At home, various injuries are always possible, some of which can be accompanied by rupture of small or large vessels located in the muscle, ligament tissues of the body or internal organs. Thus, when a vein, artery, and medium-sized arteries are injured, bleeding develops, which must necessarily be stopped in order to save the life of the injured person - a child or an adult.
The first question asked in the examination examinations in medical educational institutions or in attestation of employees of enterprises, institutions or organizations is: "How to stop bleeding in case of vein injury and small arteries?".
From the answers below, you must choose the right one, it is marked in bold in the text:
- Apply a pressure bandage to the wound .
- Apply a tourniquet above the wound site.
- Apply a tourniquet below the wound site.
It is important to understand that life can give us unexpected tests, of which passing the exam in theory may seem like a naive joke. Therefore, we will consider how to act and properly stop bleeding at home when injured from the veins and arteries. And do not forget that theory is not everything. As a rule, with real trauma, one-stage and venous and arterial bleeding can be observed!
Let's talk about capillary, venous and arterial bleeding in case of vessel trauma.
Bleeding venous and arterial: how to stop the blood!
How to stop bleeding from a vein or artery
For proper first-aid treatment with venous bleeding, you need to make sure that the vein is damaged. Symptoms: dark cherry color of blood, slowly and slowly poured( with wound of small veins).If the large veins are damaged, the blood can pulsate with a stream.
In any case - blood loss - is dangerous for human life, you need to stop blood at home before the ambulance arrives!
What to do: finger compression of the vein
Quickly estimate the location and extent of damage. Methods of stopping blood: finger compression of the vein is below the of the injury site( after all, the venous blood rises up the limbs, heading for the pulmonary vessels for taking oxygen).You can use a pressure bandage or tourniquet.
If the artery is damaged, finger compression is performed by the above the damage sites!
If there is a slight bleeding from the vein, you can put your fingers to the vessel below the injury( by clenching this area of the muscle with local pincers or knuckles), as the venous blood flows from the bottom to the top. Usually this technique is sufficient to form a thrombus within ten to fifteen minutes.
If the artery is damaged, this technique will not allow you to be as effective!
To stop severe venous bleeding on the upper or lower limb, raise it above the level of the heart. Blood pressure will weaken, it is easier to apply a pressure bandage on the wound.
Applying a pressure bandage with venous bleeding is done spirally from the bottom to the top of the injury site. With each subsequent turn of the bandage, the tension is increased, but not quite tight. If the dressing is correctly applied, the limb retains its natural color. With too much bandaging, throbbing pain appears, the limb swells and turns blue. The bandage should be slightly weakened.
Overlapping of the tourniquet:
rules In case of severe bleeding from the vein, and even more so the arteries, often - the finger pressure of the vessel or the pressure bandage are ineffective, then use a tourniquet. Observe the correct technique for imposing it, as this salvage manipulation can cause harm to the injured in the form of a complete violation of the blood supply and innervation of the limb and, as a consequence, the development of paralysis, prolonged compression syndrome or gangrene.
In case of venous bleeding, the application of the tourniquet is performed by the below the wound, as does the finger pressing or applying a pressure bandage. In the absence of a conventional harness, replace it with a belt, a towel, a handkerchief, a shirt sleeve or a jacket.
With arterial bleeding, the application of a tourniquet makes the higher than the wound!
To reduce the trauma of nerves and skin, you can apply a tourniquet over clothing, each subsequent tour do more than the previous one, but not quite tight. Under the last coil, tie up a note indicating the exact time of the harness, up to minutes.
In cases where transportation of the victim to the hospital takes more than one hour, the tourniquet should be weakened for a few minutes, while pressing the vein before the harness in advance, so as not to wash the blood clot. If the bleeding recurs again, apply a tourniquet somewhat lower than the previous location of the overlay, record the exact time of the manipulation again.
Regardless of the chosen method of stopping bleeding, it is necessary to create a fixed position for the damaged part of the body( fix with a roller with bandaging, a tire from improvised materials).
In all circumstances, even when you manage to successfully cope with minor bleeding, show the injured to the doctor. Quite often, you may need a thorough treatment of the wound with disinfectant solutions, plus - the introduction of tetanus antiserum.
How to stop heavy bleeding: what to do?
Stop bleeding is a priority. Large blood loss - a threat to the life of the patient. At first glance, minor bleeding for the elderly and children can be dangerous. It is necessary to know and know the skills of first aid.
With capillary bleeding, as a rule, blood loss is small. However, with problems associated with blood coagulability, stopping blood is not an easy task.
Things To Do:
- Cover the wound with clean gauze.
- Top with a piece of cotton wool.
- Bandage the bleeding place.
Make sure that the bandage is tight enough to press the blood pressure to squeeze the blood vessels. If there is no dressing at hand, put a clean handkerchief on the wound.
The main symptom of venous bleeding is the release of dark red blood in large quantities.
What is the danger of bleeding from a vein?
Risk of high blood loss plus the risk of air bubbles entering the damaged vessels.
Than and how to stop!
To effectively stop bleeding from the vein, apply a pressure bandage as soon as possible: cover the wound with sterile gauze( if it is on hand, if not - use everything that is possible cleanly), top attach a roller from cotton wool and tightly bandage the injured place.
The task is to clamp the ends of the damaged vessels as quickly as possible. If there are no bandages and cotton wool under your hands, squeeze the bleeding place with your finger. If the limbs are injured, bully them upward to reduce blood pressure.
The most dangerous of all other species. In five minutes the patient can lose several liters of blood!
Sign of bleeding from the artery: a pulsating stream of bright red blood.
What to do:
- Immediately press fingers with a wounded vessel, do not release the fixation until someone prepares dressings and a tourniquet.
- If there is no harness, use a kerchief, tie, belt, shirt sleeves, jacket.
- A loop or tourniquet is placed above the bleeding spot. Put under them a layer of gauze, clothes, so as not to damage the twisting of the skin and nerve trunks.
- Remember that the patient needs to be delivered within two hours to the hospital, and that if the tourniquet is over two hours, the bandage of the bandaged limb will die.
How to stop bleeding from the carotid artery
Immediately press the wound on the neck with the knuckles to the cervical vertebrae in front( before the wound or the wound itself).Then, with a tight, sterile bandage folded in half like a roller, lay it in the wound( tampon) and pribintovat it to the neck, while you need to keep the blood flow in the intact carotid artery. This is the most dangerous wound - a person can lose consciousness after a few seconds from blood loss and die. Wait for the ambulance to arrive.
See the video on the topic, and you will all be clearly looking at the preview, what to do and how: "Temporary stopping bleeding" from the video channel - Tyumen State Medical University.
Bleeding: types, methods of stop, first aid.
MEdpilm: First aid for bleeding( KyivNauchFilm).
Konstantin Solovyov left review : "This is the most useful video I've ever seen on youtube."
First aid for bleeding
On the video channel "Doctor next door".
Blood is a liquid tissue of the body, a significant loss of which can lead to life-threatening consequences. This issue will teach us the basics of first aid in case of traumatic bleeding.