Echocardiogram refers to the most modern methods of conducting a heart examination and contractile activity of its muscles. It is echocardiographic research that facilitates the visualization of a functioning organ and vessels.
At its base is the use of ultrasound, which is absolutely not perceived by the human ear. What kind of research is this - echocardiography, what does it show, and what is the ECG, how to prepare for the procedure, how is the ultrasound of the heart vessels done: find answers to all the questions from this article.
- 1 The ultrasound of the heart differs from ECG
- 2 Varieties
- 2.1 transthoracic
- 2.2 Transesophageal
- 2.3 stress with exercise test
- 2.4 Stress
- 2.5 Intravascular
- 3 types echocardiography
- 4 Indications
- 5 Preparing the patient to the study and features of
- 6 Explanation of results
Than ultrasound of the heart differs from ECG
ECG and EchoCG are among the most effective examinations of the cardiovascular system. They are characterized by joint goals and tasks. But the methods and methods that are used in their conduct differ substantially from one another. What is the difference between Echocardiography( ultrasound of the heart) and ECG and what does each of these studies give?
The way of carrying out .To remove the ECG, you need to use a cardiograph and electrodes. At the same time, the electrostatic activity of the heart muscle is examined and fixed, and then the results are translated into a graphic drawing. It can be clearly seen: the
- is characterized by the activity of the organ with a stable rhythm of pulsation;
- what are the numerical parameters of heartbeat;
- presence or absence of arrhythmia.
For carrying out the cardiac echocardiography, needs special electronic equipment , which is called a transducer. It must be tightly applied to the chest, and then brought into working condition. This device is a generator of waves belonging to the ultrasonic spectrum. They are able to penetrate into the body, fight off its tissues and return back.
Special equipment facilitates the processing of received data and displaying them on the screen. At the same time on his monitor you can see a three-dimensional picture.
With the help of the latter, doctors manage to establish and prevent the occurrence of organ failure, check the activity of the valve, determine the location of atrophied fractions of the heart muscle.
An echocardiogram uses the to examine the condition of the heart of a patient who has suffered an attack, identifying serious blood clots that do not move. In addition, with the help of current echo converters, you can study the work of a vital organ in a 3D image.
In comparison with ECG the converter is able to provide a more understandable picture of the examination, as it reveals the presence of almost all diseases of the organ.
The echocardiogram has several types, we will consider each separately.
The standard form of the echocardiogram, which is characterized by painlessness and something similar to radiography, is used to assess the state of health before the birth.
For this type of EchoCG sensor, which transmits high frequency sound waves, the is applied to the chest of the .Heart muscles beat these waves. Thus, the image and sounds are created, analyzing which the doctor determines the presence or absence of anomalies and organ diseases.
When transoesophageal echocardiogram is a sensor in the form of a swallowing tube that connects the stomach to the oral cavity, is inserted into the cavity of the esophagus .Its close arrangement to the heart contributes to a clear image of the structure of the organ.
Stress with exercise test
An echocardiogram that is performed with a stress test, using dobutamine or adenosine , refers to stress echocardiography. Only here the physiological load on the organ is not applied, but the influence of medical preparations stimulating the work of the organ.
With the help of this study, it is possible to assess the state of the body in the event that it is not possible to use a track or a bicycle for this purpose, load tolerance, the possibility of occurrence of ischemic disease, and the effectiveness of the therapy.
During the sporting sessions of the patient , using a running track or bike, , stress echocardiography is performed.
Throughout this procedure, it is possible to visualize the motion of the heart walls and analyze its pump function of the with increased loads on the organ.
With the help of a stress echocardiogram, unlike other similar studies, one can determine the lack of blood flow.
To intravascular ultrasound application is used for cardiac catheterization. In this case, a special sensor is inserted into the cavity of the blood vessels. For this, a catheter is used.
In most cases, this procedure is performed in order to analyze the occlusion inside the vessel.
Types of echocardiography
There are 3 types of echocardiograms:
- One-dimensional in the M-mode - the wave supplied by the device is placed along one axis. Therefore, the monitor shows a view of the organ from above. When moving the ultrasound line, it is possible to check the ventricle, aorta and atrium.
- The two-dimensional echocardiogram facilitates the examination of the heart in two projections. Therefore, during its carrying out, it is possible to analyze the movement of cardiac structures.
- The Doppler echocardiogram is performed in order to evaluate such parameters of the organ functioning as the speed with which the blood moves and its turbulence. As a result of the adopted results, one can draw a conclusion about the presence of defects and the degree of filling of the ventricle.
Conduct Echocardiography is mandatory if there are such symptoms:
- pain in the chest or heart;
- noises and breaks in rhythm with the activity of the organ;
- ischemia or acute myocardial infarction;
- symptoms, which indicate the presence of heart failure;
- shortness of breath, rapid fatigue, shortage of air, rapid skin pimples.
Necessarily carry out the procedure of echocardiogram to patients who underwent surgery on the heart, with an injured thorax. Also direction for ultrasound of the heart can be obtained by those who have:
- chronic headaches;
- man-made valve;
- hypertensive patients;
- is actively involved in sports.
Preparation of the patient for the study and features of the
Preparation for the procedure is not characterized by unusual complexity. The patient should take off his clothes to the waist and lie on the left side of the .This position provides the closest position of the chest to the tip of the organ being examined. This helps to get the most accurate image.
After this, the sensor locations are lubricated with a gel. Their diverse positions contribute to the most obvious definition of cardiac divisions, as well as the measurement and recording of the results of their activities.
Attaching these sensors is not painful and does not cause discomfort. Actually, with their help, ultrasound changes, which changes during passage through the tissues, which is reflected and returns back.
Then the sounds are converted into signals that fall into the echocardiograph. The sound wave changes under the influence of modifications in the state of organs.
After processing the signals, a clear picture of the appears on the monitor, according to which the doctor makes appropriate conclusions about the patient's condition.
Learn how to do ultrasound of the heart, learn from the video:
Decoding results of
Continuation of echocardiography study is the interpretation of its results. The exact and comprehensive can only be analyzed by a cardiologist.
In any conclusion of the ultrasound, there are constant, constant parameters that are characteristic for the normal state and functioning of the organ. By their values and , the functioning and structure of the heart chambers are determined. These include data characterizing the ventricles, interventricular septum, valves and pericardium.
Echocardiography performs normal ventricular activity. Depending on the degree of deviation of actual results from these indicators, the development or presence of the corresponding pathology is established.
A simpler, in comparison with the parameters of the ventricles, is the interpretation of the results of heart valve examinations. In case of evasion, can be reported on the development of either insufficiency or stenosis of .The reduced diameter of the lumen, in which blood pumping is significantly hampered, indicates the presence of stenosis.
Failure formation provokes a slightly different process: non-hermetically closing valves facilitate the return of blood back to the chamber, which significantly reduces the efficiency of the heart.
The most common pathology of the pericardium is pericarditis - the accumulation of fluid between the pericardium and the myocardium, which significantly complicates the activity of the organ.
More useful information about what and how the doctor assesses during the study, find out from the video:
The cost of Echocardiography has a very wide range. Its performance is greatly influenced by the qualifications and reputation of the specialist who conducts this study, as well as the level and location of the medical institution. This is due to the fact that only a highly qualified specialist can fully and correctly decipher the information obtained.
And since the heart is practically the most important human organ that provides vital activity to our whole body - then does not need to risk its state .Because very often it ends in a lethal outcome.