Craniocerebral trauma is one of the frequent causes of calls to a traumatologist. Concussion is an easy kind of TBT, differing in severity. It is established based on the condition of the victim. Trauma appears due to mechanical stress. Most often occurs with a sharp head impact during falls, accidents, hazardous activities. In view of the prevalence of the problem, it is important to know how to determine a concussion, to be able to provide timely assistance to the victim before the doctors arrive.
- How to determine the concussion in an adult
- How to determine a concussion in a child
- First aid
- Who to contact
How to recognize a concussion of the brain - treatment and consequences The main symptoms and signs of a slight concussion of the brain What are the symptoms of concussion in adults Possible consequences after concussion of the brain What to do with a concussion of the brain - first aid
How to determine the concussion in an adult
Based on the symptoms, the issue of hospitalization of the victim and the amount of treatment is being decided. Therefore it is important to be able to determine at home the symptoms that signal the resulting injury. In an adult, these symptoms are as follows:
- Fainting. Concussion is characterized by loss of consciousness, which can be short-term (several seconds) or prolonged (several hours). Such a reaction is caused by a circulatory disturbance. The stronger the damage, the longer the syncope will last. After coming to consciousness, a person may not show reaction to external stimuli and be in a stupor. At the same time there is slow speech, slowing down.
- Dizziness. This symptom is at any degree of concussion. It is supplemented by a headache in various forms: pulsating, acute, blunt, pressing. There are spots before your eyes, noise in your ears, which worries the victim for a while. Pains are usually localized in the occipital region or in the place of impact.
- Nausea and vomiting. Determine a slight concussion can be due to the lack of vomiting in the affected person. In other cases, with an average and severe degree, vomiting can be a single-shot or continue in the first hours after the injury. This reaction is reflex, of central origin.
- Change of pulse. Due to increased intracranial pressure, the victim's pulse may become more frequent or slower (more than 90 or less than 60 beats per minute at rest).
- Skin discoloration. Because of a head injury, the activity of blood vessels is disturbed, they can be uncontrollably narrowed and expanded. This makes the skin tone of the affected person very pale or red.
- Problems with coordination. At first, it is difficult for a man to stand on his feet and keep his balance. There is a feeling that the body is difficult to control. This situation is normal in the first few hours after the impact. If this symptomatology persists for several days, this indicates an average or severe degree of lesion. The loss of coordination is due to a violation of blood circulation and malfunctions in the activity of nerve impulses responsible for the transmission of information.
- Change pupils. The pupils can also detect the presence of a brain injury. Extended or severely narrowed pupils are one of the symptoms of concussion. If the pupils are of different sizes, this is a good reason to consult a doctor immediately. Slightly expressed asymmetry indicates a severe degree of concussion and deep damage to the brain tissue. If there is persistent asymmetry, this is an indicator of intracranial hemorrhage, which occurred as a result of trauma.
Know! An important sign of a tremor is a change in tendon reflexes. If the reaction of the limbs with a hammer is different, this also indicates severe damage.
There are delayed symptoms, manifested within a few days after the injury. These include:
- problems with concentration of attention;
- sensitivity to light and sounds.
Individual symptoms may occur for several years after a concussion.
How to determine a concussion in a child
Determining a child's concussion is difficult due to age, especially if he can not yet tell about his feelings. In addition, it is for children that the risk of injury increases at times because of their mobility and negligence. The symptomatology differs depending on the age of the child. The older it becomes, the more pronounced the consequences of trauma.
How do doctors determine concussion in children? The clinical picture differs depending on the age group:
- Thoracic children. Usually, with a concussion, the baby does not cry, but only moans or sobs. This can lead parents astray. Therefore, the defining symptoms of the baby become pallor, vomiting, unwillingness to eat, poor sleep or pronounced drowsiness. Kids, as a rule, do not lose consciousness from the impact. Due to increased intracranial pressure, a fontanel can protrude.
- Children of preschool age. Preschoolers may lose consciousness due to impact, fall, after they complain of headaches, vomiting. They have a pulse and blood pressure. The child does not sleep well, he has fast fatigue, sweating, tearfulness.
- Children of school and adolescence. They can already independently explain the nature of their symptoms. Most often this is dizziness, headaches, nausea, difficulty in coordinating movements. Children may experience short-term amnesia.
Important! In children of school age and older immediately after the trauma, there is such a symptom as temporary blindness, which lasts for several hours. Until now, it is not known for certain why this phenomenon develops.
For the victim it is necessary to call an ambulance, you need to watch him all the time before they arrive. This is necessary to help in the event of vomiting or seizures.
The procedure is as follows:
- The person should be carefully placed in a horizontal position so that the head remains slightly raised.
- If he is unconscious, you should put the victim on his right side or turn his head. So he can breathe normally, and vomiting and saliva will not get into the respiratory tract.
- If there are open wounds, treat them with an antiseptic and apply a sterile bandage. Something cold is applied to the place of the bruise.
- It is necessary to provide the patient with access to fresh air by opening the window, eliminating all loud sounds and muffling the light. In the first hours after a concussion, the victim may develop a special sensitivity to irritating external factors.
Important! Do not recommend giving the patient any drugs before the arrival of doctors, except for analgesics with severe pain. First aid involves ensuring optimal conditions for waiting for an ambulance to arrive.
Who to contact
As a rule, a neurologist or a neurosurgeon deals with the treatment of concussions. It is especially important to see a doctor if the patient's condition worsens, new symptoms appear. However, the injured person can first contact the trauma clinic to check the integrity of the bones of the skull after the injury. In the emergency room, first aid is provided, with the suspicion of concussion being prescribed radiography, computed tomography or MRI. This will determine the degree of damage received.
So, according to the X-ray picture, the doctor will assess the integrity of the skull bones, MRI will show serious complications - brain contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic damage. According to the picture, the doctor will be able to check the condition of the bones and tissues of the brain. After that, the traumatologist will tell you where to go for further treatment. In the hospital, the victim is examined in a comprehensive manner and hospitalized if necessary.
Concussion of the brain is a dangerous trauma that can lead to serious consequences in the future. Because of its prevalence, it is necessary to be able to provide first aid to the victims. This will help a person not only to ease the condition in anticipation of a team of doctors, but also to save life.