- Causes of pain
- Diseases that cause stomach pain
- Pathologies of which organs can cause stomach pain
- How to relieve stomach and abdominal pain
- Related videos
Strong stomach and abdomen for various reasons. Symptom can appear as a result of morphological changes, malnutrition, low-activity lifestyle, functional disorders, stress.
Often, the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have the same clinical picture, and specific symptoms appear only when the pathology has greatly progressed. Pain in the abdomen, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, a violation of the stool, heat can be triggered by gastritis, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, cholecystitis.
Therefore, in order to make a diagnosis it is necessary to conduct a laboratory examination of blood and urine, and also to see the mucous membrane of the digestive tract( using an endoscope) or to follow the peristalsis.
Causes of Pain
Stomach pain can be triggered by organic damage. That is, the mucous tissue of the stomach undergoes pathological changes that lead to the inability to produce mucus.
Insoluble mucus( mucin) is produced by additional and squamous epithelial cells. Normally, it covers the mucous membrane and protects it from the corrosive effects of hydrochloric acid, pepsins and irritants coming from food. The thickness of mucin is about 0.5-1.5 mm.
Bile acids that enter the stomach from the intestine, salicylates, oil and propionic acids, alcohol destroy the mucous barrier. There is an inverse diffusion of hydrogen ions from the stomach and interaction of the mucous tissue with pepsins, which leads to self-digestion( autolysis).
Gastric pain, provoked by organic lesions, may result from:
- gastritis( inflammation of the gastric mucosa);
- ulcers( damage layers of the stomach, located under the mucosa);
- proliferation of polyps;
- of the pyloric stenosis;
- infection with a bacterial or viral infection;
- reducing digestive function;
- mechanical impact on the fabric;
- of an allergic reaction;
- food poisoning( poor-quality food, medicines, alcohol);
- depletion of the body;
- psycho-emotional overstrain.
Pains can also appear as a result of pathology of the internal organs that affect the activity of the stomach. Thus, epigastric pain occurs in the following diseases:
- worsening of the operation of the small or large intestine;
- pathology in the organs of the reproductive system;
- neuroses, depressive state;
- of gallbladder disease, liver;
- cardiovascular system disorders;
- kidney disease;
- lesions of the central nervous system;
- spasm of the diaphragm;
- of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
There are abdominal pain and as a result of a disorder of gastric motility
Hypertension of the stomach muscles, hypotension and atony can be observed, which leads to a violation of the evacuation of food masses. There may be a constriction or relaxation of the muscular sphincters, then the food will linger in the stomach or come back from the stomach to the esophagus or from the intestine to the stomach.
Peristalsis of the stomach can be disturbed by changes in the nervous or humoral regulation, as well as by the pathological processes occurring in the stomach( ulcers, erosions, scars, tumors, depending on the location, strengthen or weaken the motility).
Diseases that cause stomach pain
Depending on the nature of abdominal pain and its intensity, as well as the attendant symptoms, one can make an assumption about the causes of the pain syndrome. The time of the onset of pain is also important, so you need to pay attention when exactly the symptom appears( at night, after eating or after physical exertion, on an empty stomach).
An accurate description of the location of pain, its nature and intensity, will help the doctor to assume the most probable pathologies, for the refutation or confirmation of which it will be necessary to have a minimum of diagnostic studies.
A aching dull ache in the upper middle of the abdomen appears as a result of inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Pain is felt after rough, fatty foods or alcohol. Intensive pains bother about two days, and the weak can last for weeks.
In addition to the pain syndrome, the following symptoms may occur with gastritis:
- a feeling of heaviness at the top or bottom of the abdomen;
- constipation or diarrhea;
- belching sour;
- plaque white in the language;
- heartburn, triggered by the ejection of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus;
- weakness, drowsiness, irritability;
- pain can give in the back.
If a child has a stomach ache for half an hour after eating, this is the first sign of gastritis development.
Ulcer is a complication of gastritis. It occurs when the inflammation penetrates into the layers of the gastric wall, located under the mucous membrane. Pain can appear on an empty stomach, as concentrated gastric juice corrodes tissues.
Often the pain occurs and within an hour after eating. This is due to the fact that the food mass traumatizes the affected parts. Especially the pain will be severe after acute, fatty, heavy food or alcohol. Distinguish between peptic ulcer and symptomatic stomach ulcers.
The first is a chronic disease in which there is an expression in the wall of the stomach. The second is caused by the ulcerative agent, proceeds acutely, and if the main cause is eliminated, the expression is cured. Symptomatic ulcers include stress, some drugs, pathology of endocrine glands, tumors that produce gastrin.
Acute abdominal pain occurs when the ulcer is perforated, when the acidic contents of the stomach enter the abdominal cavity. This complication requires surgical intervention. From the ulcer, the contents of the stomach can get not only into the abdominal cavity, but also into neighboring organs, for example, into the intestine. In this case, the activities of the second body are also violated.
If the inflammatory process affects the blood vessel, then bleeding begins from the ulcer. It does not increase the intensity of pain, but causes additional symptoms, such as weakness, dizziness, blood in vomiting or stools.
Benign tumors can grow on the mucous membrane. While small formations they do not affect the function of the tissues and cause no symptoms. They are difficult to detect, as a rule, they are detected during fibroadastroscopic examination.
Large polyps can cause bleeding, aching or cramping pain, delayed evacuation of food. A polyp on the stem, located next to the doorkeeper, can get into the duodenum and jam, which provokes strong cramping pains under the sternum, which spread throughout the stomach.
Adenomatous polyp can develop into a malignant tumor
Pathogenic bacteria and viruses penetrate into the gastrointestinal tract with water or food. In their presence there are symptoms:
- heaviness in the abdomen;
- nausea, vomiting;
- infringement of intestinal motility;
- peritoneal spasms;
Symptoms may persist for 2-4 days. In the stomach can be present the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, in the process of vital activity it releases toxins that stimulate the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which causes gastritis.
Microorganism is found in 90% of people, however, most are carriers of the infection, because gastritis develops only if provoking factors such as stress, malnutrition, medical treatment are present.
Pathologies of which organs can cause stomach pain
Pain in the entire abdomen can appear due to a violation of the activity of not only the stomach, but also other organs located in the abdominal cavity or outside it. Soreness in the abdomen of different intensity occurs if there are the following pathologies:
- duodenitis .Disrupts the operation of the small intestine, which leads to a deterioration in motor and suction function, as well as to flatulence and casting the contents of the intestine into the stomach. All this causes pain in the upper and lower abdomen;
- pancreatitis .Inflammation of the pancreas provokes severe pain, which is felt either locally or in the entire abdomen, affects the back, the waist. When the disease in the duodenum is not thrown away the whole secret of the gland, and this affects the digestive function. There is swelling, nausea;
- colitis .Inflammatory process in the large intestine is manifested by swelling and rumbling in the abdomen, a liquid stool with an admixture of blood;
- diaphragm spasm causes firing, violent, cramping pains that increase with movement and deep inspiration;
- esophageal stenosis .Pathology develops because of an injury, scar or tumor. Food is delayed in the esophagus and hardly enters the stomach, with pain along the movement of the food lump, belching, vomiting, difficulty in swallowing food, bleeding;
- concrements .Stones can form in the kidneys, pancreas, gall bladder. When they exit, there is severe pain caused by vasospasm or obstruction of the lumen of the pathways;
- pilorospazm stomach .The pathology is provoked by the disruption of the nervous system. There is pain in the abdomen and nausea;
- rupture of the spleen or liver .This happens after a blunt abdominal trauma and provokes a sharp pain in the abdominal cavity. Pathology requires immediate surgical intervention.
There is a spasm due to circulatory disorders
Often when pregnancy hurts heavily abdomen in the stomach and is not always the reason for this obstetric pathology. The enlarged uterus presses on the adjacent organs, causing them to shift, this can cause a violation of the digestive function, bloating, heartburn. In addition, during pregnancy, chronic diseases worsen or develop, those to which there is a predisposition.
How to relieve stomach and abdominal pain
To eliminate acute pain in the abdominal cavity, first of all, you need to find out the cause of its occurrence, that is, you need to make a diagnosis. This task can be performed only by a specialist after obtaining the results of objective research.
Analgesics and antispasmodics are able to temporarily relieve pain in the entire abdomen, but they do not eliminate the cause of its occurrence. Depending on the provoking factor, drugs that reduce the acidity of gastric juice, astringents, antibiotics, absorbents are prescribed.
If the pain is caused by a vasospasm, then you can eliminate it by taking an antispasmodic( No-shpa, Drotaverin, Spazmol, Plantex, Prospan).The active substances of the drug act on smooth muscle cells, preventing them from contracting.
If the cause of pain is the movement of stones, then litholytic therapy is required, which is aimed at dissolution of the calculus. For the destruction of small stones, medicines, mineral water, folk remedies are used.
The medicine should be selected by the doctor taking into account the type and size of the stone. Before resorting to the dissolution of stones with folk remedies or mineral water, it is necessary to find out from which the concrement was formed.
Because of a diet violation, a sharp pain in the stomach of a spastic nature may occur. Perhaps burning in epigastrium, stinging and heartburn. These symptoms remove antacids, which neutralize hydrochloric acid( Maalox, Almagel, Fosfalugel).
The medicine should be prescribed by a doctor depending on the underlying disease
If gastritis or ulcer is confirmed, then gastroprotectors and antiulcer drugs are taken( Venter, Pancreatinin, Festal, Mezim).Proton pump inhibitors( Omeprazole, DeNol) interfere with the formation of hydrochloric acid and prevent the appearance of ulcers. An analgesic effect is possessed by Fasfalugel, Maalox, Almagel, No-Shpa, Ketarol, Spazmalgon.
Enzymatic preparations will help to digest food. They are drunk with discomfort in the stomach, which arose after overeating or heavy food. Such medications include Mezim, Pancreatin, Festal.
To ease the pain in the stomach will help and folk remedies.
For example, green dandelion leaves help with heartburn and heaviness, aloe juice removes inflammation and accelerates regeneration, honey improves immunity and is an anti-inflammatory drug, mint tea relaxes the smooth muscles of the stomach.
For inflammation to pass, it is necessary to provide the body with functional rest. If the pathology of the pancreas, then from food you need to abstain for at least two days, if the work of the intestine is broken, then for a period of 8 hours. During the exacerbation of the disease, one must adhere to a diet that excludes fresh muffins, fried, alcohol, strong tea and coffee, sour vegetables and fruits, dishes with a lot of spices.
Follow the diet for any diseases of the digestive system
. If acute pain in the abdomen, then you should immediately seek medical help. Before the doctor's arrival, pain medications should not be taken, as they will remove the main symptom and will not allow you to determine the epicenter of pain, its character when pressed.
It will help to reduce the painful sensations of ice or a cold warmer, applied to the abdominal region. It is also recommended to take a certain posture in which the pain will be less intense, it can be a knee-elbow pose, embryo posture, semi-sitting position. In any case, you need to move less.
What should I do if my stomach aches in the stomach area, the gastroenterologist will tell. Only having established the diagnosis it is possible to treat the underlying disease. If independent symptomatic therapy is carried out, it leads to the development of the disease and the occurrence of complications. Therefore, even if the pain is not intense, but occurs periodically, then you need to undergo examination and understand their cause.