Diseases of the intestine

Content
  • Intestinal device
  • Main functions
  • Causes of diseases of the intestinal tract
  • What are the most common intestinal diseases?
  • Mechanism of development of major intestinal disorders
  • How is bowel disease diagnosed?
  • The importance of modern hardware research
  • Treatment for problems with the intestines
  • Related Videos

The human intestine performs a difficult function as a conductor of the food mass from the stomach to the anus, but is an important link in the processing and absorption of essential nutrients into the blood.

His participation in the synthesis of hormones, components of immunity is proved. Diseases of the intestine are difficult to tolerate especially in childhood. For many chronicles to cure the intestines - means a return to an able-bodied condition.

Intestinal device

The intestine is a hollow tube of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). A thin part of 5-6 m in length leaves the stomach, then it passes into 2 m of the large intestine. The division of departments into parts is conditional. But the structure of the wall and the epithelium of the inner layer affects the functions.

The duodenum closest to the stomach takes the treated masses and continues the digestion process. It flows into the ducts of the pancreas and the gallbladder. They bring a large set of enzymes for the cleavage of food components to amino acids, fatty acids, glucose.

The main distinctive features between the small and large intestine:

  • in diameter of a lumen - at thick 5-8 sm, thin in 2 times already;
  • surgeons differ in color - thin intensely pink, thick - gray-ashy;
  • by the arrangement of muscle fibers - in the wall of the small intestine they are uniform throughout the circumference, in the thick - they pass only on one side in the form of wide three bands;
  • on the large intestine there are circular grooves, ocellus processes with fatty tissue;
  • if the small intestine provides an active process of absorption through the villi of the mucosa, then in the thick process of digestion of food does not occur, only fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed.

Main functions

The small intestine continues to treat the food lump delivered from the stomach. The conditions for absorption here are the most favorable: a lot of folds and villi increase the contact surface, the membrane layer lets only small molecules of amino acids, monosaccharides, mineral salts, vitamins, fatty acids. The presence of a constant intestinal flora provides the intestine with additional enzymes for the cleavage of food particles.

Human intestine
Gut motility is provided by stimulation of internal receptors by bile, fluid, contractile impulses obtained through the fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system

Wavy movements "drive" the contents towards the cecum. Here is a valve that lets the remains of digested food pass through. Through the appendix, additional fluid absorption occurs. The operation of the colon consists of:

  • in excretion of undigested food residues, mainly fiber, substances with toxic effect (indole, phenol, skatole), creatinine, urea, uric acid;
  • final digestion with the help of their enzymes and received enzymes of the small intestine;
  • production of vitamins B6 and B12, E, K;
  • with the help of its own microflora, the destruction of pathogenic pathogens;
  • suction of fluid;
  • the formation of solid feces from cellulose, mucus, bacteria, decaying bile enzymes.

An important point - the process of digestion and transportation of the contents to the anus in the intestine is reflexive, does not depend on the will of the person. But the regime of nutrition, the state of excitability of the nervous system is of great importance. With stress, there are problems with the intestines, spastic contractions of individual zones.

Causes of diseases of the intestinal tract

Diseases of the intestine occur for the following reasons:

  • malnutrition - irregular eating, passion for fatty, fried, spicy dishes, drinking soda, alcohol, strong coffee, chips;
  • non-compliance with hygienic skills in washing hands before eating, processing fruits and vegetables leads to infection with infectious agents;
  • ignoring the rules of cooking products, shelf life, and freezing conditions is most often the cause of massive outbreaks of infectious intestinal diseases in children's institutions;
  • violation of the balance of the intestinal flora under the influence of medicinal products (antibiotics, cytostatics);
  • dysfunction of the intestine is caused by impaired innervation in diseases of the nervous system, spinal cord;
  • the work of the intestine in women is very sensitive to changes in the hormonal balance in pregnancy, menopause, hypodynamia;
  • possess toxic properties: nicotine (in smokers with experience), alcohol, occupational hazard (heavy metal salts, alkali and acid), poisonous mushrooms, they irritate startle innervation system.
Maloactive lifestyle
Inadequate motor activity of the patient from childhood helps reduce peristalsis, atonic constipation

Signs bowel disease may occur when failure of hormone in the endocrine system as well as the active substances with hormone-like activity (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, cholecystokinin, pancreozymin). They affect the digestive process and are capable of provoking intestinal diseases.

In modern gastroenterology, great importance is attached to allergic manifestations at the level of the intestine, to the destructive effect of one's own immune system.

What are the most common intestinal diseases?

The following pathologies are related to diseases of the small intestine. Enteritis - acute and chronic inflammation, which are caused by infectious agents that suppress normal flora. Violation of the production of intestinal enzymes, motor skills.

Food intolerance is the most common reaction to carbohydrates due to the inherent absence in the body of the patient of the necessary enzymes (cane sugar, milk, mushrooms). With lactose insufficiency, problems with the intestine arise on any dairy products.

Atresia of the intestine in newborns

Vascular diseases - disturbances of blood flow along feeding vessels are associated with atherosclerotic process, thromboembolism of the mesenteric artery, so elderly patients suffer from them.

Usually there is a combination with myocardial ischemia, damage to the vessels of the brain, legs. Because of oxygen deficiency, ischemia is formed, the diseased intestine reacts with attacks called "abdominal toad".

Tumors in the small intestine are rare. Prevalent benign neoplasms, when transformed into cancer, reveal lymphoma, carcinoma. To rare diseases is Whipple's disease. It is caused by corynobacteria. In addition to the intestine, lymphatic vessels, knots, joints suffer.

Allergic reactions can occur at the level of the intestinal mucosa, it is associated with food allergens, a negative property of drugs. Diseases of the large intestine are more often associated with inflammation (colitis) and neoplasms. The most significant are:

  • Ulcerative colitis starts from the rectum and spreads higher. It is manifested by ulceration and bleeding.
  • Ischemic - occurs in the elderly, is associated with a violation of blood supply in atherosclerosis, diabetes, thrombophlebitis, varicose veins. Inflammation of the intestine with disturbed nutrition.
  • Pseudomembranous - is caused by reproduction of clostridia and suppression of useful flora. It occurs with prolonged intake of laxatives, treatment with antibiotics, cytostatics. Pathogens release toxins that destroy the mucous membrane and form plaques on the surface (pseudomembranes).
Ulcerative colitis
Reason not yet established

Malignant tumors are 5 times more likely to affect the descending section (75% of tumors) of the large intestine. Grow in the lumen of the intestine. The frequency increases in individuals after 40 years and in the case of hereditary predisposition. They differ in a long asymptomatic course.

Irritable bowel syndrome - bowel dysfunction is associated with motor impairment. It can develop with other gastrointestinal diseases. Diverticula - formations from stretched sections of the wall in the form of a "sac", are more often localized in the descending and sigmoid colon, accompanied by chronic constipation. When stagnation and infection become inflamed (diverticulitis).

From the anomalies of the structure of the large intestine revealed:

  • dolichosigma - characterized by lengthening of the sigmoid colon;
  • megacolon - forms a thickening (hypertrophy) of the walls by sections or along the entire length.

A sign of the disease are chronic constipation.

Mechanism of development of major intestinal disorders

Consider the mechanism of the origin of the symptoms of intestinal diseases by the most significant syndromes.

Syndrome of enteral insufficiency

It is formed by a decrease in the activity of the microflora of the small intestine, the absorption process, the synthesis of hormones and immunoglobulins, and the lack of enzymes. The result is a violation of the processes of hydrolysis, absorption, unprocessed food masses accumulate in the intestinal cavity.

The causes are chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, infections (salmonellosis, yersiniosis), helminthic and parasitic infections. Manifestations are divided into intestinal and general. For intestinal - typical "late" pain in the navel, dyspepsia, imbalance of microflora. By the nature of pain can be spastic or burgeoning. The chair is often liquid, fetid.

Fatigability
Fast fatigue is also caused by intestinal problems

Common symptoms include:

  • weight loss with normal or increased appetite;
  • the appearance of irritability, unstable mood;
  • dryness and peeling of the skin;
  • muscle atrophy, edema;
  • anemia;
  • hypovitaminosis.

Colitis syndrome

Characterizes the lesion of the large intestine. It is caused by inflammatory, ulcerative-necrotic diseases, disruption of peristalsis, dysbiosis. Characterized by abdominal pain, swelling, constipation or diarrhea, false desires (tenesmus). More often disturb at run, jolting in transport, in the mornings, after a defecation.

Disrupted motor activity manifests itself:

  • Dynamic intestinal obstruction - increasing pain in the abdomen, flatulence, vomiting, gas retention and feces. It is different in type (spastic and paralytic).
  • Dyskinesia - manifested disturbed tone, peristalsis, atonic constipation, increased gas formation, patients complain that "the bowel does not work."

Bleeding syndrome

The cause of bleeding from the intestines is most often: peptic ulcer (stomach and duodenum), erosive gastritis, tumors, enlarged esophagus veins, ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids, rare pathologies (Mallory-Weiss syndrome, thromboembolism of mesenteric vessels.

Clinically, the symptoms of bowel disease are manifested by common signs: weakness, tinnitus, dizziness, tachycardia, lowering blood pressure, blanching of the skin, scraping, sticky cold sweat. With a significant acute hemorrhage, a shock condition develops.

Vomiting with blood is characteristic for bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, duodenum. In this case, more often, the blood binds to hydrochloric acid and forms a brown-colored hydrochloric acid, the type of vomiting is called "coffee grounds".

When intestinal bleeding stimulates peristalsis, the patient is called a liquid stool of black color (tarry).

Symptoms of bleeding for problems with the intestine in the lower parts of the thick and rectum look streaks and clots on top of the stool. Hemorrhoidal blood in the form of drops covers the feces, can be excreted without the act of defecation.

Syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia

Symptoms of dyspepsia are: flatulence, rumbling and abdominal pain without accurate localization, alternating diarrhea and constipation. They accompany intestinal diseases (enterocolitis, tumors), can appear with lesions of the liver, stomach, pancreas. Symptoms do not depend on the time of eating.

How is bowel disease diagnosed?

A person faces the problem of what to do, when the stomach hurts, the chair is broken, the temperature rises. The variety of symptoms of intestinal diseases does not allow to determine the cause of the pathology immediately upon examination, rectal examination, so the doctor prescribes the examination.

Obligatory general tests help to identify the consequences of the disease: anemia, inflammatory reaction (leukocytosis, growth of ESR), allergic sensitivity (eosinophilia).

Koprologicheskoy study of stool is necessary to determine the nature of the violation of digestion of food.

Result of coprology
When inflammation is detected leukocytes, increased mucus

Positive analysis of feces for occult blood causes suspicion of a ulcerative process even in the absence of visible signs of bleeding. The definition of intestinal flora is important for the diagnosis of dysbiosis. At inspection on intestinal infections take a feces on high-grade bacteriological analysis. To identify the type of pathogen is important for the solution of how to treat the intestines.

With the appropriate clinic, tests for helminthiasis (scraping, smear) are prescribed.

An x-ray study using barium suspension remains relevant in medical institutions. It allows to reveal a gastritis on the broken folds, to survey a duodenum, to suspect a dyskinesia and tumors of an intestine. Irrigoscopy - the filling of the large intestine through an enema with subsequent shots is used in the diagnosis of neoplasms, malformations, fistulous strokes.

The importance of modern hardware research

The initial section of the small intestine (duodenum) can be visually inspected during an esophagoduodenosurgical study. The endoscopic technique also allows taking material for cytological analysis and conducting morphological diagnostics of a suspicious area of ​​the epithelium.

Using a special video capsule is the most informative and painless method. The patient swallows a capsule provided with a video camera. Video recording is fixed by a special device fixed on the patient's body.

The procedure takes about 8 hours. The patient can do his own business. In the future the capsule dissolves and is excreted with feces. The study is expensive. Capsules are produced in Japan and Israel.

Capsular endoscopy
The capsule passes through all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, takes snapshots every 2 seconds

Endoscopic methods are the introduction of an ultrasonic sensor into the purified intestine. The walls are examined along the entire length of the intestine. It is possible to take material for histology. Colonoscopy is performed with a special device by a fibro colonoscope. It is a soft probe with an optical system.

Research oncologists is recommended to be conducted for the purpose of prevention of people after 40 years, especially with hereditary predisposition. Because of the possible discomfort and pain, doctors prefer to do the procedure under anesthesia. The method is used to treat such intestinal diseases as polyps, adhesions. The duration of the procedure is up to 40 minutes. The patient receives the result immediately.

Magnetoresonance and computed tomography are considered the most accurate of external techniques. Not accompanied by radiation, painless.

Treatment for problems with the intestines

In the treatment of intestinal diseases, diet and reasonable lifestyle changes are always used. A sick person should stop smoking and drinking alcohol, learn to remove stress or change attitudes to nervous situations, walk more, do special exercises that normalize peristalsis, and perform self-massage of the abdomen.

Dietary food

Patients with lactose deficiency can not use milk and products from it. On labels, you should choose lactose-free products. If necessary, before meals, take the finished product from the enzyme in a dragee.

The general requirements for nutrition are:

  • food intake 5-6 times a day in small portions;
  • Exclusion of fried foods, fatty meat, canned food, semi-finished products;
  • use of steam method of cooking, cooking and quenching;
  • vegetables and fruits are recommended depending on the acidity of the stomach, motor function of the intestine - when increasing, sweet apples are needed, pumpkin, when lowered - acid varieties, plums, watermelon, melon;
  • You can not use beans, cabbage, nuts due to bloating;
  • confectionery products are prohibited cakes, cakes, chocolate, you can use crackers, biscuits, bread;
  • showing cereal casseroles, liquid porridge from rice, buckwheat, oatmeal;
  • for soup is suitable non-fried chicken broth, vegetable broth;
  • meat dishes should be cooked, with aggravation scroll through a meat grinder and prepare meatballs, meatballs;
  • juices can be drunk by half diluted with water, you should avoid grapes and juice from it, be careful about citrus.
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Useful bacteria for the intestine

Treatment of intestines with medicines

Each case requires an individual approach to therapy. The main groups of drugs used in the pathology of the intestine:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs (antibiotics, antiparasitic, corticosteroids, non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs);
  • antispasmodics with painful contractions (Spazgan, No-shpa, Atropin), rectal candles with bellies;
  • prokinetics to improve motor function (Motilium, Peristil, Kalimin);
  • if necessary, laxatives with different mechanisms of action;
  • cytostatics (Azathioprine, Methotrexate) is prescribed for tumor growth;
  • suppressive hypersensitivity (infliximab, adalimumab) are indicated for autoimmune inflammation;
  • Depending on the degree of general disorders, vitamins B12, folic acid, D with calcium, iron preparations may be needed;
  • To restore the intestinal flora, the patient is prescribed probiotics and prebiotics.
Remicade
In severe cases, drugs are administered only in injections

In tumorous processes, chemotherapy courses are prescribed in combination with irradiation. Unsuccessful therapy, bleeding, disintegration of the intestine is an indication for surgical treatment. There are diseases that are treated only through surgery.

The main goal is the resection of the area with the tumor in optimal limits to prevent relapse. In complicated cases, the operation on the large intestine is carried out in 2 stages. First, remove the tumor and form an intestinal stoma for the calicator. Then remove the fistula and make the intestinal plasty.

Folk remedies

Use advice of healers with caution. Herbs also have different effects on the secretory function of the intestine. The safest are: honey in the morning, washed up with water, broths of wild rose, chamomile, flaxseed. For direct action on the lower parts of the intestine, medicinal enemas with sea buckthorn oil, oats decoction are shown.

Only compliance with the rules of hygiene, healthy eating and regular checks make it possible to prevent severe intestinal diseases. You can not endure unpleasant symptoms for a long time, pain. Applying for medical care a person gets a chance to stay healthy.