What is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy?

Before the planning of pregnancy and with its onset, every woman turns to a women's consultation, in which she is registered. Throughout the pregnancy, the health of the pregnant woman is observed by the doctors. Periodically, for control, a woman is obliged to take laboratory tests. An increase in the amount of glucose may indicate gestational diabetes mellitus.

  • What is this disease?
  • What is the threat
  • Causes of pathology formation
  • Risk factors for the onset of a disease in pregnancy
  • Symptoms of pathology
  • Diagnostics
  • How to treat this condition
  • Diet for gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant women
  • Exercise
  • Prophylaxis of ailment
  • How does pathology affect the delivery process?
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What is this disease?

Gestational diabetes is an ailment in which there is an increase in the amount of sugar in the blood of women during pregnancy.

It occurs in about 5% of women. Usually after birth, the pathology disappears on its own.

Important! Gestational diabetes in pregnant women after childbirth can develop into normal diabetes mellitus.

What is the threat

It should be remembered that diabetes mellitus during pregnancy has a negative effect on the fetus and on the course of pregnancy. In the early stages of pregnancy, this disease can lead to fetal development of congenital malformations. In addition, this disease can provoke a miscarriage.

After 6 months of pregnancy because of this pathology, growth and development disorders of the fetus are possible. What is dangerous for a child after birth? After delivery, the disease can cause the development of diabetic fetopathy, proceeding with the following symptoms:

  • respiratory distress;
  • excess weight of the baby (more than 4 kg);
  • disproportion of the body;
  • formation of thrombi, high blood viscosity;
  • jaundice;
  • a large amount of subcutaneous fat and swelling of the tissues.

In the blood of a newborn there is a deficiency of magnesium and calcium.

Causes of pathology formation

During the course of pregnancy, you need to monitor the indicators of sugar.

In pregnancy, the following causes of this disease can be noted:

  1. Developing fetus. In the body of a pregnant baby, the baby develops for 40 weeks. Every day he needs energy, which he is supplied with carbohydrates. The main element of nutrition for the fetus is glucose. The maternal organism makes great efforts to develop it.
  2. Progesterone. This hormone is responsible for the preservation and normal course of pregnancy. It partly prevents the development of insulin. To maintain the blood in the right level of sugar, the pancreas starts in a double dose to produce insulin. Because of the load, the pancreas can not cope with the task, and signs of diabetes mellitus appear.

The main reason for the formation of gestational diabetes is an increase in hormones: progesterone, cortisol, prolactin. These hormones reduce the sensitivity of cells of peripheral tissues to insulin, the glucose contained in the blood is not absorbed by the cells, as a result accumulates in the blood.

Risk factors for the onset of a disease in pregnancy

There is a large number of risk factors for the formation of this pathology during pregnancy:

  • late delivery;
  • presence of diabetes in blood relatives of a pregnant woman;
  • overweight, obesity and signs of impaired metabolism;
  • a large amount of glucose in the urine;
  • various diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • bad habits: smoking, drinking alcohol or drugs;
  • various disorders in carbohydrate metabolism;
  • previously experienced gestational diabetes;
  • chronic miscarriage of the fetus and frequent spontaneous abortions.

In addition to the above factors, it can include severe toxicosis or gestosis in past pregnancies.

Symptoms of pathology

Usually this disease proceeds slowly, without particularly pronounced symptoms.

Pregnant women in this condition may experience the following symptoms:

  • strong thirst;
  • a regular feeling of hunger or lack of appetite;
  • unpleasant sensations of frequent urination;
  • severe fatigue;
  • sometimes increased pressure;
  • blurred vision.

If the above mentioned signs and sensations arose, then it is urgent to tell the doctor so that he appointed an analysis for sugar. The final diagnosis of the doctor puts, taking into account the results of the study.


Once every 3 months, a woman must undergo blood sugar tests. If glucose levels rise, the doctor will prescribe an additional glucose assay.

It is necessary to perform an analysis on an empty stomach. To carry it out, the pregnant woman takes venous blood. Then she must drink a very sweet liquid, and after 60 minutes the doctor again takes the blood for analysis. An hour later the blood sampling is repeated. This test will show the body's ability to absorb glucose and metabolize the sugar solution. If necessary, the test can be re-administered after 14 days.

How to treat this condition

Diabetes mellitus is a serious condition requiring treatment.

The doctor uses complex methods for curing:

  1. Rational menu and food.
  2. Physical exercises.

In addition, the pregnant woman must constantly monitor the level of sugar and monitor blood pressure. If you strictly follow all the advice and recommendations of a doctor, you can do without diets without medication. In situations where the above methods have not lowered the sugar level, insulin injections are prescribed.

Important! Preparations to reduce the amount of glucose in a tablet form to pregnant women are contraindicated.

Diet for gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant women

Future mothers with diabetes should revise their menu.

Important! A woman should know what you can eat with this disease so that there are no negative consequences.

Typically, diabetics are recommended to reduce weight, and for this it is necessary to reduce the calorie content of food.

Consider the main recommendations for proper nutrition of pregnant women with diabetes:

  1. Fractional power. Often eat, but in small portions.
  2. Avoid harmful products: fatty, fried, foods with digestible carbohydrates. In addition, the reception of fast food is contraindicated.
  3. Eat more foods with more fiber.
  4. During the day, you need to drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid.
  5. It is recommended to take vitamin complexes.
  6. If you feel nauseous in the morning, prepare a dry salted biscuit or cracker from the evening. Before going up from the bed, you need to eat a few pieces.

Rational nutrition is the main condition for effective treatment of gestational diabetes. The menu should be dietary, but at the same time full.


Physical education helps maintain muscle tone, maintain excellent health. Physical activity during pregnancy will help in a short time to recover from childbirth. And also physical education helps maintain weight in the norm. All this helps to normalize the amount of sugar in the blood.

A future mother is recommended to engage in ordinary sports that will not harm her health. It can be gymnastics, water exercises or ordinary walking.

Important! Pregnant women are not allowed to exercise exercises that put a strain on the abdomen.

Prophylaxis of ailment

There is no guarantee that a woman will not get gestational diabetes during pregnancy. If during a previous pregnancy, Mom already had the disease, there is a very high risk of its re-development.
Maintaining your weight will reduce the risk of pathology. Support the level of sugar in the norm will also help exercise. In addition, there is the possibility of forming an ordinary type 2 diabetes mellitus in the postpartum period. To avoid this and after childbirth, you need to monitor your diet.

Some contraceptive medications can increase the risk of developing diabetes.

How does pathology affect the delivery process?

Usually, after the birth of the child, gestational diabetes disappears. In extremely rare situations, the disease can develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus. Often due to illness, a fairly large child can develop. In such cases, labor may cause problems. To avoid this, a caesarean section is prescribed.

  1. In children born to mothers with diabetes, often there is a low level of glucose. But this pathology is gradually replenished by feeding.
  2. The doctor carefully controls the amount of sugar in the baby's blood, measuring it both before and after the feeding.

When planning pregnancy, it is recommended to adhere to proper nutrition and constantly monitor your health in order to reduce the risk of diabetes.