- What is included in the "intestinal group"?
- Which pathogenic microorganisms are most often detected?
- How to take the test?
- How is the research done?
- How long is the analysis done?
- How are results evaluated?
- Who should be tested for the intestinal group?
- Related Videos
An intestinal group test is a popular study. It is prescribed both for diagnosis of acute diseases, and for the purpose of revealing the latent flow in carriers of the disease. When an adult or child develops diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, it is impossible to diagnose only on the basis of the clinic, since many intestinal infections occur with similar symptoms.
In addition, to determine the optimal antibacterial treatment, it is necessary to know the specific causative agent of the disease. According to the existing regulations of the Sanitary Service and the Ministry of Health, all people working on food production or in contact with them during transportation, sale, packaging, cooking, cleaning the premises, regularly undergo an analysis for the intestinal group.
The result is noted in their "Sanitary Book" together with the conclusion of doctors. Why give so much attention to the analysis of stool, we will try to tell in the article.
What is in the "intestinal group"?
About 500 species of microorganisms live quietly in the intestine of a healthy person. They quite successfully coexist with the macroorganism, help it carry out a number of important functions, they themselves eat from intestinal contents. It is accepted to divide the whole flora into three types according to the principle of danger.
Useful - under any conditions, support digestion, produce vitamins, provide immunity. Among them the main:
Total of such microorganisms 15. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms are harmless if a person is strong and healthy, but in case of a fall of protective forces become an additional aggressive factor and can cause significant harm.
"Enemies" can be:
- of staphylococci;
- E. coli;
- fungi of the genus Candida.
Pathogenic are pathogens of an infectious disease that should not normally be, but they can take so well protected forms that they live in the intestine of the carrier for a long time in the form of cysts. A person does not even suspect that he is a carrier of infection. These include:
- dysentery amoeba;
- intestinal Trichomonas;
- cholera vibrio and others.
The presence of bacteria in the intestine is considered the absolute norm
If the doctor prescribes a feces analysis for the intestinal group, it is primarily concerned with the probable pathogens. After all, knowing their characteristics and striking properties, you can:
- find out the source of infection;
- to limit the spread of the disease;
- to examine contact persons;
- to prescribe a course of optimal therapy.
Which pathogenic microorganisms are most often detected?
Patient with acute digestive disorder and suspected infection is referred to a stationary infectious unit. Children are hospitalized with their mothers. In the conditions of the hospital it is possible to isolate the patient, to conduct the most complete examination and treatment.
The most common intestinal group of pathogens is manifested by the following diseases:
- Dysentery - caused by shigella, the main "blow" is applied to the stomach and the large intestine. The causative agent is well adaptable to environmental conditions. They live in scum and feces for up to two months. A person gets an infection through dirty hands or contaminated foods.
- Salmonellosis - a favorite place of defeat is the small intestine. The disease is accompanied by severe intoxication. For young children - especially dangerous, because it causes severe complications( pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, general sepsis).Pathogens are divided into species other than salmonellosis, causes typhoid fever infection by fecal-oral route, through inadequately processed foods, dirty water.
- Coli infections are diseases caused by different intestinal sticks in serotype. Often occur in infants. The large intestine is affected. They are transmitted from carriers or sick adult people if the basic rules of hygiene and care of an infant are not observed.
These examples show how important it is to timely analyze not only feces, but also food, drinking water, washings from the hands of personnel. Especially if the disease is detected in children's institutions.
How to take the test?
To obtain reliable patient results, it is necessary to prepare:
- it is recommended 4-5 days not to eat meat dishes, do not take alcohol, eat only dairy products, porridges, potatoes, white bread;
- , three days before the collection of stool, stop taking antibiotics, laxatives, iron preparations( it is possible in advance to assume a negative result in patients who have independently begun antibiotic treatment), the introduction of rectal suppositories.
It is better to use the standard container purchased in the pharmacy, it has a closing plug and is sterile.
The collection rules include:
- warning of ingestion of foreign substances( urine, blood during menstruation in women) in the test material; the child should be given the opportunity to urinate beforehand,vaginal swab if you can not transfer the analysis period;
- dishes for the test material can not be treated with disinfectants( bleach), the jar needs to be washed well with soap and pour boiling water;
- the same way the pot of the kid is processed;
- takes no more than two hours to deliver to the laboratory, storage in the refrigerator allows 4 hours of delay, the longer the delay in transportation, the less effective the results will be, as some of the pathogens die.
The sampling of the analysis is carried out:
- at home - in sterile dishes, per volume should be oriented approximately to a full teaspoon;
- in the infectious room or in the hospital take a rectal swab with a swab, in the patient's position on the side, the lab technician inserts a sterile swab on the rod into the rectum to a small depth and rotates it, then immediately placed in a test tube with a special medium;
- a small child can take the material directly from the diaper.
How is the research done?
For a more likely result, three samples of feces are taken for the study. All the methods used are referred to as "Invitro," which means "on the glass."Another possibility "in vivo", carried out through the infection of animals, in this case is not needed.
The collected material in a small amount is placed for 4-5 days on a nutrient medium. Here grow colonies, from which you can prepare a smear for the intestinal group, even with a very small number of microorganisms.
Qualified bacteriologists are able to identify pathological pathogens, focusing on the appearance, mobility under a microscope. The method is called bacterioscopy.
When viewing a drop of stools diluted in water, a specialist on the first day can give a preliminary result of
The microbiological method is accompanied by mandatory sowing of feces on special media( for example, for any dysenteric pathogen any universal medium is suitable, salmonella grows well on the bile broth).If there is no way to make an urgent crop, the material samples can be preserved in solution with glycerin or phosphoric acid salts.
Bacteriological study allows not only to identify the infectious agent, but also to analyze its sensitivity to antibiotics. This is especially important for the choice of treatment of carriers.
Biochemical tests - allow you to calculate the amount of fatty acids released by microorganisms in the intestinal contents. According to their content, conclusions are drawn about the quantity and qualitative composition of the intestinal group.
How long is the analysis done?
It takes about a week for the final results of the research. This period is not connected with organizational problems, it is necessary to ensure the possibility of maximum growth and detection of the pathogen.
To accelerate the process, some institutions use express methods. But they are, as a rule, less reliable. In the diagnosis, the results of serological blood reactions are obtained more quickly.
How are results evaluated?
The result of the analysis on the intestinal group takes into account the presence of the entire spectrum of microorganisms.
The presence of pathogenic flora is noted separately by pluses in the standard form, fixed by stamps or inscribed in conclusion before the physician's signature
Quantitative counting is measured in CFU( colony forming units) in grams of stool. Advanced analysis allows you to judge the presence of dysbiosis among useful flora. This point should be taken into account, as it makes the disease worse, requires correction after the acute symptoms subsided.
Do not try to decode the analysis yourself. Even doctors of different specialties, not related to infections, do not have enough information on this issue. Therefore, only infectious disease specialists, bacteriologists and gastroenterologists can give correct advice and evaluation.
Who should be tested for the intestinal group?
In the presence of symptoms of the disease, all patients must pass the test. During and after treatment, at least three times the study will be repeated in order to be sure of the absence of bacterial transport, safety for their family, members of the work collective.
With the preventive purpose of giving the analysis forcibly( suspended from work, if not conducted a study):
- medical personnel of children's and infectious diseases departments, maternity hospitals;
- staff of pre-school institutions and schools, summer camps;
- food workers( cooks, waiters);
- people by profession, associated with the production and processing of products, packaging, transportation( milk workers, bakeries, cookery);
- people selling products in stores, on the market( sellers, meat cutters).
The above contingents submit analyzes in accordance with the approved schedule 2-4 times a year
In the case of investigation by the epidemiologist of the detected infection, an additional general inspection at the request of the sanitary inspection authority is possible. Broad powers allow for a dangerous epidemic.situations close institutions.
Often in this way, the source of infection is detected - a bacterial carrier that has been ill with a remnant of an infection or just an untreated patient. Unfair attitude of some citizens contributes not only to their personal illness, but also becomes dangerous to others. Children's hospitals require preliminary analysis of the intestinal group with a planned hospitalization.
The role of the intestinal microflora is important enough to ensure human health. Control with the help of the analysis of feces helps to maintain the normal process of digestion, not to allow excess intoxication and signs of illness.