Parasites live close to us everywhere - they are worms, bacteria, germs, fungi. There are a lot of them. We are also interested in: "What are ascarids?"
These are helminths - round worms from a detachment of nematodes. The people call them worms, and the disease caused by parasites - ascariasis. Consider what the worm is, what signs appear in a person during infection, how to determine the presence of worms and methods for their treatment.
- What do they look like?
- Features of the structure
- Cycle of development
- Where to live
- Symptoms and signs of ascaridosis
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What do they look like?
The human ascaris is a parasite worm. Its round body somewhat resembles a earthworm, but it has a white, sometimes pink-tinged color. Taurus is thin, long. The size of the female varies from 20 to 40 cm, the male is noticeably shorter, often not more than 25 cm.
Features of the structure
The roundworm has a mouth opening surrounded by three lips. On each side the body is narrowed. At the end of the trunk, the male has a bent tail, which is different from the female. If you look at the female under a microscope, then the sex tubes are clearly visible.
The body is round, which is clearly visible when cross-sectioned. Its shell consists of three layers, which allow the parasite to actively move around. Ascaris has a respiratory, nervous, excretory, digestive system.
Cycle of development
The full development of the roundworm is represented by the following stages and stages:
- the release of fertilized eggs into the external environment;
- penetration of larvae after molting into the intestine and other human organs;
- the onset of maturity (the owner is a person);
- the movement of the mature larva along the blood vessels to the lungs;
- penetration of the parasite into the respiratory tract;
- exit with phlegm into the human mouth, then swallowing and migration to the intestine, where the larvae grow to an adult worm.
Since the larva becomes large in the cycle of its habitat, it lingers in the intestines of a person, after a while it grows up, multiplies. Eggs with feces come out. The cycle repeats.
Where to live
The habitat of parasites is an exceptionally small intestine of mammals (humans, animals), but with severe exacerbation, helminths can infect the large intestine, and then exude. They feed only on the contents of the digestive system of the host.
Females are very prolific. They lay eggs inside the human intestine, the number of which is up to 200 per day. Among them, not all are fertilized. The egg has the shape of a small circle with a yellow color. Those that are not fertilized, are excreted outside with feces, the rest remain in the body and fully develop, passing through all stages.
The greatest danger is represented by the ascarid larvae. They are very active, they spread throughout the body. Their food is not only the contents of the intestines, but also the cells of its mucosa. For the transition to the stage of an adult parasite - in the presence of favorable conditions - the larva takes about 14 days. Eggs have the ability to maintain viability in high humidity, high temperature up to 2 years, at the onset of -30 degrees they die.
Important! Ascaris - geogelmint! To the larva turned into a worm, it first enters the soil, then into the patient's body! Therefore, all the eggs of parasites are released into the external environment with feces, then through the mouth of the new host get inside and develop there.
Symptoms and signs of ascaridosis
The larvae of the ascaris are considered active. Quickly moving, they can fall into any organs. Often, the affected organs are the brain, lungs, intestines. The consequence of such activity in humans are various diseases:
- Damage to the intestinal mucosa. It can cause complications - peritonitis, appendicitis, intestinal obstruction. They are manifested by vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, enlargement of the liver with yellowing of the skin.
- Intoxication of the immune system. In this case, the patient raises the temperature, there is an allergic reaction to the skin, anemia, appetite decreases, weight is lost.
- The defeat of nerves. With started ascaridosis, dizziness, headache, convulsions, insomnia, fatigue are observed.
- From the side of the cardiovascular system, fluctuations in blood pressure are observed.
- Attacks of suffocation, frequent shortness of breath, dry cough, sometimes hemoptysis when migrating larvae into the respiratory tract and lungs.
- The defeat of the organs of sight. This happens rarely, manifested by miosis, swelling, glaucoma and even retinal detachment.
Important! Ascaridosis can lead to unpleasant consequences, so at the first signs of infection you need to see a doctor, so as not to aggravate the situation!
How to detect the presence of worms in the human body? If there are all signs of ascaridosis, an infectious disease specialist is needed. After collecting anamnesis and examination, the doctor will establish a preliminary diagnosis and send a test for ascarids. They can be several-analysis of feces on eggs of helminths, the study of blood, urine and sputum.
The most common is fecal analysis. It is in this biological material that the laboratory workers, under a microscope, detect ascaris eggs. Negative analysis does not exclude ascariasis. Further diagnostics are carried out more carefully. The patient can be assigned ultrasound, chest X-ray.
Sometimes the treatment is delayed for a long time, with periodic re-examination. Anthelmintic therapy should be carried out under the supervision of the attending physician.
Important! Do not self-medicate with ascariasis!
How to get rid of parasites? Complex therapy is necessary:
- Fighting worms. Highly effective pills are used that destroy adult individuals, larvae and eggs.
- Treatment of symptoms of ascaridosis. Along with the destruction of parasites restore the normal work of the digestive, respiratory, immune system.
- Preventive measures in the outbreak.
- Reception of vitamins.
- Proper nutrition.
- Operative intervention in case of complications.
Important! In children under one year, the disease is rare because of the characteristics of the life cycle of the parasite. Infection at this age is unlikely. But casuistic cases of ascaridosis in newborns are described in the medical literature.
The probability of parasites infecting children increases with the start of games in the sandbox. Treatment is carried out by an infectious disease doctor, but at home, in accordance with the recommendations. After the end of the course of therapy, control tests are prescribed.
The main cause of helminthiosis is non-compliance with sanitary norms. The provoking factors are:
- the use of dirty vegetables, fruits, herbs, unprocessed meat;
- drinking contaminated water;
- regular work with land;
- children's games with dogs and cats;
- stay of young children on the street, playing in the sandbox.
Considering the above, it is possible to draw up basic preventive measures:
- regular analysis for timely detection of the disease;
- wash hands and products before use;
- drinking boiled or filtered water;
- the processing of territories where animals are strolled;
- observance of cleanliness of habitation;
- conducting preventive conversations with children.
Only when working together with employees of sanitary epidemiological services can you reduce the incidence of ascariasis. Do not ignore the preventive measures, since the probability of infection is very high, even if one unwashed apple was eaten. Regularly take tests to find the disease in time and protect yourself from serious complications. Remember that ascaris is an active worm.