- Causes of frequency disorder in stool with addiction
- Causes of functional constipation in children
- How to help a baby
- Video on topic
Since the introduction of complementary feeding, the feces of the baby become thicker, they move longer in the colon, so the number of acts of defecation decreases. If a child who is breastfed before feeding can defecate up to twice a day, then with the expansion of the diet, the frequency of stool may decrease to 5-6 times a week.
Less noticeable difference in the number of bowel movements, if the baby was on artificial or mixed feeding: the child had a chair once a day, and became once a day and a half. Talk about the occurrence of constipation in infants with the introduction of complementary foods can be only if the act of defecation delivers the child a painful sensation( it tuzhitsya, crying, refuses to eat) or if the stool masses are solid and fragmented( "sheep" feces).
Causes of disorder of stool frequency with complementary feeding
Constipation in infants with the introduction of complementary foods can develop both against the background of functional disorders and organic pathologies. If the stool is delayed as a result of the lack of coordination between propulsive and tonic muscle contractions, then they speak of a functional pathology.
With this violation, there is no damage to the intestinal wall, smooth muscle is not contracted as a result of impaired innervation. With atopic coprostasia, the child suffers from paroxysmal pains in the abdomen, the rhythm of defecation changes, the stool is large, and extraintestinal manifestations may appear( rash on the skin, lined tongue).
With spastic constipation, the stool is fragmented( balls), as the stool masses are separated due to the contraction of the intestinal musculature. Characterized for the violation of increased gassing and colic that pass after defecation, but after the cleansing enema the symptoms do not subside.
Organic constipation develops due to abnormality in the structure of the colon or rectum. They can be associated with congenital stricture of the anus or rectum, anorectal stenosis, loss of reflex to defecation, fistulous atresia of the anus. In children, the cause of pathology is Hirschsprung's disease. This disease is congenital, but its symptoms are not so obvious until the baby is fed breast milk, as it quickly splits.
The clinical picture develops with the introduction of complementary foods or mixtures. The baby appears not only constipation, but also the appearance changes( the abdomen changes shape due to the displacement of the intestine and flatulence, the "frog" abdomen).Functional constipation is amenable to conservative treatment, and in most cases, to correct them, you need to correct the menu. Organic same constipation, as a rule, can be cured only surgically.
Causes of functional constipation in children
The reason for the violation of motility of the large intestine can serve as:
- introduction of the very complementary .With the introduction of complementary foods, enzymes must be synthesized in large quantities, which will break down the nutrients. Until the body adapts to the "adult" food, digestion will occur much more slowly, which will manifest itself as constipation. To restore the frequency of the chair takes several days, so if the constipation has just begun, then you need to wait and not interfere with the process;
- introduction of complementary foods too early .Constipation when introducing complementary foods can occur as a result of morphofunctional immaturity of the digestive tract. For some children, an early expansion of the diet in 4 months, and for others may be early and in 6 months. In this case, the indicator is very individual, and parents need to focus on the food interest of crumbs and its health when using certain types of products;
- introduction to the lure of some products. Protein food( milk, meat), which is introduced into the diet ahead of time, provokes the development of constipation, since the digestive system is not yet ready for it. If a child receives a lot of calcium with food, then the body will form compounds that make the feces more dense. Also, feces can be dehydrated if excess vitamin D;
- lack of fluid in the body .Breast milk for a child is both water and food, but with the expansion of the diet the fluid becomes insufficient. Often parents themselves forget to milk a baby or the baby is not accustomed to water, it is tasteless for him, and he refuses to drink. Fecal masses in the intestine are rapidly dehydrated, and their progress becomes difficult. Dense feces can be like a cork that has clogged the intestine. The lack of a liquid will be indicated by the output of a solid feces first, followed by a mushy or soft stool( and the emptying of the intestine can be in two acts of defecation with a small time interval).
If parents have introduced lure early, it is better to return to the mixture and breastfeeding and postpone "adult" food for weeks two
Other reasons may be:
- food allergy. Allergic reaction can manifest itself in different ways, including violation of stool frequency;
- power failure. Giving a lure is better after a night's sleep. The crumb will remain active after eating, which will improve intestinal motility, and in addition, the adult will notice possible changes associated with digestive disorders or unwanted reactions( rash on the body, redness);
- long-term medication. To reduce motility of the intestine, antibiotics, sorbents, iron preparations, antispasmodics, diuretics, antacids are capable. Medications cause disturbances in intestinal innervation or affect electrolyte metabolism;
- diseases of the digestive tract. Intestinal infection and dysbacteriosis provokes damage to intramural ganglia, which leads to constipation during lactation;
- psychological suppression of defecation. If the baby has ever experienced pain during defecation, then he can suppress the emptying of the intestine. A similar reaction may occur if the child is scolded for not being poured into a pot;
- is a stressful situation. During stress, the work of the autonomic nervous system changes, which leads to a decrease in the motor activity of the intestine, a change in the concentration of digestive juices and, as a consequence, constipation. For a crumb stress can become a physical malaise, the absence of a number of mothers, weaning, the accustoming to a pot.
Pediatricians are advised to administer the feeding of a baby from the age of six months, but if the child has constipation when using a milk formula, doctors recommend that the vegetable ration be added to a ration of 5 month crumbs or even a four-month old. And you need to start feeding with zucchini, cauliflower, beets.
During feeding, do not forget to give the baby to drink
How to help a baby
In a child, constipation after the introduction of complementary foods develops, usually because of an incorrect sequence of products. The pediatricians recommend the following to the parents of the child who developed constipation during the introduction of complementary foods. If the stool frequency changes immediately after the introduction of complementary foods, it is possible that the digestive system is not yet ready to expand the diet. If the crumb is less than half a year, then you need to wait with the lure.
If there is a constipation after switching on the menu of individual products, you should discard them. If the stool is delayed after the baby has tasted the dairy products, then they should be excluded and introduced into the diet after one-year-old age. The main rule of introducing complementary foods: to introduce one product in three days and not combine it with other dishes. This will make it possible to understand what product the child has an allergic reaction and whether it is absorbed in the body.
Include more products that enhance intestinal motility, and restrict foods that have a fixing property. Improve the motor activity of the digestive tract cold dishes and drinks, foods that contain fiber, it is found in vegetables, crumbly porridges, fruits, bran. Slow down the peristalsis hot dishes, starchy vegetables, buns and white bread, vegetable purees, dried soups, meat, eggs.
If the child has constipation, then do not offer him a pearl, rice, semolina porridge, pear, berry jelly, baked goods. It is better to give him sour-milk products, oatmeal, buckwheat mush, compote of berries or dried fruit, freshly squeezed juices. Well helps with constipation of vegetable oil, which can be added to children's vegetable or meat purees.
Monitor the drinking regime. Constipation after the introduction of complementary foods may be due to lack of fluid in the body. The amount of water that a child must drink depends on the weight of his body. Count the daily rate will help the district pediatrician( for a baby it is within the range of 120-200 ml).Increased fluid intake should be in the hot season, as well as if the room in which the child is located, low humidity.
The motor activity of crumbs should be increased. To accelerate the motility of the intestine requires physical activity. The baby should be placed on his tummy more often, allowing him to turn over, sit down, stand on legs and crawl, put next to the object, which will interest the crumb and make him reach for him, engage in fitball and do a "bicycle".
Promotes improvement of intestinal motility massage of tummy
If all the recommendations are fulfilled, and the constipation after the feeding does not pass and the emptying of the intestine is still difficult for the child, you should consult a doctor. After a physical examination, anamnesis, an evaluation of the general condition of the child will be made and the necessary examination will be performed.
If during the diagnosis there are no deviations in the digestive tract, the pediatrician will prescribe symptomatic therapy. It is not necessary to engage in self-medication, as this will only hurt the baby. To eliminate constipation, babies are prescribed lactulose-based and glycerin suppositories. Lactulose is an osmotic laxative.
This disaccharide is not absorbed in the small intestine, but reaches the colon in an unchanged form, absorbing water and increasing the amount of feces that press on the walls of the intestine and activate peristalsis. Also, lactulose is a food for beneficial bacteria involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, so it is prescribed for dysbacteriosis.
The drug is absolutely harmless to infants, and the therapeutic effect occurs one day after the start of the course. As a rule, children are recommended to give 5 ml of lactulose-based syrup once a day, preferably in the morning before the first meal.
Some children, due to the accelerated reproduction of useful microflora, may experience increased gas formation, which will lead to pain in the tummy. To avoid this, it is advisable to inject the drug gradually from one milliliter and eventually increase the dosage to 5 ml.
Based on lactulose, the following syrups for constipation:
Candles with glycerin are rather an emergency measure, since they contribute to emptying the intestines within half an hour and have no effect on the body condition in contrast to lactulose. Glycerin softens fecal masses and envelops the walls of the intestines, which facilitates defecation.
The drug is not addictive, however, over time the nervous apparatus of the rectum stops responding to it and the effect of its use is not observed, so it is better to apply it when there is an obvious need. What kind of help the child needs in case of a delay in the stool, and if it is required at all, the pediatrician will decide.
A child with constipation may be prescribed antispasmodics, candles with papaverine or belladonna extract, B vitamins, nootropics, prokinetics.
. Parents should monitor the baby's drinking regimen, remove fixing foods from the diet, and increase fiber intake, and stimulate the crumb to move more. It is undesirable to engage in self-medication, since the introduction of gas tubes or enemas can cause a mechanical trauma to the rectal mucosa, and the introduction of soap can provoke an inflammatory process.
If the child is very sore and tense abdomen or abdominal asymmetry is observed, while the gases do not go away, this may be a sign of intestinal obstruction requiring urgent surgical intervention. It is necessary to go to the hospital if the child has chronic constipation( difficulties in bowel emptying for three months), as this indicates a serious pathology.