The aorta is the largest vessel in the human body. On this artery, blood from the heart goes to other organs. It passes along the spine in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The diameter of the aorta in the abdominal cavity reaches 32 mm. According to statistics, it is in this area that an aneurysm develops in 80% of cases.
Atherosclerosis, inflammatory and traumatic vascular lesions are the main causes of the disease.
Because of this complication is especially dangerous for the pelvic organs and lower limbs. Blood clots that form inside the vessel can completely block arteries.
- 1 Reasons
- 2 Risk Factors
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 Types and Forms
- 5 Diagnosis
- 6 How to treat the disease?
- 7 What can be complications?
- 8 How to prevent disease?
- 9 Forecast
The aorta is the main artery of the body, vulnerable to various diseases. When the disease of its wall is greatly expanded .And an aneurysm of both the thoracic and abdominal parts of the aorta is possible.
The causes of aneurysm of the abdominal aorta include:
- Incorrect nutrition, obesity , lesion with atherosclerotic plaques - this is far from a complete list of diseases that can cause aneurysm growth.
- Untimely diagnosis and treatment of abdominal aortic sclerosis can also cause aneurysm.
- Some patients permanently deposit calcium salts on the artery wall. This pathology is called calcification of the abdominal cavity. As a result, the vessel loses its original elasticity and elasticity. Violated blood circulation in the artery.
- Blood can begin to penetrate the artery envelope. The cause of this pathology is the cracks in the vessel. In this case, the stratification of the affected area occurs, which causes the exfoliating aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.
- Stenosis of the abdominal aorta is that with time the artery narrows .And this state is formed gradually.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Infection with .In particular, syphilis affects the cells that form the inner layer of blood vessels.
- Loss of vascular elasticity due to age-related changes.
- Presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
The main factors provoking the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms include:
- With hypertension , the pressure can jump up to 180 mm.gt;Art. The walls of the aorta during hypertensive crises are strongly stretched. Differential pressure leads to overgrowth of the vessels. So there is an aneurysm.
- Smoking patients with experience a negative change in lung tissue. As a result, the production of a special protein, elastin, is reduced. This protein has a great influence on the elasticity and strength of the walls of the vessels. Therefore, heavy smokers are more likely to suffer from this disease.
- Among the patients most of all people of the European race .There is a racial genetic predisposition.
- Elevated blood levels of cholesterol .
- From the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta elderly suffer most. This is especially true for pensioners over 60 years old.
- The likelihood of the disease is greater in people whose relatives have experienced symptoms of .
The asymptomatic course of this disease only aggravates the condition of patients. Doctors are not always able to detect signs of this disease on time.
A growing aneurysm is a very dangerous formation. In some cases, its rupture becomes the first manifestation of the disease.
A patient after a rupture of the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta loses consciousness and instantly pales. Without urgent surgical intervention, a person may die.
Asymptomatic forms are detectable only when passes through ultrasound and X-ray diffraction patterns of .
In an aneurysm disease, patients complain of:
- Abdominal pain .This symptom worries about 50% of patients. An enlarged aneurysm presses on the nerve endings. Therefore, the pain can be very intense. It increases with movement.
- The pulsation in the abdomen is another characteristic sign of the disease. The abdominal aorta is next to the heart. Aneurysms can often pulsate. Waves are well spread in a liquid medium. Therefore, patients constantly feel a ripple in their stomachs.
In addition to pain, there are other manifestations of the disease. So the aneurysm starts to press on the neighboring bodies of .Thus, it violates their work. Learn more about the symptoms of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.
Types and forms of
Depending on the place of detection, the following are distinguished:
- infrarenal formations;
- suprarenal formations.
In addition, distinguish between true and false aneurysms.
In patients with the true form of the disease, all the layers of the aorta expand. In this case, you can see a noticeable protrusion of the vascular walls.
False aneurysms of appear as a collection of blood between the layers of the vascular walls. The cause of this appearance of blood clots may be damage to the vessel due to infection or trauma.
There are several forms of formations:
- a spindle-shaped form consists of artery sections widened along the edges;
- the saccular form looks like protrusion of the vessel wall;
- with the accumulation of blood between the layers of the aorta forms a stratified form of an aneurysm.
At the initial examination of the patient, the doctors determine the heart murmurs. In this case, the markedly narrowed the lumen of the artery walls and the circulatory disturbance of .These are the main signs of atherosclerosis. In addition, the patient must pass a blood and urine test. So you can exclude kidney disease and identify complications.
Computed tomography is necessary to obtain data on the exact location of the affected area and its layered image.
How to treat the disease?
If the diameter of the affected area is less than 5 cm, then you can do without surgery. Conservative methods of treatment consist in the admission of the following drugs:
- beta-blockers are designed for vasodilation and pain relief in the heart area;
- agents that slow the penetration of calcium into vascular cells;
- means for lowering cholesterol.
Surgical treatment methods include:
- , the affected aortic area is replaced by a graft;
- blood clots are removed and special tubes are installed.
List of indications for surgery:
- Constant growth of an aneurysm, which is 0.5 cm in 5 months.
- The diameter of the affected area exceeds 5 cm.
- Pain in the abdomen is chronic.
More about the disease:
What can be complications?
The rupture of the aneurysmal sac is accompanied by severe pain .Often this dangerous condition is accompanied by a pulsation in the abdomen. With severe loss of blood, the patient may have a shock.
The risk of rupture of an aneurysm with a diameter of the affected area of more than 5 cm reaches 10% .In this case, the probability of a fatal outcome is high.
How to prevent disease?
As prophylactic methods, doctors recommend:
- Completely to quit smoking .
- Avoid intensive physical exertion.
- Computer tomography once every six months. This will allow you to follow the progress of the disease.
- It is desirable to limit the amount of fat to 20 grams per day. In your diet, vegetable products should predominate. They contain fiber, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the body.
- Timely treat infectious diseases .A common pneumonia can trigger the development of an aneurysm.
Predict how the disease will develop quite difficult. It can exist for years. Thus the person will not feel any discomfort. The treachery of the aneurysm of the abdominal cavity is that it can leak asymptomatically .
To reduce the likelihood of this disease, you need at least once a year to undergo a comprehensive examination of .Watch your blood pressure. An impetus to the development of this disease can be a trauma to the stomach.