- Normal and pathological constipation in newborns
- Main causes of
- Treatment of
- Related videos
The first months after birth are the most important period for a newborn child and his parents. At the kid there is an "accustoming" of an organism to extrauterine existence, including - digestive organs to processing of breast milk. This period can take place in different ways, since each infant is individual and, not least, breast milk of mothers has different parameters throughout the time of natural feeding.
The intestines in the infant function throughout the intrauterine period, but in the most minimal way, with the original feces, or meconium, accumulating in the rectum. Its emptying occurs in the first 1-3 days after delivery, and then the small and large intestine gradually adjust to the mother's milk. In a newborn baby who is breastfed( GV), the first month of life is characterized by very frequent stools, the intestine is emptied up to 7 times a day. Often defecation occurs during breastfeeding. In this case, stool masses are liquid, quickly absorbed into the diaper, often defecation is accompanied by gas evolution.
As the child grows, the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and the introduction of lactation gradually change, the nature and frequency of the infantile stool changes. It becomes more abundant and dense, and defecation occurs less often. For example, it is believed that in a six-month-old child, the frequency of the stool should be on average 3-4 times a day, and at the age of 1 year - 1-2 times a day.
However, we must not forget about the type of feeding the baby. The nature of bowel movements is greatly influenced by what kind of milk, breast, artificial or their combination, the baby uses. With artificial feeding, as a rule, bowel emptying is less common, and the stool masses themselves are harder. Therefore, for example, constipation in a month-old baby, feeding on milk formulas, is not a rare occurrence. They can also be observed with mixed feeding, when a deficiency of breast milk is replenished by an artificial surrogate. Is it possible to have constipation in infants with breastfeeding, it would seem, the most natural, and how to treat it? Let's consider these moments in this article.
To adapt, the baby's body needs time
Normal and pathological constipation in newborns
Although breast milk is the most optimal and natural for newborn babies, the intestine to extrauterine existence can adapt for a long time. This process is greatly influenced by factors such as the availability or deficiency of breast milk, as well as its quality, which is determined by the properties of the mother's body and the nature of its nutrition. Almost every fourth baby who is on HB passes a long period of adaptation, during which appetite can change, increased gas formation in the abdomen is observed, the nature of fecal masses varies( they can become more liquid or dense, with impurities of mucus).
Often a newborn baby can not croak for several days, while eating well and remaining cheerful and cheerful. Parents are very concerned about this situation and therefore they begin to interfere with the work of the child's organism, using a variety of folk methods. But, according to most pediatricians, such physiological constipation and constipation is something to call it wrong. This is just a natural process of the formation of the gastrointestinal system, which can not be disturbed.
What negative symptoms should the infant develop in order to alert parents and get them to seek medical help? First of all, this is the baby's well-being, his appetite and mood, as well as the properties of the feces that appear after several days of defecation.
Signs of pathological constipation during breastfeeding can be expressed as follows:
- the kid becomes whimsical and whiny;
- signs of intoxication appear( bad appetite, lethargy);
- the kid starts to push from time to time, but without result;
- tummy slightly increases in size and becomes dense;
- at the palpitation of the tummy the child worries and cries;
- appears increased gassing;
- feces are released in small portions, it is very dense.
A bad mood in a baby can be associated with a constipation
The longer the constipation in a child, the more dangerous it is. Fecal masses, lingering in the intestines, begin to undergo rotting processes, in which pathogenic bacteria multiply, which leads to considerable intoxication of the child's body. The child's body temperature rises, sleep is disturbed, pronounced weakness and lethargy develop, appetite is lost, skin becomes pale and dry, often there are various rashes. Of course, in such cases it is necessary to consult a doctor immediately.
The main causes of
It is very important to distinguish constipation that develops in infants on breastfeeding, physiological and pathological origin. Their causes are radically different, and they also determine the therapeutic approach in each case. In the overwhelming majority of situations, constipation in infants is physiological, and they can be provoked by a variety of factors.
The main causes of constipation can be expressed as follows:
- dehydration of the child's body;
- deficiency of mother's milk;
- excess milk and overeating in the baby;
- increased fat content of breast milk;
- use by the mother of products that "fix" the baby;
- child overheating, causing hypotension or intestinal hypertonia;
- a certain hormonal component in milk( in such cases, difficulties with defecation in a child are combined, for example, with postpartum constipation in the mother or condition after cesarean section);
- incorrect introduction of lures;
- the need for prescribing certain medications to the infant, whose side effect is expressed by the formation of constipation.
Most of these factors are quite possible to eliminate in a short time. For example, normalize the feeding regime, give the child a sufficient amount of fluid, adjust the diet of the woman. A few days later the baby's intestines begin to function normally, and the stool becomes regular. However, there are situations when constipation develops against the background of any serious abnormalities in the body of the baby, and therefore they are called pathological. This happens in the following cases:
- lactose intolerance, when, due to a lack or absence of the lactase enzyme, the newborn's body is unable to metabolize breast milk;
- congenital abnormalities of intestinal development( Hirschsprung's disease, tumors, diverticulosis, doubling, bends);
- intestinal dysbiosis;
- severe rickets;
- endocrine pathology( congenital diabetes, insufficiency of the adrenal or thyroid gland);
- neurological pathology;
- helminthic invasion( unfortunately, can be diagnosed in infants).
To ensure adequate lactation and optimum fat content of milk, the nursing mother should drink 3 liters of fluid per day.
Such constipation during breastfeeding can no longer be eliminated by correcting the diet or regimen, and specialized medical care will be required. First of all, it is necessary to conduct a timely differential diagnosis of physiological and pathological constipation, finding out exactly why the second type was formed. In addition to ascertaining certain clinical signs characteristic of each pathology, the children are required to prescribe additional laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis. Depending on the diagnosis, treatment of pathological constipation is also performed, which is an important stage in the therapeutic regimen.
Having found out that the baby does not have any background diseases of the stomach or intestines, endocrine or neurological pathologies, and also helminthic invasions, we can definitely establish the physiological origin of constipation. In these cases, the attending physician-pediatrician assigns a certain set of actions, the performance of which necessarily leads to a positive result. In this case, the curative effect does not only apply to a newborn or older baby, but also to his mother.
In addition, it is important to diagnose also the type of functioning of the intestines of the child, which caused constipation. So, if the bowels are prone to spasms, the absence of defecations can be caused by spastic phenomena that hinder the progress of fecal masses. With the opposite type, namely with hypotension of the intestine, the fecal masses move very slowly and, eventually, accumulate in the sigmoid and rectum. It goes without saying that every type of bowel inconsistency is treated in various ways.
In general, the stages of assistance with physiological constipation are as follows:
- gymnastics, tummy massage and stimulation of the inferior sphincter( anus);
- correction of feeding of a nursing mother;
- correction of introduction of lures;
- folk methods.
Gymnastics is very useful and at the youngest age
Gymnastic exercises are especially effective at the age of about 1-2 months and older, when the baby is still moving a little and has not yet learned how to turn over. They will stimulate the intestines and help the feces escape. To achieve this result, the legs of a three-month-old baby are bent several times in the knees and attracted to the tummy, and they also make the movement "bicycle".If you see that the child starts to push, you can help him a little. To do this, a finger lubricated with vegetable oil, you need to massage the anus gently. Some experts also recommend using a swab( a long slice of soap without sharp edges) or a pipette, oiled, which are immersed in the baby's rectum by no more than a few millimeters, and then they make 5-6 rotational movements.
The baby's tummy massage is also effective enough, especially with hypotension of the intestine. Circular strokes clockwise, as well as from the edges of the abdominal cavity to the navel should last no more than 10 minutes.
To ensure that the intestines of the baby function perfectly( especially up to 4 months, when the introduction of lactation begins), much attention is paid to the nutrition of the nursing mother. Its diet should be high-grade to provide sufficient lactation, as well as hypoallergenic. In cases where the baby starts constipation in 2-3 months, the mother should consume more foods containing fiber fiber. This fresh or boiled vegetables( except cabbage), berries and fruits, grains( Hercules, buckwheat), dried fruits, bread, dairy products. She should also drink up to 3-3.5 liters of fluid a day to reduce the fat content of milk, which provokes constipation in the child. It is useful to combine weak tea with compotes, morsels, broths of dill or fennel. A woman should limit baked pastries, white cereals, sweets, whole milk, chocolate, cocoa.
Seeds of dill are useful both as a seasoning and as a medicine
As for lures, their introduction should be carried out individually, especially if the child began to form constipation. In some cases, it is advisable to start adding lure not with vegetable purees, but with fermented milk products, partially replacing them with one feeding per day. In addition to sparing stimulation of the intestine, they also provide the balance of useful bacterial flora in the body of the baby. How to act properly, always advise a pediatrician.
If neither massage, nor gymnastics helps, it is necessary to resort to sparing medicines for defecation. According to the indications Dufalac or Lactuvite, containing lactulose syrup, as well as suppositories with glycerin are used.
All infants can make a decoction of dill seeds( "dill water"), one teaspoon of seeds or dried herbs of dill onto a glass of water. To drink should be 1 teaspoon of broth several times during the day. This remedy stimulates the intestines, eliminates excess gases, normalizes the passage of feces.
All these methods effectively help to get rid of constipation in children who are breastfeeding. But, first of all, it is necessary to eliminate all provoking factors of constipation, after consultation with an expert.