Paresis of the facial nerve - symptoms and treatment

Paresis of the facial nerve is a fairly common disease. According to medical statistics, 20 out of 100 people have this diagnosis. As a rule, people who have crossed the 40-year-old line fall into the risk zone. However, there is an inherent complication. Pathology affects equally, both men and women. In the early stages of the disease successfully treated, but in a neglected state requires surgery.

Content:
  • Neuritis of the facial nerve, what is it?
  • Varieties of the paresis
  • Causes of the disease
  • Signs of facial paralysis
  • Degrees of paresis of the facial nerve
  • Diagnostics
  • How to treat facial paralysis
  • Therapy with medication
  • Surgery
  • Physiotherapeutic procedures
  • Gymnastic Exercises
  • Massage with paresis of facial type 99
  • Folk remedies
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Neuritis of the facial nerve, what is it?

Paresis or neuritis of the facial nerve (code μb 10) is a disease of the nervous system that affects the facial muscles. Usually, one side is ill, but in exceptional cases, there is a total disease. The main sign of facial neuritis is the lack of motor muscle activity. What causes the asymmetry of the face and worsens the appearance. The illness can be treated quickly if a person in a timely manner applies for medical help and undergoes a full course of therapy.

The disease appears due to disruption of the trigeminal nerve. He is responsible for facial movements of the face. If it is injured, the impulse can not fully transmit the signal to the fibers. Because of this failure, the muscular system weakens, and they can not work properly. The triple nerve contributes to saliva and tears, and it also stimulates the taste receptors in the tongue. If the work of the nerve is disrupted, then these functions are performed inadequately.

Varieties of the paresis

The disease is quite serious, as the change in appearance affects the emotional state of a person. At the first symptoms it is important to consult a doctor. Physicians distinguish several types of ailment. All of them differ in the area of ​​facial muscles.

  1. Peripheral paresis. All people fall into the risk zone. Neuritis begins with a drawing pain behind the ear. Only one side is affected. Paresis of the facial nerve is peripheral due to various inflammations, which worsen the work of nerve impulses. As a result, the impulses transmitted by the brain can not fully transfer to the face.
  2. Central paresis. This is a more complicated disease that is difficult to treat. It is diagnosed, both in adults and in children. When paralysis, the muscles located below the nose, atrophy and just sag. Pathology does not affect the upper region of the face, and does not affect the forehead and eyes. The patient, as before, can perfectly distinguish the taste of food. As a rule, the central paresis of the facial nerve affects both sides of the face. The main cause of the ailment is a malfunction in the work of neurons located in the brain.
  3. Congenital paresis. It is diagnosed in newborn children. Paresis of the facial nerve in the newborn is visually noticeable, since one corner of the eye is slightly lowered to the bottom. Timely diagnosis allows you to quickly restore the health of crumbs. As a rule, massage and special gymnastics are prescribed. Procedures allow to normalize the flow of blood, and restore the functionality of nerve fibers. Sometimes a severe form of paralysis is observed. Then doctors recommend only surgery.

Causes of the disease

The causes of paralysis of the facial muscles are many. However, the root cause is the hypothermia of the head and ears. But the following problems can provoke the disease:

  • kidney disease (poliomyelitis);
  • herpes;
  • infectious diseases of the respiratory tract;
  • various head trauma;
  • otitis;
  • the breakdown of nerve endings during surgery;
  • syphilis;
  • tuberculosis.

Important!Often facial paralysis occurs as a complication after a stroke, hypertensive crisis, multiple sclerosis and in severe stages of diabetes mellitus. The work of this nerve can break during dental procedures.

Signs of facial paralysis

The disease affects the nervous facial impulses, so they stop functioning normally. Because of this, the work of mimic wrinkles is disrupted, which dulls the movements. Paralysis changes the appearance of a person not for the better. The change depends on its kind.

Among the main symptoms of physicians are:

  • omission of oral corners;
  • immovability of the fold above the upper lip;
  • the eyelid is wide open, and when closed, there is a narrow gap;
  • the taste receptors in the tongue are reduced or completely absent;
  • the normal operation of the eye (tearing or dryness) is disrupted;
  • there is no way to stretch the lips, which makes it difficult to eat;
  • For the first time the days show a pain in the ears, with loud sounds;
  • you can not wrinkle your forehead, the skin remains smooth.

All these symptoms are quite unpleasant, so you need to seek medical help.

Degrees of paresis of the facial nerve

Paralysis is divided into several degrees of complexity. All of them differ in the severity of the disease:

  • 1 degree (easy). Symptoms of the disease are poorly expressed. Perhaps a slight distortion of the corner of the mouth, heavy frown and close your eyes;
  • 2 degree (middle). The main symptom is lagophthalmus. The patient can not move the upper part of the face;
  • 3 degree (heavy). All the symptoms are quite pronounced. The patient does not close his eyes, his mouth is twisted, and the movement of facial wrinkles is hampered.

Important!In the early stages, the paresis is quite easy to treat. For this purpose, special procedures and preparations are prescribed.

Diagnostics

The clinical symptoms of facial paralysis, in experienced physicians, do not cause any doubt, exactly the diagnosis. Additionally, it is appointed to visit the doctor of ENT. To accurately establish the cause of the appearance of the disease and exclude the tumor, the patient is prescribed an instrumental examination:

  • MRI;
  • scanning of the head.

Based on the findings of the doctor can find out the reason that triggered this complication and proceed to treatment.

How to treat facial paralysis

Treatment of the disease directly depends on what time the patient turned to a specialist. The restoration takes at least 6 months. During this time the patient undergoes a course of drug therapy and physiotherapy, he is given a massage and performs special gymnastics.

Therapy with medication

In acute form, the doctor must establish the cause of the pathology, remove swelling and inflammation. In addition, drugs are prescribed that restore cells and stimulate the work of muscles. Among the main drugs, the patient is prescribed:

  • painkillers, tablets or injections (Baralgin, Spazgan, Ketorol);
  • Removing edema (Traimpul, Furosemide, Prednisolone);
  • sedative sedatives (Sibazon, Relanium);
  • vitamins of group B;
  • drops of artificial tears.

As a rule, in the presence of additional symptoms, a person is prescribed certain medications. All medicines are prescribed only by a doctor. Take them necessary, at the prescribed dosage. Before treatment, it is important to read the instructions.

Surgery

The operation is recommended to be performed if the nerve has burst, with serious injuries and birth defects. Such treatment is effective if it is performed in 1 year of the disease. If this is not done, then eventually the nerve becomes atrophied and will never be able to move the muscles.

In case of a rupture, the nerve is simply stitched. If another reason is established, it is recommended to perform autotransplantation. The transplant is taken from the person's foot and placed on the necessary site of the face. After that, nerve endings are attached to it. As a rule, the operation is always successful and the person restores facial movements on his face. After the procedure, there is a small scar behind the ear.

Physiotherapeutic procedures

At the initial stages of the disease, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy. In the course of changes in treatment, these procedures can be changed or completely eliminated. As a rule, the patient is prescribed:

  • paraffin therapy;
  • UHF;
  • phonophoresis with special preparations;
  • lamp of Sollux.

Gymnastic Exercises

Gymnastics for paresis of the facial nerve is prescribed to everyone. In the early stages, it gives excellent results and quickly restores the muscles. The technique of exercises is simple, it includes such movements:

  • raise and lower eyebrows;
  • inflate cheeks and put pressure on them;
  • lips make a tube and pull them forward;
  • alternately open their eyes, and then tightly squeeze.

Simple exercises can be performed in your free time at home.

Massage with paresis of facial type 99

The procedure should only be performed by a specialist, as it is important to be scrupulous, and to feel the patient's muscles. The technique of massage includes such actions:

  • the neck muscles are stretched to the sides;
  • with slight movements, knead the neck and the back of the head;
  • massage both the sick and the healthy side;
  • with a strong soreness, all movements should be smooth and easy;
  • lymph nodes do not massage.

Folk remedies

Supplement the basic treatment necessary folk remedies. To calm the nervous system, it is necessary to drink tinctures and teas, based on herbs (mint, melissa, motherwort, thyme, hawthorn). The affected side must be warmed. To do this, heat the salt, put it in a tissue pouch and apply it to a sore spot. Rubbing fir oil warms well the strangulated muscles.

Complications arise if a person has not made a timely request to the doctor or is careless about recommendations. The consequences are serious enough, it is blindness and irreversible nerve damage.