Melon is an ancient agricultural crop, which is appreciated for its taste qualities and dietary properties.
Cucumis melo( melon ordinary or table) is a plant of the Pumpkin family from the genus Cucumber.
The structure of the pumpkin stalk and the life cycle allow it to be attributed to annual grasses, and the specificity of growing is to melons and gourds.
The closest relative of a pumpkin is a cucumber, other related cultures are watermelon, pumpkin and loofah( washcloth).
Melon stem can reach 2-4 meters in length.
As it grows, it clings to the counter supports using antennas.
The plant has a developed root system, which leaves in the soil for 1 meter in depth and 2 meters in the sides.
Growth of young melon slows down at the age of 4-5 days and resumes after the growth of a powerful root.
One plant produces 2-8 fruits weighing 1.5-10 kg. The result depends on the place of cultivation and the variety.
It has a spherical / cylindrical shape, green, white, brown or yellow with bright green stripes. The aging period is 2-6 months.
It's hard to call melon an unpretentious culture.
In order for the plant to grow, develop and bear fruit, a combination of several factors is necessary: sufficient lighting, dry air, moderate watering, temperature 25-38 degrees and fertilizer.
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In the case of crops, a large leaf area is a synonym for high volatility.
So, the plant can not effectively resist the drought, which will invariably affect the quality of the fruit.
The melon grows best at temperatures above 30 degrees. For cool climatic zones, special varieties were introduced.
Their only drawback is a smaller sugar content.
Suitable soil for melon - light / medium loam, with neutral alkaline reaction, fertile.
Soil salinity and high humidity during plant cultivation are unacceptable.
Fruit, vegetable or berry
Fruits are called juicy edible fruits growing on bushes or trees. Based on this definition, melon is not a fruit.
Edible fruits of herbs are called vegetables. The melon's affinity with vegetable crops is confirmed by its closest relative, a cucumber.
Cooking melon is usually called a dessert vegetable, which is explained by its sweet taste and aroma.
It is interesting that in Japan unsweetened plant varieties are grown that are used as vegetables.
As for berries, they are called small juicy fruits growing on trees, bushes or grasses.
Despite its huge size, the fruits of melons and gourds refer to berries. Their atypical size is explained by man's hard work for thousands of years.
In the wild nature there are sorts of melons with small fruits - no more plums. There is a possibility that these were the ancestors of this crop.
Melon is not an ordinary berry. The fruits of this plant are called false-jugs or tykvins.
A distinctive feature of the crop is a large number of seeds covered with thick protective peels and a juicy pericarp.
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Thus, in people, a melon is usually called a dessert vegetable. According to the scientific classification of fruits, it refers to false berries.
History of origin
The first mention of the melon appeared 5-6 thousand years ago, as evidenced by Egyptian images of sacrificial gifts.
In order to understand from what region this culture originates, it is necessary to determine the place at which point of the world the most closely related forms, adapted to local conditions, grow.
In the case of a melon, there are two such points: north of Africa and north-west of India.
The direct ancestors of the melon that we know today - Cucumis melo - were not found in the wild.
In some regions there are a lot of wild and semi-cultural representatives of the genus.
They are small in size, low in sugar and taste like a cucumber.
Inhabitants of Africa and India have learned to grow a melon in ancient times. Selection works in these regions were not carried out: this was not necessary.
Most scientists prefer to consider melon as the birthplace of those areas in which the plant appeared as it is known to date.
These countries include the neighboring countries of India and Africa - Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Asia Minor.
Residents of these areas have been engaged in the cultivation of melons for hundreds of years. Culture is still grown on the territory of these countries.
Only in Uzbekistan 113 local( rare varieties) and 38 regional ones were registered.
A significant role in the "formation" of Cucumis melo was played by China and Japan.
Melon is a deposit of useful substances. It contains:
- Vitamins P, A, PP, E, B1, B2, folic acid, carotene. Interestingly, the content of ascorbic acid melon is the leader among melons and gourds.
- Minerals - magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, silicon, etc.
- Sugar. Fruits contain about 13% of pectins and easily digestible fats.
Among other things, the melon is rich in proteins, fats and fiber.
Melon is rightly called a home healer.
Useful substances that make up the plant, have a beneficial effect on the work of all body systems.
Normalizes the work of nervous and hormonal systems, improves mood.
The composition of the fruit includes substances that contribute to the development of the "hormone of happiness" - serotonin.
Melon juice is a natural relaxant, rich in a lot of essential oils.
A piece of melon is a proven remedy for depression, melancholy and apathy. Recommended for physical and mental loads.
Helps to cope with cardiovascular diseases.
Melon refers to foods that remove bad cholesterol from the body.
This feature allows you to recommend a melon to patients who suffer from atherosclerosis.
Additional "bonus" - vitamins and minerals, beneficial for the cardiovascular system.
Promotes weight loss, helps with constipation and hemorrhoids.
Melon is the best product for cleansing the body.
It contains a large amount of fiber and other nutrients, normalizing the work of the gastrointestinal tract, improving the state of the intestinal microflora.
"Melon" diet contributes to the complex purification of the body. Before you go on a diet, it is recommended to consult a doctor.
The fruits of the plant contain a lot of sugar, and therefore, this diet is not suitable for everyone.
Has an antitoxic and diuretic effect. Melon is a finding for patients suffering from diseases of the kidney and bladder.
It is used for excretion of stones with urolithiasis.
Has a rejuvenating effect.
Silicon, which is part of the melon, has a number of useful properties.
Responsible for the regulation of physiological processes, improves skin and hair condition, affects the cerebral cortex, improves the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, etc.
To get valuable silicon from the melon, you need to eat the flesh near the rind.
Increases immunity, helps with gout .
"Get" the benefits of melons can be a man of any gender and age. The fruits of the plant contribute to the improvement of potency in men, the preservation of beauty and youth in women, physical development in children.
Traditional medicine recipes
The use of melons for the treatment of diseases is unlimited:
- With radiculitis : take melon juice three times a day for 1/3 cup.
- When kidney stones :
, extract seeds from melon, grind in a mortar, pour into a glass.
Boil water and let cool.
Slowly pour water into the glass, stirring constantly.
Strain the mixture through gauze.
Take before meals ½ cup twice or thrice a day.
- With gonorrhea :
grind the seeds.
Take 1 tsp.seeds and pour 0.3 liters of boiling water.
Warm the mixture in a water bath for 20 minutes.
Remove from heat, drain.
Take 2-3 weeks before dinner.
- With vitiligo :
for the removal of vitiligo( pigment spots), regularly lubricate the affected area with the flesh of melon.
- For diseases of the renal apparatus :
grind the melon seeds,
take 1 tbsp.shredded seeds,
pour 250 ml of water and put on fire.
Remove from heat after 10 minutes, cool, strain through gauze.
The resulting broth is to be drunk twice a day for 100 ml.
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