Aneurysm of the carotid artery: causes, features and methods of treatment

The carotid artery is the largest in the human body, providing circulation of blood to organs and systems. Sometimes there are times when the walls become brittle, and as a result, the movement of blood can stretch, increasing its diameter.

The pathology of an aneurysm is identified, which can occur in different parts of the artery. Such deformation can not occur without a trace, letting you know about yourself with the appropriate symptomatology. Features of the ailment, its causes, features, as well as methods of cure and methods of prevention, will be discussed further.

Contents

  • 1 General Information
  • 2 When does the disease occur?
  • 3 Classification and degrees
  • 4 Danger and complications
  • 5 Symptoms of
  • 6 First signs of
    • 6.1 Progression of
  • 7 What should I do if I break?
  • 8 How to prevent deterioration?
  • 9 Diagnosis
  • 10 Treatment methods
  • 11 Forecasts and prevention measures

General information


Carotid artery aneurysm is classified as for dangerous circulatory system diseases that can lead to the death of .

The fact is that it has a relatively large diameter, which increases its throughput. So it was genetically formed that this artery plays a key role in the process of blood transportation.

The main feature of the ailment is the fact that it can manifest itself many times and give relapses. There is this for two reasons:

  • genetic predisposition and the presence of thinned walls of the entire circulatory system;
  • lifestyle and malnutrition, as well as injuries to the cervical spine.
If the disease is not treated for a long time, there is a possibility of progression of thrombophlebitis, which significantly complicates not only further treatment, but also the rehabilitation process.

When does the disease occur?

All the causes that are the prerequisites for the occurrence of an aneurysm can be conditionally divided into 3 subgroups:

  • Influence of external factors .This includes unregulated physical activities that provoke various types of neuralgia and extensive inflammatory processes, as well as traumatism, as a result of which the artery has been in a pinched condition for a long time( prolonged squeezing syndrome).
  • Congenital pathology of the .If parents have a bad heredity or suffer from pathological necrotic changes in the vascular system, there is a risk of congenital aneurysm in the fetus, which is eliminated by an operable route.
  • Concomitant diseases .In the presence of atherosclerosis, a heart attack or pre-infarction, as well as strokes, there are all chances of developing an aneurysm of the carotid artery. Also, the ailment can be activated against the background of extensive inflammatory processes that affect the body, penetrating deeply into the blood and depriving the walls of the vessels of natural functions.
Sometimes the causes of the pathology can be several. In this case, when trying to diagnose, they try to identify the cause as precisely as possible and neutralize it, after which they deal with the treatment of the aneurysm itself.

People at risk who have chronic ischemic heart disease, tachycardia and hypertension are at risk. An elderly person usually suffers an aneurysm, but cases of its occurrence at a traumatism and the connected inflammatory process among youth are not rare.

Classification and degrees

There are several characteristics that help to more accurately differentiate the disease, considering all its features. An aneurysm of the carotid artery is classified. ..

  1. In shape:
    • spindle-shaped - defined by an elongated shape with smooth smooth contours;
    • saccular - looks like a one-sided artery protrusion;
    • fusiform - has a shape without clear boundaries, which can vary depending on the position of the body and pressure.
  2. By structure:
    • single chamber - is represented by a single thinning of the artery, at which its boundaries and parameters are noted;
    • multi-chamber - thinning affects a certain area of ​​the artery, look like a bunch of grapes.
  3. For sizes and parameters:
    • miliary - from 1 to 3 mm;
    • average - from 5 to 15 mm;
    • large - from 15 to 25 mm;
    • is huge - from 1 cm in diameter or more.
  4. By location:
    • in the anterior part of the cerebral artery - the greatest likelihood of occurrence for women;
    • in the inner part of the carotid artery is characteristic of men;
    • is the median artery of the brain;
    • multiple lesions of several arteries located at a distance from each other.

There are 4 degrees of disease progression:

  • initial - changes in the walls of the artery are minor;
  • progressive - marked abnormalities and necrotic changes in connective tissue cells;
  • Acute - characterized by rapid flow and serious consequences, provoking a lethal outcome;
  • chronic - has a hereditary cause and can be in the same position for life, without giving its owner special pain.
When diagnosed, these parameters are basic and help to accurately assess the severity of the situation and the degree of disease progression.

Danger and complications

Carotid artery aneurysm - a very dangerous phenomenon, provoking , not only the rupture of the vessel wall, but also the formation of thrombi .Blood clots, which are in the aneurysm for a long time, can become an obvious barrier and carry a danger.

The lack of treatment is bad for the person's , especially if the disease progresses by leaps and bounds. The triggered stage can attach other concomitant diseases, which lead to complications and aggravate the situation, delay the moment of recovery.

Are you concerned about frequent pains and ripples in the middle of the abdomen? Find out if you are at risk of aortic aneurysm. In detail, the symptoms of this disease are described in a separate material, there you will find information about its treatment.

Symptoms of

Even the fact that the skin around the carotid artery is the least dense and the most transparent, does not give a chance for visual detection of the disease. It is also worth noting that for each person is symptomatic individual and may depend on the level of immunity, endurance and pain threshold.

First signs of

It's necessary to pay attention to your own health condition already when the first symptoms of an aneurysm of the carotid neck are manifested:

  • fast fatigue;
  • pain in the inner part of the cervical region;
  • dizziness for no reason.

This can talk not only about aneurysm, but also about other abnormalities in the work of organs and systems.

Early diagnosis can save lives and protect against serious consequences.

Progression of

When the disease is actively developing and aggravated, it is easier to recognize it because of such obvious symptoms :

  • ringing and tinnitus for a long time, especially after sudden movements;Insomnia
  • and a constant sense of anxiety and restlessness;
  • a feeling of strong pulsation in the neck;
  • sharp headaches, which can not be eliminated with simple anesthetics.

This symptomatology should serve as a reason for to seek immediate medical attention from and adjust the person to find the true cause of what is happening.

What should I do if I break?

It is not uncommon for an aneurysm, in the absence of treatment, to so thin out the walls of the vessel that it can not withstand blood pressure and breaks, spewing blood into the brain.

This is a rather dangerous and terrible phenomenon that is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • paralysis of the whole body or individual parts;
  • violation of the speech apparatus, in which a person can not clearly explain what happened to him;
  • acute pain in the eyes with subsequent visual impairment;
  • confusion;
  • bouts of oxygen shortage;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • darkening of the skin of the neck.
With the above symptomatology immediately cause resuscitation, the team which is engaged in providing emergency care to the patient, after which he is taken to the hospital and operated.

How to prevent deterioration?

Frequent headaches, tinnitus, loss of consciousness - this is the reason for the passage of a complete diagnosis of the state of health. If an aneurysm of the carotid artery is detected, treatment is performed by the phlebologist or a vascular surgeon .

In the absence of a planned physical examination and a disregard for one's own health, which is characterized by abuse of painkillers and vasodilators, has a risk of transition to the acute stage of , which in most cases leads to death.

Diagnosis

The patient's external condition, which is characterized by a mixed symptom, speaks little about the presence of an aneurysm of the carotid artery. Much more information can be obtained thanks to research on special computer modeling equipment:

  • MRI - Magnetic resonance imaging provides information on the presence of the disease, its shape and stage, and to make a prediction and choose a method of treatment.
  • CT - computed tomography of vessels has a smaller spectrum of analysis, but it has the highest accuracy.
  • ultrasound dopplerography.

With routine medical examinations of , one can notice an aneurysm in the early stages of and prevent its large-scale progression.

Find out if you have a risk of getting an aneurysm of the aorta of the heart. Timely detection of this disease will help you to save life.

The same applies to cerebral aneurysms. Here you will find all about her symptoms, treatment and rehabilitation.

Methods of treatment

Depending on the location of the aneurysm and the patient's age, appropriate treatment is selected. Most often, an aneurysm can be eliminated exclusively surgically. For this use two types of operations:

  • partial excision of the bag of the vessel;
  • prosthetics of especially large deformed areas.

In the first case, when there is open access to an aneurysm, its is excised by two notches , after which the carotid artery is sewn.

In the second case, if an aneurysm is of impressive size and affects more than 3-5 cm of artery, resort to implantation. For this, the artery is clamped, connecting a person to the artificial maintenance of vital activity, the removes the whole affected segment, and in its place the rubber hoses imitating the carotid artery are implanted.

This video shows an operation to remove an aneurysm and its prosthetics:

Video operations - carefully, not for the faint of heart
When an aneurysm is small and does not carry an open threat to life, a set of medications can be prescribed that dilute the blood and increase the elasticity of the vessel walls.

Forecasts and prevention measures


With early diagnosis, there is every chance that the operation will be avoided, but if this did not happen, complete excision of the aneurysm has good prognosis for the recovery of .But you need to understand that the prediction also depends on the age and overall health of the patient.

As prevention of an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, it is recommended that lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid prolonged sitting, and abandon the bad habits of to normalize all metabolic processes.

It is much easier to prevent an aneurysm than to treat it .A sleepy artery feeding the brain can have ruptures due to the thinning of its own walls, which leads to extensive hemorrhages. In this regard, it is recommended not to tolerate headache and noise in the ears, and in time to look for the cause, giving preference to qualified specialists, rather than pain medications.

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