The general state of a person is affected by blood pressure. For everyone, it is individual, but in physiology there is a certain range, which is considered the norm. Small deviations from established indicators worsen health, which leads to loss of ability to work. These factors are influenced by many factors, both external impact and certain diseases. This article will discuss what norm of arterial pressure in adults, the table will help visually see the admissible indicators for a certain age category.
- What is AD - general information about this indicator
- Devices for measurement of arterial pressure
- How to measure blood pressure: basic rules
- What blood pressure is normal
- The index of blood pressure in pregnancy
- The causes that affect the change in blood pressure
Effective methods to increase blood pressure at home The use of hawthorn with increased and reduced pressure The causes and consequences of low blood pressure The big difference between upper and lower pressure: what to do? What methods to treat hypertension without drugs in 3 weeks
What is AD - general information about this indicator
Arterial or cardiac pressure is one of the most important indicators in the human body, it indicates the pressure, which turns out to be blood flow to the vascular walls. As a rule, this force is greatest in the arteries, since most of the blood passes through them. The principle of work is as follows, as soon as the heart muscle contracts, a certain amount of blood is expelled into the body, however, the vascular walls in this process exert resistance. Since the heart works constantly, the pressure in it increases, when the blood flow is injected. However, when the heart muscle relaxes, the pressure indicator also decreases.
During measurement, a person always receives two values:
- the first indicator is the upper or systolic data, which is measured as soon as the heart muscle is contracted (systoles);
- the second indicator is the lower or diastolic data, which are determined during the complete relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole);
- pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic exponents.
Both these values are very important for the full functioning of organisms. If there is a small change in these indicators or in one of them, then the general condition of a person deteriorates sharply.
Devices for measurement of arterial pressure
Initially, BP was measured in a painful and unpleasant way. A needle was inserted into the blood vessel, and a tube and a measuring instrument attached to it, which determined the force of the heartbeats.
However, over time, a special tonometer was invented, with which it was possible to accurately and, most importantly, painlessly determine blood pressure. A special rubber tube is connected to the mercury tonometer, which connects it with the cuff. In addition, another tube is attached to the cuff, a rubber pear is fixed on its end. The principle of operation is quite simple, the pear needs to pump air into the cuff, at which time the vessels contract. After that, it is necessary to gradually bleed the air to weaken the vessels. At this time, with the help of a stethoscope, the pulse on the elbow is clearly audible. The first rhythms indicate a systolic pressure, and the second on a diastolic index. This device is actively used and modern doctors, as it is able to accurately show the level of blood pressure.
To date, experts have invented electronic devices. They are very convenient for home use. The device consists of a cuff and a special sensor, in which a small screen is built in. A person simply needs to put on the cuff on the forearm, press the button and the measurement results appear on the scoreboard.
How to measure blood pressure: basic rules
The pressure index can be influenced by many surrounding factors. However, in order to obtain accurate data, a person needs to take into account some important points:
- exclude any physical and emotional stress;
- an hour before the measurement, consumption of food, as well as tonic beverages, is forbidden;
- before the procedure you can not smoke.
A person must adhere to the above rules. During the measurement of blood pressure, it is important to follow established recommendations that will help to obtain accurate data and provide appropriate medical care to a person. The rules for measuring blood pressure are fairly simple:
- The person should sit on a chair with a back so that the back has a reliable support;
- It is forbidden to cross legs at the time of measurement;
- The cuff is superimposed on the forearm on one level with the heart. It should cover 2/3 of the hands, and the lower edge should be 2 cm above the elbow fold;
- with the help of a pear in the cuff pressure is pumped;
- after which the air is gradually discharged, and at this time the phonendoscope is carefully listened to by pulse rhythms;
- the first impacts will correspond to the systolic index, and the second diastolic pressure.
What blood pressure is normal
Pressure indications are influenced not only by external factors and various diseases. Of particular importance is the age and sex of a person. For a more understandable and convenient use, below is a table. It records the basic data of blood pressure for any age.
|Age of the person||Pressure in men||Pressure in women|
|70 years and over||145/90||140/85|
According to the data recorded in the table, it is obvious that the blood pressure increases with age. Such changes are normal, as the body is aging, which provokes pathological disorders. However, it is important to remember that all these figures are average indicators. To determine the exact individual pressure, you should regularly take measurements and consult a doctor.
It is important to remember that any deviations of the blood pressure, to a greater or lesser extent, significantly worsen the work of the internal organs. This pathology leads to irreversible processes in the body. At the first signs of a violation of indicators, you need to contact the doctor, as timely treatment will help maintain the general condition of a person.
Important!The normal value of human blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Art. The pulse in a healthy person should be 70-80 beats per minute.
The index of blood pressure in pregnancy
In pregnant women, the normal blood pressure level ranges from 110 / 70-120 / 80 mm Hg. Art. With these indicators, the woman and the baby are feeling great. However, in the early term, in the first trimester, the pressure index may drop sharply. This phenomenon is considered normal, so doctors agree that a woman should not take any medications. In these 3 months, almost all feel drowsy, a decline in strength, dizziness, some even lose consciousness. To somehow ease the condition, the future mother is recommended to spend more time outdoors, eat right and avoid stuffy rooms. As a rule, by the end of the third trimester, the general condition is normalized.
Since the second trimester AD in a woman, a little increases, but she feels great. This change is due to the fact that the fetus begins to actively develop and in the body of a future mother appears on 2.5 liters of blood more. Naturally, this provokes a load on the cardiovascular system, which slightly increases the pressure. In other words, the woman's body begins to work for two. However, sometimes an increase in blood pressure causes serious changes in the state of health, it feels severe symptoms. At the first signs it is necessary urgently to address to the doctor as this pathology can provoke development of a preeclampsia. In this case, a specialist prescribes quality therapy that improves the condition of the future mother and does not have any harmful effect on the child.
The causes that affect the change in blood pressure
Arterial pressure is one of the main indicators responsible for human health. Smaller deviations in the greater or lesser side cause pathological disturbances in the body.
There are many underlying causes that affect the increase in blood pressure. Among the main reasons of the medical staff are the following:
- hypertensive diseases;
- pathological changes in the kidney of the adrenal gland;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- problems in the endocrine system;
- increase in the norm of pulse pressure.
Low blood pressure is always accompanied by severe symptoms, which worsen the general condition of a person. The development of this disorder is affected by many of the root causes:
- myocardial infarction;
- malnutrition or starvation;
- disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
Small deviations from the norm, as a rule, do not cause serious deviations in health. However, if a person observes regular changes in blood pressure, then he needs to urgently consult a doctor. The specialist will assess the general condition of the patient and select an individual treatment regimen. Be healthy!