Diseases of the salivary glands

Content
  • Causes of inflammation
  • The most common diseases of the salivary glands
  • Diagnostics
  • Preventive actions
  • Related Videos

Salivary glands are organs located in the oral cavity and producing saliva. They are localized on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, lips, the sky, under the jaw, near the ears, behind the tongue.

But unfortunately, it often happens that they become inflamed and cause a lot of discomfort. Diseases of salivary glands are a group of diseases that should not be left without attention, because it is with them that saliva begins and the process of digestion begins.

Causes of inflammation

Diseases of the salivary glands can appear as a result of a variety of reasons. The most common among them are:

  • viral or bacterial infection (pathogens of influenza, herpes, HIV infection, mumps, pneumonia, meningitis and others);
  • obstruction of salivary ducts due to ingress of foreign object or formed stones;
  • incorrect or insufficient oral hygiene. Teeth damaged by caries, gingival inflammation and irregular cleansing promote the reproduction of bacteria and make the glands more vulnerable to foreign agents;
  • complications after a surgical procedure;
  • strong intoxication from salts of heavy metals;
  • dehydration of the body;
  • debilitating diets, poor essential vitamins and minerals.

The most common diseases of the salivary glands

The branch of medicine, like dentistry - includes not only the treatment of diseases of teeth and gums. It involves the therapy of all pathologies that develop in the oral cavity and inflammation of the salivary glands, including. Further, the main diseases of the salivary glands, which doctors often face dentists most often.

Sialolithiasis

Saliva-stone disease is a chronic disease characterized by the formation of concrements in the ducts of the salivary glands. Most often, the submaxillary gland is affected, rarely parotid, and it is extremely rare to see a lesion of the hyoid gland.

Pathology is widespread among the male population and almost never occurs in children. Misalignment of the salivary glands leads to stagnation of saliva in the duct. At this point, the salts precipitate and the formation of stones begins.

Stones from the salivary glands
There are concrements of phosphate and calcium carbonate, they can detect the content of sodium, iron and magnesium

Stones can grow at a rapid pace, and the size of dense formations sometimes reaches the size of a chicken egg. Symptoms of the pathology include edema and hyperemia of the skin in the affected area, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and talking, dryness of the oral mucosa, tenderness in the palpation of the mouth and cheeks, unpleasant taste in the mouth, hyperthermia, deterioration in general condition, headache and weakness.

Treatment implies conservative (drugs that enhance the secretion of salivary glands, removing edema and inflammation, antipyretic, analgesic, antibacterial) and surgical treatment.

Sialoadenitis

Acute or chronic inflammatory disease of the salivary glands, which occurs for various reasons (infectious diseases, trauma, developmental abnormalities). The disease most often occurs in children and people older than 60 years. There are 3 types of sialoadenitis: submaxillary, sublingual and parotid.

In addition to pain in the ears, throat and nose, the following symptoms can be attributed: increased body temperature, hyperemia and swelling of the skin in the ear, an unpleasant taste in the mouth (putrefactive smell from the mouth), pain when pressing on the earlobe, a violation of taste, dryness mucosa of the mouth as a result of insufficient saliva secretion.

In case of complications, stenosis of ducts, salivary fistula, abscess, phlegmon of the parotid and submandibular zone may appear. Sialadenitis is treated conservatively with antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and physiotherapeutic procedures. With frequent recurrent disease, a complete removal of the salivary gland is recommended.

Salivary gland cyst

Education, which is formed as a result of difficult or complete cessation of saliva outflow, violation of patency of salivary ducts due to their blockage. Classification of the cyst is as follows: retention cyst of the small gland (56%), wound, cyst of the submaxillary gland, parotid cyst.

Most often it forms on the mucous membrane of the cheeks and lips. It usually passes asymptomatically. Activities to combat cystic education anywhere in the localization does not provide for conservative treatment. The optimal option is to remove the cyst along with the surrounding tissues with the imposition of self-burring sutures.

Sjogren's Syndrome

Dry syndrome is an autoimmune disease that affects the glands of external secretion, as a result of which it is possible to observe the dryness of the mucous membranes not only of the oral cavity, but also of the nose, eyes, vagina and other organs. Pathology is most common among women after 40 years, often accompanied by diseases such as scleroderma, lupus, periarteritis.

Symptoms and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

The first non-specific signs of Sjogren's syndrome are dry mouth and tenderness of the eyes, which has a cutting and sharp character when looking, for example, a TV.

When examining the tongue there is complete dryness, inability to swallow saliva, dry lump in the throat, causing unpleasant sensations.

With the development of the disease there is photophobia, pain in the eyes, deterioration of vision, dystrophic changes. If you want to "squeeze out" a tear nothing happens, because there is no teardrop. Two weeks after the onset of the disease, one can notice loosening of teeth and loss of fillings.

Treatment includes the administration of glucocorticosteroids, cytostatics of immunosuppressive action, symptomatic therapy.

Tumors

Oncological diseases, rarely affecting the salivary glands. Among all cancer diseases, they make up only 0.5-1% of all oncological pathologies. Despite its rarity, cancer of the salivary gland poses a great danger, because the course of the disease is secretive and asymptomatic in the first stage.

Neoplasms occur in 2 times more often in women after 50 years, have the property of malignancy and metastasis. As the tumor grows, there may be a swelling in the area of ‚Äč‚Äčlocalization, a feeling of bursting from the inside. In later stages, there is discomfort, tenderness, and ulceration.

Treatment of tumors is exclusively surgical, followed by chemo- and radiotherapy. Measures aimed at eliminating diseases are coordinated by several doctors: a dentist, a surgeon, an otorhinolaryngologist.

Diagnostics

All patients who have applied for help to a specialist, without fail for the purpose of diagnosis, conduct an examination, palpation, a survey, a study of blood and urine. Depending on the results, the specialist can refer him to a comprehensive examination in a hospital.

Most often this happens if there is a history of such diseases as diabetes, thyroid and sex gland diseases, diseases of the digestive tract, liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system, nervous and mental disorders, and others. All of them can cause inflammation of the salivary glands or aggravate the course of the disease.

Probing the salivary gland
The procedure of sounding is performed accurately, without the use of force, because the duct wall is very thin and does not have a muscle layer, so it can easily be damaged

To more accurately make a diagnosis, doctors are assigned the following procedures:

  • Probing the ducts of the salivary glands- spend a special salivary probe. With this method, you can determine the direction of the duct, its narrowing, the stone in the duct.
  • X-ray of the salivary ducts(sialografiya) - a diagnostic method aimed at introducing contrast media into the ducts and performing radiography. With the help of it, it is possible to determine the widening or narrowing of the ducts of the salivary glands, the sharpness of the contours, the presence of concrements, cysts and tumors, The procedure is carried out using a syringe and can cause discomfort to the patient.
  • Sialometry- a method in which the functional capacity of small and large salivary glands is determined. The procedure is performed on an empty stomach, you can not brush your teeth, rinse your mouth, smoke, chew chewing gum. The patient takes in 8 drops of 1% polycarpine diluted in half a glass of water. After this, a special cannula is inserted into the gland duct and a secretion of the salivary glands is collected in the test tube for 20 minutes. After a certain time, the amount of saliva produced is estimated;
  • Cytological examination of saliva- a method that helps to identify inflammation and tumor diseases of small and large salivary glands.

Preventive actions

To try to completely protect yourself from the defeat of the salivary glands, you must follow simple rules: observe the rules of oral hygiene, monitor the condition of teeth, gums and tonsils. If any viral or bacterial disease occurs, appropriate therapeutic measures should be carried out on time.

If the first signs of inflammation of the salivary glands are found, rinse the mouth with a weak solution of citric acid. It promotes abundant saliva production and releases ducts from accumulation of infection or foreign bodies in them.