis. Its progression can be provoked by external factors: intoxication and ingestion of poisonous, corrosive substances, acids and alkalis. It is manifested by severe symptoms: pain in the epigastric region, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, deterioration of general health, fainting is possible.

Atrophic gastritis in children

Atrophic gastritis in children is extremely rare, however, its development in childhood is not ruled out. Previously it was believed that the development of the disease takes quite a long time. But the latest scientific data refute this claim, which is confirmed by the fact that children can also suffer from this disease, although less often.

With low acidity

The development of gastritis with reduced acidity can lead to atrophic gastritis. When it develops, the concentration of hydrochloric acid and enzymes decreases, the digestive process and the absorption of food deteriorates. It enters the intestines in a poorly digested form. Symptoms do not have a pronounced character.

  1. Pains appear on a full stomach, except this, there may be a heaviness in the stomach, swelling, belching a rotten egg.
  2. Also, there is often a set of body weight for no apparent reason, which is due to the fact that nutrients are not absorbed, which affects weight gain.

With high acidity

Increasing the acidity of the gastric contents leads to the possibility of the appearance of foci of inflammation and disruption of the integrity of the mucosa. As a result, either an ulcer or an atrophic gastritis with increased acidity is formed.

  1. The latter is characterized by pronounced symptoms - it's pains on an empty stomach, which subsides or pass completely at the reception of food.
  2. Also there is a constant heartburn, an eructation sour, an unpleasant sour taste in the mouth, periodic nausea.

Diagnosis and medication

Taking medication should be done only after examination by a medical specialist, conducting a thorough examination and establishing a final diagnosis.

Important!If the suspected development of atrophic gastritis is the leading method of examination is an endoscopic study.

In the course of this study, a visual assessment of changes in the surface tissues of the stomach is performed, and material is taken for histological analysis.

On the basis of the data set, the purpose of complex therapy is made. Acceptance of certain medications depends on many factors, on the form and nature of the course of the disease, the age of the patient, the presence of concomitant diseases.

Important!I wonder what kind of doctor treats gastritis, read in our article.

Treatment is conducted in several directions and can include:

  • Antibacterial therapy aimed at destroying the bacterium Helictibakter Pylori. Antibiotics of the penicillin and tetracycline series, as well as antibacterials of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed for these purposes;
  • taking drugs aimed at improving the digestive process, for example, activated carbon, other defoamers, pancreatic enzymes, cholagogue;
  • course of vitamins B12, B1, B6 intramuscularly;
  • taking funds that cover the walls of the stomach, for example, maalox, almagel;
  • taking drugs aimed at regulating gastric motility;
  • reception of drugs-blockers of H2 receptors that reduce the acidity of gastric contents - omez or its analogue omeprazole.

Important!Self-administration of medicines is unacceptable. In this case, there is a risk of getting complications and worsening of the general condition.

If atrophic gastritis is detected, the patient is given a course of treatment, and he is observed out-patient, having entered the dispensary records in the polyclinic at the place of residence. Also this means the need to undergo medical examination once a year. With exacerbation of gastritis treatment is carried out in a hospital.

Folk remedies

Treatment of atrophic gastritis has a long-term character. To accelerate the recovery process, with the permission of the doctor, it is possible to use folk remedies. Such funds will help normalize the functioning of the digestive system and improve overall health.

Important!Learn more about the treatment of gastritis with folk remedies.

Herbs

To improve digestion and secretory function, often treated herbs, usually in the form of therapeutic gastric collection.

  1. In equal portions you need to take leaves of triple, grass meadow, clover, St. John's wort, angelica root, immortelle, leaves of sage, mint, ara rhizome, dill seeds.
  2. Grasses mixed, pour 1 tbsp. l. a glass of boiling water, close the lid and let it brew for 2-3 hours.
  3. After this, infusion strain, add water, to get a glass of infusion and drink 3 times a day for 30 minutes before eating 1 glass.
  4. Continue should be no less than 2-3 months.

You can also get a ready-made gastric fee in a pharmacy.

Sea buckthorn oil

Sea-buckthorn oil contributes to the rapid regeneration of tissues, and also improves the digestion process. Healing properties of sea-buckthorn are unique. Take oil should be 1 tbsp. l. 2-3 times a day before meals.

Chamomile

An anti-inflammatory property, which reduces irritation of the mucosa, has an infusion of chamomile. For its preparation 2 tbsp. l. daisies are poured 3 cups of boiling water, close the lid and let it brew for 2-3 hours. Then strain and drink half the glass 2-3 times a day.

Juices

Are useful at an atrophic gastritis vegetable juices which will improve a secretion of a stomach and will promote normalization of process of digestion.

  1. Mix cabbage juice - 50 ml, potato juice - 25 ml, carrot juice - 25 ml, dilute with boiled water - 100 ml.
  2. Use between meals during the day.

Important!The use of any folk remedies must be agreed with the attending physician.

Compliance with diet

Compliance with diet with atrophic gastritis is one of the most important factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment of this disease. As with other types of gastritis, it is necessary to normalize nutrition, adhere to the regime and exclude certain foods to improve and facilitate the work of the stomach.

Prohibited products include:

  • Smoked meat, salted and marinated products;
  • fatty and fried foods;
  • alcohol;
  • tea, coffee, carbonated drinks;
  • sweets
  • spicy condiments.

When the disease worsens, diet No. 1a is prescribed. In this case, food is allowed only in liquid form, and also in the form of puree or mashed. Cooking should be steamed or boiled. The menu consists of nine main courses, these are mainly soups, puree, and the use of dairy products is also acceptable.

Such a diet with atrophic gastritis at the stage of exacerbation is short-lived until the acute symptoms are eliminated. Then the food is on the diet menu №1. Restrictions are made by hot and heavily chilled dishes, as well as foods rich in fiber.

When a stable remission is reached, the patient is transferred to the basic diet No. 2. Nutrition becomes more diverse, but one should adhere to sparing methods of heat treatment and cook steamed, boil, bake, while allowing easy roasting food. The use of vegetables and fruits, meat, fish, fermented milk products is allowed. Do not eat chilled foods with a rough structure.

Prevention

To prevent the development of atrophic gastritis, it is very important to detect and treat the acute and chronic gastritis preceding it in time. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are caused, as a rule, by unbalanced nutrition, harmful habits, stresses.

To prevent the development of atrophic gastritis:

  • regularly undergo an examination with a gastroenterologist;
  • when an acute or chronic gastritis is detected, undergo an appropriate course of treatment;
  • to eat properly and regularly;
  • limit consumption of fatty, salty, smoked food and sweets, as well as carbonated drinks and packaged juices;
  • exclude alcohol and smoking.

The combination of these negative factors affects the digestive system in the most negative way, which, against their long-term influence, leads to the development of severe pathologies, such as atrophic gastritis.