Acute bronchitis symptoms and treatment in children

Bronchitis in children: acute, obstructive bronchitis, symptoms, treatment

Bronchitis in children most often occurs in the form of complications against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, influenza or a severe cold, hypothermia. The provoking factors of bronchitis are seasonal sharp temperature changes, especially periods of rain with high humidity, so this disease usually occurs in the fall or spring.

In form, all bronchitis in children are divided into: Acute, Prolonged and Recurrent.

For reasons of occurrence, depends on the pathogen of inflammation and is divided into:

  • Viral - influenza, adenoviruses, parainfluenza
  • Bacterial - can be acute and obstructive (the causative agent is streptococcus, staphylococcus, moraxelly, hemophilic rod, as well as mycoplasma and chlamydia)
  • Allergic, obstructive, asthmatic - arises from irritating chemical or physical factors, such as household chemicals, home dust (read about the symptoms of allergy to dust), animal hair, pollen of plants, etc.
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Bronchitis in a child up to a year - symptoms and treatment

Children who are breastfed and who do not have contact with sick children and adults should not have any respiratory illnesses. However, if the child was born prematurely, has congenital malformations of the respiratory organs and other diseases, and also in the family there is children of preschool age who attend kindergartens and are often ill - the development of bronchitis in a child up to a year is possible for the following reasons:

  • narrower than the adult, bronchi, a more dry and vulnerable mucosa of the respiratory tract
  • existing congenital malformations
  • after a viral or bacterial infection
  • the presence of individual sensitivity to chemical and physical stimuli - an allergy to anything.
Acute bronchitis in children symptoms treatment

The most basic symptoms of developing bronchitis are a severe dry cough, paroxysmal, accompanied by difficulty breathing, shortness of breath. Gradually, the cough becomes moist, but mucus, sputum during bronchitis in a child up to a year makes it difficult breathing, the normal functioning of the lungs is disrupted, since the airways in infancy are narrow. Bronchitis in children up to a year and even up to 3-4 years is most often the following:

  • Acute bronchitis simple
  • Obstructive bronchitis
  • Bronchiolitis

On acute and obstructive bronchitis, we will dwell in more detail below. And now consider the most common in children under one year oldbronchiolitis.

Bronchitis in children under one year of age - bronchiolitis

This bronchitis affects both small bronchi and bronchioles, develops more often against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza viruses with the subsequent reproduction of pneumococci (and so on. streptococci). In case of inhalation of icy air or sharp concentrations of various gases, bronchiolitis can develop as an independent disease. The danger of such bronchitis is a pronounced bronchoobstructive syndrome with the development of sometimes even acute respiratory failure:

  • Characteristic of dry cough attacks, pronounced dyspnea of ​​a mixed or expiratory form with syndromes of swelling of the wings of the nose, with the participation of ancillary muscles, retraction of intercostal spaces of the chest, pallor of the skin, cyanosis.
  • The child has dry mouth, no tears when crying.
  • The child eats less and drinks than usual, respectively, and his urination is more rare.
  • Increased body temperature, but unlike pneumonia, it is less pronounced (see. whether it is necessary to bring down the temperature).
  • Shortness of breath to 60-80 breaths per minute, while breathing is grunting, superficial.
  • On both sides are heard diffuse wet ringing finely bubbling and crepitating rales.
  • Symptoms of intoxication in bronchiolitis in children are not expressed.
  • X-ray is determined by the sharp transparency of the lung tissue, the variegation of the pattern, the horizontal standing of the ribs, the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.
  • If at first there was a simple bronchitis, the attachment of bronchiolitis after a while manifests a sharp deterioration general state of the child, cough becomes more painful and intense, with scant sputum.
  • Children are usually very restless, moody, excited.
  • The blood test can be slightly changed, a slight leukocytosis and an increase in ESR are possible.
  • Usually bronchiolitis in children up to a year has a long course of up to 1-1.5 months.
  • The causes of acute bronchiolitis in children are similar to the causes of development of obstructive bronchitis in children older than 2-4 years. The local immune system of the respiratory tract in children under 2 years is weak, protection against viruses is not enough, so they easily penetrate deep into bronchioles and small bronchi.

Treatment of bronchiolitis in children

At home, you can not cure bronchiolitis. When a bronchiolitis occurs, the infant is usually shown hospitalization, so that the child is under the supervision of doctors. In the hospital pediatricians, pulmonologists will establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment. What should my mom do before the ambulance arrives?

You can only alleviate the symptoms of colds - create optimally comfortable air in the room, turn on the humidifier, air purifier.

If there is no high temperature in the child, you can ease breathing with warming creams and ointments, spread them legs, calves. Only with this you need to be cautious if the child has not had any allergic manifestations before, then it helps a lot if a child allergic, warming ointments should be excluded.

To cough softer, you can do steam inhalation-above a boiling pot with a weak saline solution, hold the baby in her arms. Or sit him down at the table and cover with a towel over a cup of hot medical solution.

Try to force the baby to drink more to avoid dehydration, if the child refuses the breast or mixture, give the child just pure water.

In the hospital to relieve the signs of respiratory failure, the baby is given inhalations with bronchodilators and allowed to breathe oxygen. Also at the doctor's discretion, an antibiotic is selected - Sumamed, Macroben, Augmentin, Amoxiclav. It is possible to use various drugs with interferon. Necessarily prescribe antihistamines for the removal of edema at the site of inflammation and a possible allergic reaction to treatment. If symptoms of dehydration are observed, then the necessary rehydration therapy is performed.

Acute bronchitis in children - symptoms

Bronchitis in children is the most common form of respiratory tract disease. Acute bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchial mucosa without symptoms of inflammation of the lung tissue. Simple bronchitis in children is 20% self-contained bacterial disease, 80% - either in the program of viruses (virus Coxsackie, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza) or as a bacterial complication after these viral infections.

Clinical symptoms of bronchitis in children are as follows:

First, the child has general weakness, malaise, headache, lack of appetite, then there is a dry cough or cough with phlegm, the intensity of which is rapidly increasing, when listening to dry dry or diffuse wet rales are determined. Sometimes there may be a barking cough in a child whose treatment is slightly different.

In the first 2 days, the temperature rises to 38 ° C, but with a light form, the temperature can be 37-37.2.

After 6-7 days, the dry cough becomes wet, the sputum discharge facilitates the child's condition and is a good sign that the body is coping with the infection and the virus.

On average, the duration of acute bronchitis in children is 7-21 days, but the nature of the disease, the severity of the inflammatory process depend on the child's age, the strength of his immune system, the presence of concomitant chronic and systemic diseases. In case of inadequate or untimely treatment, acute bronchitis can lead to addition - bronchiolitis, pneumonia.

Sometimes after the flu, for some time, the child's condition improves, and then a sharp deterioration, a rise in temperature, a rise in the cough - this is due to the weakening of the immune system in the fight against the virus and the attachment of a bacterial infection, in which case an antibiotic is indicated.

With mycoplasmal or adenoviral acute bronchitis in children, the symptoms of intoxication, such as high fever, headaches, chills, lack of appetite, can be about a week. Usually acute bronchitis is bilateral, however, with mycoplasma bronchitis it is most often one-sided, sometimes combined with conjunctivitis.

Acute bronchitis in children - treatment

Most often, the duration of acute bronchitis in children, whose treatment is correct and carried out on time, should not be more than 14 days, however, in infants, cough can persist for up to a month, as well as for older children with atypical-mycoplasma bronchitis. If suddenly the bronchitis in the child is delayed, it is necessary to exclude a number of diseases:

  • aspiration of food
  • pneumonia
  • cystic fibrosis
  • foreign body in bronchi
  • tuberculosis infection

A pediatrician prescribes a full treatment package. In addition to implementing all the recommendations of the doctor, you should provide the child with special nutrition and quality care. It is desirable to create in the room the optimum humidity and purity, for this purpose it is convenient to use a humidifier and a cleaner air, often ventilate the room and conduct daily wet cleaning in the room in which the child is. And:

  • Abundant drink

Ensure abundant reception of fluids in a warm form. To soften the cough, warm milk with butter or Borjomi mineral water helps, can be replaced with honey.

  • Heat

With fever, the temperature just above 38C should take antipyretics - paracetamol in syrup.

  • Antibiotics

Antibiotics for bronchitis in children, if recommended by a doctor, should be given strictly by the hour. If taking antibacterial drugs is necessary 3 times a day, this does not mean that you should drink from breakfast, lunch and dinner, which means, that their reception should be 24/3 = 8, every 8 hours, if 1 time per day, then give it only at the same time, for example at 9 o'clock in the morning. 11 rules - how to take antibiotics correctly.

  • Cough medicine

With a dry cough, the child can be given antitussive medicines as prescribed by the doctor, and when it becomes wet to go on expectorants. With a dry cough, the means can be combined (Sinekod). If the cough is wet, then expectorants are shown - Mucaltin, Bromhexin, Gedelix, Alpine syrup, Thermopsis herb infusion or its dry extract, Bronchicum, Evcabal, Prospan, breastfeeds.

  • Inhalation

Inhalation in bronchitis in children, the symptoms of which are very pronounced, are well helped by inhalation with the usual food soda, called over hot pots, inhalation of sodium bicarbonate using a nebulizer, inhaler.

  • For babies

For small and infants who do not know how to clear themselves, doctors advise turning the child more often from one side to the other. In this case, sputum is shifted downward, irritating the bronchial wall, this leads to reflex cough.

  • Distractions

For older children, cans, mustards, hot foot baths, they still help, and if the child has strong immunity, such procedures will help to avoid taking antibiotics. You can soar the baby's legs after 1 year, and also rub them with warming agents - turpentine ointments, Barsukor, Pulmaks baby, etc., but only in the case when there is no high temperature, after rubbing, you should warm your feet and wrap up your baby. However, in case of an allergic bronchitis in a child, neither the mustard nor the warming ointments can be used, since the composition of ointments and mustard can worsen the child's condition.

  • Compresses

With bronchitis in children, the treatment is helped by compresses made from warm oil. Warm sunflower oil to 40 ° C and moisten them with gauze folded several times. This compress should be imposed only on the right side and back of the baby, from above put a plastic bag and a layer of cotton wool, bandage the child around several times. Dress warm clothes, do this procedure for the night, if there is no temperature in the child.

  • Folk remedies

Old folk way - radish juice with honey, cabbage juice, turnip juice - any of these juices should be given 1 teaspoon 4 times a day. You can give and cranberry juice, mixing it with honey in a ratio of 3/1, a tablespoon 3 times a day.

  • Massage

The first week is well helped by chest massage, older children would be good at performing breathing exercises.

Physiotherapy with bronchitis

In children, these procedures are prescribed and conducted only at the physician's discretion, these are physiotherapy methods that promote the fastest recovery, since they have an anti-inflammatory effect, however, they can not be performed more than 2 times a year:

  • Ultraviolet irradiation of the chest
  • Mud, paraffin applications on the chest and between the shoulder blades
  • Inductometry on the same areas
  • Electrophoresis with calcium
  • Aeronisation by the hydroionizer of the respiratory tract with solutions of chamomile, antibiotics.
Obstructive bronchitis in children symptoms treatment
Prevention of acute bronchitis in children:

Do not allow a prolonged runny nose in a child, timely treatment of any cold and infectious diseases will be the best preventative against penetration of the infection into the lower respiratory tract.

Walking in the fresh air in the park, playing at the cottage, physical exercise in nature, tempering, daily the intake of natural vitamins in fruits and vegetables, and not in tablets is the way to your child's health.

Obstructive bronchitis in children - symptoms

In young children, usually up to 3-4 years of acute bronchitis may be accompanied by an obstructive syndrome - this is an acute obstructive bronchitis. In children, the symptoms of such bronchitis begin more often after viral infections or allergic manifestations on the stimulus.

The main symptoms of obstructive bronchitis:

  • Harsh, audible long breath with whistling
  • Coughing with attacks, before vomiting, debilitating
  • During inhalation, the intercostal spaces are drawn in and chest is swollen with breathing

When obstructive allergic bronchitis in children there is no temperature, it starts because of an allergic reaction to the strongest irritant for the child, and parents can often recall, that recently they bought something for the child - a feather pillow or a blanket made of wool of a camel or a sheep, houses were inhaled with paint from repair or went to visit, where there are cats.

In obstructive bronchitis in children, symptoms can begin on the 3rd-4th day of the flu or ARVI, and may also be caused by other bacteria, which is manifested in the appearance of expiratory dyspnea - an increase in the respiratory rate to 60 per minute, and there are also difficulties in inspiration.

The child begins wheezing, noisy breathing, especially a prolonged wheezing exhale, which is heard by persons near the baby. The thorax is as if swollen, that is, the ribs are horizontally arranged. Cough is dry, obtrusive, bouts, arises suddenly, it does not bring relief and intensifies at night.

If this disease develops not after ARI, then the temperature in the early days is not increased.
Headache, weakness and nausea, are very rare.

When listening there are dry wheezing in the lungs.

X-ray revealed increased transparency, increased pulmonary pattern, in the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.

The analysis of blood as a viral infection - lymphocytosis, leukopenia. accelerated ESR, if allergic bronchitis in a child, then eosinophilia.

Almost always obstructive bronchitis is associated with a virus or mycoplasmal infection, relapses of obstructive bronchitis in children most often spontaneously stop by 4 years.
If the bronchioles and small bronchi are affected, then this is an acute bronchiolitis.

Obstructive bronchitis in children differs from asthma attacks, in that obstruction develops slowly, and with asthma the child abruptly begins to suffocate. Although the first attacks of bronchial asthma in children also begin during ARVI. If the obstruction occurs several times a year, it is a signal that the child is at risk for developing bronchial asthma in the future.

Obstructive bronchitis in a child can be due to passive smoking, it can be distinguished by a strong cough with a whistle in the morning, while the child's condition is quite satisfactory. Obstruction with allergies occurs when contact with an allergen and recently it becomes a very frequent manifestation in children prone to allergies, these bronchitis are recurrent and are threatened by the development of bronchial asthma.

Allergic and obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment


In obstructive bronchitis in children up to a year or 2 years, treatment should be performed in a hospital under the supervision of a pediatrician, in other cases at the discretion of the doctor and parents. Treatment is best done in a hospital if:

  • In addition to obstruction in the child, the symptoms of intoxication are decreased appetite, fever, nausea, general weakness.
  • Signs of respiratory failure. This is shortness of breath, when the frequency of breathing increases by 10% of the age norm, counting is better done at night, and not during games or crying. In children under 6 months, the respiration rate should not exceed 60 per minute, 6-12 months - 50 breaths, 1-5 years, 40 breaths. Acrocyanosis is a sign of respiratory failure, manifested by cyanotic nasolabial triangle, nails, that is, the body experiences oxygen deficiency.
  • It is not uncommon for obstructive bronchitis in children to mask pneumonia, so if the doctor suspects pneumonia from hospitalization can not be denied.


Bronchiolithics extend the bronchi, so they are designed to relieve obstruction. To date, they are presented in various forms in the pharma industry:

  • In the form of syrups (Salmeterol, Clenbuterol, Ascoril), which are convenient for young children, their disadvantage is the development of tremors and palpitations.
  • In the form of solutions for inhalation (see. Berodual for inhalation) - this is the most convenient way for young children, diluting the drug solution fiz.rastvorom, inhalation 2-3 times a day, after the improvement, it is possible to use only at night. The multiplicity and dosage, as well as the course of treatment is determined only by the pediatrician.
  • Inhalers-aerosols can be used only for older children (Berodual, Salbutamol).
  • Such tableted forms of bronchodilators, like theophylline (Theopack, Euphyllin) are not indicated for the treatment of children with obstructive bronchitis, they have more pronounced side effects, are more toxic than local inhalation forms.


Can be used to reduce bronchial spasms. This is papaverine or Drotaverin, No-shpa. Their reception can be carried out with the help of an inhaler, orally in the form of tablets or intravenously in a hospital.

Means for coughing

To sputum better departed, various mucoregulatory drugs are used, they help dilute sputum and accelerate its excretion:

  • These are preparations with active substance ambroksol (Lazolvan, Ambrobene). These drugs can not be taken for more than 10 days, it is most convenient to use them in the form of inhalations, as well as carbocisteine ​​preparations (Fluiditek, Bronhobos, Mukosol).
  • After the cough became wet, the seizures became less intense, the sputum diluted, but it departs badly, ambroxol should be changed to expectorants means for coughing for children, which should be given no more than 5-10 days, including Gedelix, Bronchicum, Prospan, Bronhosan, Herbion (see p. herbion from dry and wet cough), Tussin, Bronchipret, breastfeeding , ,, .
  • Codeine-containing drugs for children should not be taken if the child has a seizure-like compulsive cough, as directed the doctor can use Sinekod, Stoptusin Fito, Libexin (with caution in childhood), Bronhicum, Broncholitin.
  • Erespal - promotes and removes obstruction, and reduces sputum production, and it also has anti-inflammatory activity, is applied from the first days of the disease, reduces the risk of complications, is contraindicated in children under 2 years old.

Draining massage

To facilitate the departure of sputum, parents can themselves do their child massage the collar zone, chest, back. Especially strong massage should be done for the muscles of the back along the spine. Useful for obstructive bronchitis in children postural massage - that is, efflorescence of the baby's back in the morning, it is necessary to suspend the child from the bed upside down (padding the pillow under his tummy) and tapping the palms folded in the boat for 10-15 minutes. For older children, with a massage, ask the child to take a deep breath, and on an exhalation, tap. Useful and additional exercises such as inflating balloons, blowing out candles.


Antihistamines are prescribed to children in the presence of allergic reactions. Such medicines for allergies like Eryus in syrup can be taken to children from 1 year, with the half a year it is possible to use Claritin and Zirtek, from 2 years in syrups and drops Cetrin, Zodak, Parlazin (cf. list of medicines for allergies). Such antihistamines of the 1st generation as Suprastin and Tavegil are used less often, only for drying with abundant liquid sputum.

Allergy or virus

If the obstruction is caused by an allergy or a virus - antibiotics can not be used, and even dangerous (see. antibiotics for colds and orgs). The appointment of antibiotics is possible only with the proven infectious origin of bronchitis in children.

When antibiotics are indicated

Treatment of bronchial obstruction with antibiotics is not indicated, only if the child has a fever over 4 days, or has occurred the second temperature jump to 39C after 4-5 days after the onset of the disease, is accompanied by severe intoxication, a strong cough, if with adequate the child suddenly becomes apathetic, sluggish, refuses to eat, has weakness, nausea, headaches and even vomiting. In such cases, the use of antibiotics is justified. They are prescribed only by a pediatrician on the basis of a clinical picture, the presence of purulent sputum (indicating bacterial bronchitis), inflammatory changes in the analysis of blood, as well as with other signs of bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia (wheezing, x-ray signs).

Antiviral drugs

Most doctors recommend that for ARVI and flu, take antiviral drugs, for babies, candles Genferon, Viferon, and also in the form of drops Gripferon, Interferon, take syrups by Orvire (remantadine), and after three years of age tableted forms such as Kagocel and Arbidol, Cytovir 3. But it is worth remembering that if in a family history (close relatives) there are any autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diffuse toxic goiter, vitiligo, multiple sclerosis, pernicious anemia, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, uveitis, Addison's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, scleroderma), it is impossible to take immunostimulants (Kagocel, Tsitovir, Amiksin), it can cause a debut of an autoimmune disease in a child, perhaps not now, but later (see. more antiviral drugs for orvi).

Hormonal therapy

Hormonal drugs, such as Pulcicort, are indicated only in severe or moderate-onset obstructive bronchitis (usually with the help of a nebulizer), they quickly stop obstruction and inflammation, they are prescribed only by a doctor.

What not to do

When obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment by rubbing and smearing the body of the child with various warming ointments (ointment Dr. Mom, ointments with medicinal plants, essential oils), the use of mustard plasters is unacceptable, since they cause an even more allergic reaction and bronchospasm, especially in children under 3 years old. Also categorically it is impossible to carry out inhalations with bronchitis with various medicinal herbs and essential oils. It is only possible to use such folk remedies for warming up - heat compresses with potatoes, salt, buckwheat.


Physiotherapeutic procedures in the acute period are contraindicated, when the obstruction is already stopped, it is possible to perform UHF, electrophoresis or laser.

Hypoallergenic diet and plentiful drink

Any natural drinks - mineral water with milk, tea, broth of a dogrose, it is necessary to drink to the child as often as possible. The diet should be hypoallergenic, but at the same time maximally vitaminized, high in protein and fat content. Exclude from the diet of the child anything that can cause an allergic reaction:

  • citrus, red and orange fruit
  • purchased spices, sweets, milk cheeses, yoghurts, carbonated drinks, sausages and sausages - everything that contains dyes, flavors, preservatives and flavor enhancers
  • honey and other beekeeping products
  • fish, grown on fish farms, broiler chickens, as they are stuffed with hormones and antibiotics, which causes allergies.

When caring for a child, you should daily aerate, moisten the room where the child is. It's hot in the apartment should not be, it's better to have a cool, fresh, clean air. After the recovery of the child should be put on a dispensary record with an allergist.

Bronchitis in a child

Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa or bronchitis, one of the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Most common bronchitis in children from 3 to 8 years, the incidence rate at this age is associated with the features of the structure of the upper respiratory tract and not fully formed immunity.

In children, bronchitis usually occurs in an acute form and occurs against a background of viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, from where the infection enters in the bronchi, causes inflammation of the mucous membrane, irritates the mucosal receptors and provokes a severe dry cough and chest pain.

Treatment of acute bronchitis in children takes about 2 weeks and does not require hospitalization, but if the disease not treated, it can go into a chronic form and cause pneumonia or bronchial asthma.

Causes of the disease in children

  1. Bronchitis in children in more than half the cases of all diseases, develops against the background of viral infections - the causative agent of the disease will fall in the upper respiratory tract, and from there it spreads lower, causing inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract.
  2. Bronchitis caused by a bacterial infection is much less common - bacteria enter the interior of the bronchial tree only together with some object, small children who like to drag in the mouth any objects or accidentally inhaled fine details of toys or dust particles, along with them enter into your body and bacteria that can provoke the development of bronchitis.
  3. In a number of cases, viral bronchitis is complicated by the attachment of a bacterial infection.
  4. Chronic or acute bronchitis can be caused by irritation of the bronchial mucosa by inhalation of chemical vapors substances or by mechanical irritation with particles of dust, sand or other substances falling into the bronchi during breathing.
  5. Allergic reactions - frequent allergic reactions cause permanent inflammation of the mucosa and can lead to acute or chronic bronchitis and even to bronchial asthma in children.
  6. Congenital malformations of the upper respiratory tract.
  7. Not completely cured colds or viral infections can be complicated by the development of bronchitis, and often repeated acute bronchitis becomes a cause of chronic disease.
  8. Glistovye invasions - with a massive infestation of the child's body with parasites, migrating worms can enter the lungs and stay there, their presence will cause constant irritation and an inflammatory reaction in the bronchi.

Acute simple bronchitis

Acute bronchitis in children develops a few days after a viral infection or hypothermia, the symptoms of the disease are similar to usual ORVI - the child coughs, complains of a pain in a goal, zalozhennost a nose, a headache and a pain in a breast at a tussis and breath.

Simple acute bronchitis usually proceeds fairly easily, body temperature does not rise above 37-38 degrees, the total the patient's condition remains satisfactory, and the main inconvenience is caused by a constant dry cough. With timely treatment and normal course of the disease, after a few days the cough becomes wet, the children normalize their general condition, but completely coughs after 10-14 days.

Chronical bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis in young children develops rarely, this diagnosis is considered proven in the presence of 2-3 exacerbations of the disease a year, for 2 years. Intermediate form between acute and chronic bronchitis, domestic pediatricians consider recurrent bronchitis. In contrast to chronic, with this form of the disease there are no irreversible changes in the bronchi and respiratory system in general and it is possible to completely cure the patient.

With this form of the disease, due to lack of appropriate treatment, weakening of immunity, adverse environmental effects, frequent viral infections and other predisposing factors, the course of acute bronchitis is delayed, the child can not fully recover and get rid of cough and other symptoms of bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis in children up to 3 years often occurs against the background of the primary pathology of the lungs or the respiratory system - with malformations of the lungs and bronchi, with ciliary discenosis, chronic aspiration by food masses, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency states, lung sclerosis, in premature infants who are connected to artificial ventilation and in other such cases.

Understand that the child developed chronic bronchitis easily, the symptoms of the disease do not differ from acute bronchitis, but cough continues for several weeks, the phlegm becomes purulent - white or green, with an unpleasant odor. With auscultation of the chest, constant noise and wheezing are heard. In young children, the symptoms of the disease are accompanied by shortness of breath and gradual deformation of the chest - it can acquire a barrel shape.

Modern methods of treatment of bronchitis

Treatment of acute bronchitis in children is carried out on an outpatient basis and only under the supervision of a pediatrician. A simple uncomplicated bronchitis is treated at home without requiring the use of antibiotics or intramuscular injection, but only a doctor can assess the condition of the patient and prescribe adequate treatment. Particular attention needs treatment of acute bronchitis in children under one year - they develop shortness of breath and respiratory distress very quickly, so doctors recommend hospitalization.

Treatment of children older than 3 years is not particularly difficult, simple acute bronchitis completely takes 2-3 weeks, with good care and compliance with medical recommendations.

  1. Mode - bed and half-bed regime in the first days of illness - until the body temperature and general condition of the child normalize,
  2. Diet - with bronchitis recommended digestible food, more dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables. If the child does not have an appetite, do not insist on eating, he should eat as much as he wants, independently choosing food.
  3. Abundant drink - to reduce body temperature, remove toxins from the body and to replenish the water balance in the body to the child you need a generous warm drink - milk, tea, compote, mors, broth of dogrose or cowberry, warm mineral water without gas.
  4. Rinse throat - with viral infections, gargling helps reduce tonsillitis and remove pathogens from the body - gargle can be sodo-saline solution, infusion of chamomile, sage or collection of herbs.
  5. Expectorants - to facilitate coughing with bronchitis apply mucolytics - licorice syrup, infusion of thermopsis, nitrosil, bromhexine, doctor mom, ambroben and others, they dilute sputum and facilitate its removal from the bronchi.
  6. Inhalation is one of the most effective remedies for dry obtrusive cough, they soften and moisturize the respiratory tract, reduce irritation, soothe cough and act as an expectorant - for inhalation you can use special devices - nebulizers or just breathe hot steam over infusion of medicinal herbs or boiled potatoes.
  7. Warming ointments and compresses - for pains in the chest, prolonged painful coughing, it helps to rub the chest with warming ointments or fat. To treat children older than 3 years you can use mustard plasters or compresses on the chest. Applying rubbing, mustard plasters or spreading the baby ointment, the heart area should be left open.
  8. Vibration massage - in the treatment of bronchitis, vibrating massage has a pronounced curative effect. It helps to clear bronchi and alveoli from mucus, helps restore normal breathing and speeds up recovery. Such massage can be done by a child's massage therapist or the parents of a child, for this you need to gently and easily tap on the back of the baby, creating a vibration with your fingers or the edge of the palm. Massage should not cause pain, a massage session takes 2-3 minutes to 15 minutes.
  9. If necessary, the child is prescribed antipyretics - children's panadol, paracetamol, ibuprofen or candles with these medicines.
  10. With nasal congestion in young children it is advisable not to use vasoconstrictive drugs - it is necessary several times a day to wash the nasal passages and instill there Aquamaris, saline or breast milk. Nasal contents can be sucked off using suction or a small pear. Children older than a year with a common cold are prescribed Nazivin, Tanos, sanorin or other similar remedies. All these drugs should not be used more than 3 days in a row.
  11. Antitussives are prescribed only in extreme cases, since they suppress the activity of the cough center in the brain, interfering with the purification of the bronchi and delaying the healing process. Preparations based on codeine, glaucine, and libexin are prescribed in the case of severe, painful coughing spells that prevent the baby from eating or sleeping normally and causing severe exhaustion of the patient.
  12. Antibiotics - the appointment of antibiotics in ordinary simple bronchitis is not advisable - most often the source of infection are viruses, and not bacteria. Antibiotics are indicated in case of complication of bronchitis, the appearance of purulent sputum or general decrease in immunity. The drugs of choice in this case are ampicillin, amoxicillin or sumamed. Treatment with antibiotics should be done only as directed and under the supervision of a doctor. When prescribing antibiotics, one should not forget about the possible development of dysbacteriosis and must start taking such drugs as linex, hilkforte, bifidum bacterin and others.

Development of acute bronchitis in children and its treatment

Acute bronchitis in children - a disease in which there is an increase in secretion in the bronchi. It is accompanied by dry and wet rales, has allergic, infectious or toxic origin. The inflammatory process from the nasopharynx quickly spreads to the bronchi, causing a whole complex of painful sensations.A complicated form of the disease can pass into pneumonia.

The problem of bronchitis in children

Forms of acute bronchitis

Disease is one of the most frequent and common. There are following forms of acute bronchitis:

  • acute bronchiolitis (a strong inflammatory process in the bronchi and bronchioles, causing profuse wheezing and impairment of respiratory function);
  • acute obstructive bronchitis (accompanied by bronchial spasms);
  • simple acute bronchitis (there is an increase in secretion in the bronchi without manifestation of clinical symptoms).

Acute bronchitis in children can occur with concomitant diseases, such as influenza, adenovirus infection, acute rhinitis and others.

Causes of the disease

Staphylococcus is the cause of bronchitisORZ and SARS, parainfluenza, etc. illnesses provoke the appearance of acute bronchitis in children. In addition, some types of pathogenic microorganisms can cause the development of the disease.

The main pathogens of the disease are pneumococci, streptococci and staphylococci. Atypical include chlamydia and cytoplasm. Very rarely the disease has a fungal origin.

The child's body is capable of attacking several types of pathogens. The disease can begin as an infection caused by a virus, and then signs of bacterial contamination appear. This complicates the subsequent treatment. Viruses create a favorable environment for the development of bacteria, while actively multiplying. In the respiratory tract, bacteria get through dirty hands, because the kid strives to put all small objects in his mouth. Often infection by infection occurs and by airborne droplets during contact with sick people.

To less common provoking factors include the impact of chemical reagents, various physiological factors, allergic reaction, poor environmental conditions, passive smoking (if parents are inveterate smokers and smoke indoors), irritation of nasopharyngeal mucosa with dust, gases - all of them can cause bronchitis in a child.

Symptoms of developing ailment

Increased temperature with bronchitisBecause acute bronchitis occurs against the background of another ailment, it is very important to monitor the course of the disease, which at any time is ready to cause a complication in the form of bronchitis. It can appear in the initial stage of the disease or at a later date. The main signs of bronchitis include:
  • coughing;
  • weakness, weakness, lethargy;
  • heat.

Cough in children is initially dry and obtrusive. His attacks exhaust the baby, because he can not clear his throat. A few days after taking medications, the character of the cough changes: it becomes wet, a lot of mucus is released.

The febrile state, accompanied by an increase in temperature, lasts from 2-3 to 8-10 days. As a rule, the temperature does not increase with mild forms of bronchitis. If the disease is obstructive, the disease is accompanied by a feeling of lack of air. These symptoms require the use of bronchodilator drugs.

Diagnosis of acute form

The doctor will listen to the lungs of a small patient. If the child is sick, dry (at the beginning of the disease) or wet large-bubbles (in the later stages) wheezing will be heard. If you suspect a sharp bronchitis, an X-ray examination is performed, which reveals a change in the pattern of the lungs, the intensity of the shadow of the pulmonary roots.

Blood test for bronchitisMore detailed information on the nature of the disease can provide CT (computed tomography).

The blood test allows you to assess the level of leukocytes in your blood and choose the right direction of treatment depending on the origin of the disease: bacterial, viral, etc.

If there is a suspicion of pneumonia, the examinations take place with strict periodicity.

Obligatory is the delivery of sputum for counting the cellular elements present in it, a swab from the pharynx for examination of the microflora.

Complex methods of treatment

Only complex measures give a tangible result in the fight against acute bronchitis. Treatment includes the use of:

  • antipyretics (at high body temperature);
  • preparations against cough (if phlegm does not clear throat);
  • expectorants (with abundant separation of sputum);
  • vasoconstrictive drops for the nose (with rhinitis);
  • broths on medicinal herbs;
  • light vegetable-milk diet;
  • morses, juices, mineral water without gas in large quantities.
Broth of herbs in bronchitisAt high temperature the motor activity of the child should be limited. It is better, if the kid will spend this period in bed. Chills, fever, dizziness - very unpleasant sensations, in which the baby does not want to play or eat. But he eagerly drinks, and in this desire it can not be limited, since a large amount of liquid contributes to the separation sputum and flushes toxic substances from the body, formed as a result of taking chemical drugs.

The use of antibiotics is required in cases when there is a suspicion of bacterial contamination, children have congenital pulmonary pathologies and heart diseases, immune defenses of the body are reduced. Oral medicines are used: Azithromycin, Amokisicillin, Cefuroxime and others.

If the bronchitis is of a viral origin, antiviral drugs are added to the list of drugs. If breathing is difficult, bronchodilators are prescribed, which are available in inhalation and tablet form. A good help can be provided by combined medicines (for example, Ascoril).

Treatment of bronchitis with folk methods

Medicinal herbs are used. Dry fees can be pre-mixed with each other. The effect of the curative liquid from this only increases. To prepare the broths take a licorice, mother-and-stepmother, plantain, oregano, lime, etc.

Use of goat's milk with bronchitisA good help in the treatment of bronchitis is the use of fresh goat's milk, which is given to drink to the child several times a day for a long time.

In the fight against the disease, juice of onion and honey, mixed in equal proportions, will help. It is useful to eat garlic.

If the baby does not perceive it in its pure form, a clove of garlic can be rolled into a bread crumb and allowed to swallow the child.

Garlic excites appetite and favorably affects the intestinal microflora, destroying pathogenic microorganisms.

Basic preventive measures

A strong protective immune system will not allow "enemies" to manage in the child's body. To this end, during the off-season it is necessary to drink immuno-fortifying and vitamin preparations, the dosage of which is prescribed by the doctor. Annual vaccination against influenza is a good help in the fight against the disease. Daily hardening procedures allow you to forget about colds for many years. Many adults mistakenly believe that, having wrapped a child, like cabbage, in a lot of jackets, pants and scarves, protect it from infection. On the contrary, such children get sick much more often, because the immune system is gradually weakening and can not contain the pathogens invading the body.

The room in which the child is located should be regularly ventilated. This does not mean that you need to open all the windows and shiver from the cold in the draft. It is enough to perform this exercise several times a day, after asking the baby to leave the room, and then closing the windows again.

Walking and sports activities in the fresh air not only temper the body, but also develop the lungs.

Strong lungs are the guarantee of a child's health, which in the future will not have to constantly swallow a large amount medicines and spend days in sad solitude, when his peers have fun frolicking on the street.

Proper nutrition, including a daily set of products containing vitamins and nutrients, regular sports training, limiting the time spent by the computer, hardening measures will help to save the child from the appearance of acute bronchitis.

Bronchitis in infants, treatment and symptoms | How to cure bronchitis in children under one year old

Bronchitis is a disease of the respiratory system associated with acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchi, hence the origin of the disease. Why do children fall ill with it? Bronchitis in infants, the treatment and symptoms of which we now consider, develops because children under one year are very weak, and penetration any infection in the upper respiratory tract, or the most common respiratory disease can lead to inflammation of the bronchi.

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Therefore, young parents should know the symptoms of bronchitis in a child, and because of what it arises. Mom and dad of a child up to a year must be vigilant, extremely attentive and at the slightest deviation The condition of the baby should be referred to the treating doctor, because the bronchitis in the child can pass into pneumonia. It is very important to remind parents that in any case it is impossible to engage in self-medication of bronchitis. This is very dangerous for your child. How to cure bronchitis in children under one year, read further in the article.

Bronchitis in infants - symptoms of the disease

After giving birth, the baby, regardless of how you care about it, is resistant to infections. After a while, bacteria enter the body of the baby, as our world is not sterile. And strangely enough, but the first disease in the baby is bronchitis. The respiratory tract of the crumb is not fully developed, and every infection that penetrates the body quickly falls into the bronchi.

With inflammation of the bronchi, the amount of mucus produced increases several times, which makes breathing more difficult and interferes with lung function. Bronchitis in children under one year is manifested in two forms: chronic bronchitis and acute. Acute bronchitis in infants is a manifestation of acute respiratory and viral infection. This disease is often combined with laryngitis, tracheitis, and rhinopharyngitis, and occurs in children who have chronic tonsillitis.

Acute bronchitis also happens to be obstructive - when narrowing or blockage of the upper respiratory tract passes. Obstructive bronchitis affects children under 3 years old, one of the clinical forms - bronchiolitis, which is characterized by inflammation of bronchioles and small bronchi.

The main symptoms of bronchitis in children under one year: a severe cough and signs of a cold. The disease can also be determined by its behavior: the child becomes moody, does not eat well, does not play.

The bacterial form of bronchitis in infants is very rare, and is the result of "lowering" the flu infection down the respiratory tract. Symptoms of viral bronchitis: fever, weakness, severe cough, shortness of breath.

Diagnostic symptoms of bronchitis in children under one year of age

Symptoms of bronchitis in infants at an early age can identify a doctor, diagnose and prescribe the right treatment, based on clinical symptoms and analysis. Differential diagnosis is established on a par with pneumonia, and in the case of obstructive bronchitis with bronchial asthma.

In the early stages of bronchitis observed in the child:

1. temperature increase,

2. general malaise,

3. dry cough.

4. A hard breathing and dry wheezes are heard.

5. After a while, sputum begins to go away, the cough becomes wet, the well-being improves.

Quite small children do not cough up sputum, but mostly they swallow it. Cough worries a young child usually at night.

How to cure bronchitis in children before the year?

Treatment of bronchitis in children can take place at home. But if your child suffocates and has a high fever, there are symptoms of intoxication, urgent hospitalization is necessary. The most dangerous form of bronchitis is bronchiolitis. This is a serious illness that causes oxygen deficiency and requires immediate hospitalization.

For the treatment of bronchitis use antispasmodics or decongestants, for the rapid removal of spasms. Very often prescribe antibiotics, recommend placing mustard plasters or hovering your baby's legs, doing inhalations, doing a special massage for the baby, applying a compress with a wet cough.

With a mild form of bronchitis in children under one year, treatment lasts from 5 to 14 days, but parents should take preventive measures so that the disease does not recur. When the disease walls of the bronchi are depleted, and in the future can go into asthma, so with a minor cough to begin treatment, immediately.

When the symptoms of bronchitis in the baby are accompanied by sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, allergic diathesis, the treatment of bronchitis in children up to a year is prolonged for a long period. Long treatment is also observed with capillary bronchitis (bronchiolitis), when the lumen of small bronchi is blocked by purulent-mucous plugs. When bronchiolitis is observed high fever, general intoxication, dyspnea, emphysema. Quite often it does not differentiate from pneumonia.

In addition, bronchitis in infants can recur, with the disease can be repeated 3-4 times a year and passes without bronchospasm. Relapses of the disease are mainly connected with the centers of chronic inflammation (adenoids, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis).

When you have bronchitis in a baby - you should not self-medicate! At the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to show the baby to the specialist. Based on the form of bronchitis, the doctor will prescribe the treatment of bronchitis: antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, means for excretion from the body of expectoration, expectorant. It should be remembered to parents that the babies with symptoms of bronchitis primarily need fresh air, plenty of drink and proper healthy food, inclusion in the diet of vitamins, natural juices.

Bronchitis in children up to the year: why do children fall ill with it?

It is necessary to know that the infant's airways are not ready for various environmental factors. Cigarette smoke is one of the causes of bronchitis, so it is better to protect the child from this by stepping aside.

Bronchitis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the inner shell of the bronchi. The disease can begin from getting into the bronchus of a babe of random bacteria from the throat, or be caused by a catarrhal virus. Infection, settling in the bronchi, irritates it and causes an inflammatory process. The reaction to this process can be called the active development of mucus by the body of a child, which provokes coughing attacks. Cough can be wet and dry.

Causes of bronchitis in children up to the year:

1. a transferred viral infection,

2. bacterial infection,

3. allergic reactions,

4. congenital defect of the respiratory system,

5. physical and chemical factors.

Bronchitis in children under one year, which occurs due to bacterial infection, is rare. If there is an infectious disease, then in this case the bacteria penetrate into the upper respiratory tract, and provoke the rapid development of bronchitis. One of the causes of the disease in children is the impact of not only chemical, but also physical factors. An example of such factors is the presence of vapors from paints or glue, with a strong supercooling of the child and another frequent cause can be called an allergic reaction.

Acute bronchitis in children treatment and symptoms

There is nothing worse than that the child is sick! Many at such moments say that it would be better to have had 10 times more than my baby. Acute bronchitis in children, whose treatment and symptoms we now consider, rarely arises as an independent disease. Most often, the ailment is a complication of SARS. Viruses, tropic to the epithelium of the respiratory tract, damage it and create conditions for the development of an inflammatory process of bacterial nature. Damage by viruses of nerve conductors innervating the bronchial tree creates additional conditions for the development of the dystrophic process. Treatment of acute bronchitis in children can be a medical physiotherapy.

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Acute bronchitis in children - symptoms of the disease and its form

It should be noted that bronchitis in children is divided into three forms:

1. acute bronchitis;

2. recurring bronchitis;

3. Chronical bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis in children is often one of the stages of acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, the virus flu and is more common in the autumn-spring time. It is also characteristic of childhood infections, such as measles and whooping cough. Children with a sensitive mucous membrane of the nose and pharynx are at greater risk of acute bronchitis. Such patients, as a rule, suffer from chronic tonsillitis and adenoids. Of great importance is also the lack of general hardening of the child's body.

The clinical symptoms of acute bronchitis in children after 3 years are most typical. A disease that begins with a dry cough, a runny nose, later manifests itself as a protracted coughing fit, which remains dry. The temperature usually rises to 39 ° for a short time, but it can stay in normal state. Gradually, the cough is moistened, and wet wheezing occurs during breathing. Up to 6-8 years, children do not secrete sputum, but when excited, the cough becomes paroxysmal and may even result in vomiting.

Acute bronchitis in children can go without complications and end on the 8th-12th day of recovery, but can also give complications. One of the most common complications of acute bronchitis is pneumonia, less often otitis.

The main syndromes of acute bronchitis in a child:

1. a syndrome of intoxication,

2. respiratory failure (with bronchiolitis),

3. inflammation,

4. obstruction (swelling of the mucous membrane in conjunction with bronchospasm or without it),

5. violations of the drainage function of the bronchi

6. and immunosuppression (mainly with relapsing acute bronchitis).

Symptoms of complications of acute bronchitis in children

With frequent occurrence (3 times or more during the year) of diseases with a protracted cough, auscultative the picture of bronchitis and the absence of symptoms of bronchospasm are diagnosed with recurrent acute bronchitis. Primary relapsing bronchitis in children is rare, there is often a secondary form of the disease that develops against the background of anomalies development of the bronchopulmonary system, hereditary diseases of the respiratory system, immunodeficiencies, bronchial asthma, etc.

The clinical picture of acute recurrent bronchitis is manifested by symptoms of the background disease (rhinitis, laryngitis, tracheitis), intoxication (usually not very pronounced) and local symptoms (mostly coughing).

Against the background of a viral infection (most often respiratory syncytial or parainfluenza) in children of the first years of life can develop bronchiolitis - a generalized obstructive lesion of bronchioles and small bronchi. In the pathogenesis of this complication of acute bronchitis in children, the edema of the mucous membrane of the small bronchi and bronchioles and the papillary growth of its epithelium are of major importance. The bronchioles are diffuse, bilateral, so in most cases, respiratory failure, hypoxemia, hemodynamic disorders in the small circulation, emphysema.

Acute obstructive bronchitis, in children, occurs with bronchial obstruction syndrome. Bronchiolitis is characterized by respiratory failure and an abundance of small bubbling rales; for obstructive bronchitis - wheezing.

Acute bronchitis in children - treatment of the disease

Appointment of treatment for bronchitis should only the therapist-pediatrician. Treatment of acute bronchitis in children includes adherence to bed rest during febrile period, milk and vegetable diet with abundant drink. Pharmacotherapy consists in the appointment of anti-inflammatory drugs (Paracetamol, Analgin, etc.), mukokinetics (Mukaltin, Bromhexin, Pertussin, potions, phytosols and others), vitamins, antihistamines (with abundant wet wheezing), antibiotics (in children of the first months of life, with a burdened premorbid background).

In acute bronchiolitis, first of all, it is necessary to eliminate respiratory failure (aerotherapy, oxygen therapy), against this background use antiviral drugs (Ribavarin), according to indications - antibiotics and glucocorticoids.

When asthmatic acute bronchitis for treatment appoint bronchodilators (Eufillin, adrenomimetiki, according to indications - glucocorticoids). In restless sleep, sedatives are prescribed.

People can also significantly reduce the manifestation of symptoms of acute bronchitis, the same tea with lemon and jam, or milk with honey. An excellent expectorant for bronchitis in children is the juice of radish with honey.

Physical methods of treatment are aimed at arresting inflammation (anti-inflammatory methods of treatment of acute bronchitis in children), reduction bronchospasm (bronchodilator treatment of acute bronchitis in children), drainage of the bronchi (bronchodrenating methods of treatment of acute bronchitis in children), correction of immune dysfunction (immunostimulating methods), as well as to combat respiratory failure.

Stages of treatment of acute bronchitis in children

Early rehabilitation includes drug treatment, started with the first symptoms of bronchitis, leading to an improvement in bronchial function. To improve the overall condition, adaptogenic drugs, vitamins, and microelements are used. At this stage, exercise therapy, breathing exercises, iontophoresis with anti-inflammatory action are prescribed.

Late rehabilitation is carried out at a local sanatorium or in a polyclinic using all the factors of sanatorium treatment, respiratory gymnastics, exercise therapy are prescribed.

Restorative treatment of acute bronchitis in children includes exercise therapy, the appointment of membrane stabilizing drugs, reparants. Shown are the training breathing exercises and other factors of spa treatment and hardening.

Dynamic observation is carried out by the local doctor together with the pulmonologist. The examination is conducted quarterly with the examination of the function of external respiration. The ENT doctor examines 2 times a year. The sanation of foci of chronic infection is being carried out. The duration of observation is one year.

Causes of acute bronchitis in children

In fact, it seems that only recently the child has had a pain and here again a rhinitis, a cough, a sore throat. We have to start treatment first. And whether it will help in this case, it is not known. Frequent catarrhal diseases (acute respiratory viral infections) lead to bronchitis.

The disease is caused by: viral infections (influenza viruses, adenoviruses, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial, measles, pertussis viruses, etc.) and bacterial infections (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, etc.); physical and chemical factors (dry, cold, hot air, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, etc.). Predispose to the disease cooling, chronic focal infection in the nasopharyngeal region, violation of nasal breathing, deformation of the chest.

Here are some factors that cause a child acute bronchitis:

1. industrial emissions (enterprises, factories, factories, etc.) );

2. second hand smoke;

3. connective tissue dysplasia (congenital)

Due to the high hydrophilicity of the tissues, the presence of a well-developed blood and lymphatic network in children (especially in the early age), bronchial obstruction often occurs due to the swelling of the mucous membrane and the secretion of secretion into the lumen of the bronchi. Thus, acute bronchitis in young children is due to the characteristics of the reactivity of the child's organism and the properties of the pathogen. With asthmatic bronchitis, which is a variant of the course of bronchial asthma, bronchospasm plays a major role in the genesis of obstruction.

Some forms of acute bronchitis in children are often associated with the general condition of the child's body (allergic bronchitis, bronchial asthma), and less often with heart disease. Metabolic changes such as rickets, chronic eating disorders, disturbances of the regime, poor hygienic conditions are also often accompanied by acute bronchitis in children.

Bronchitis in children with symptoms and treatment | How to treat bronchitis in a child?

Bronchitis, may be an independent disease in children or a manifestation of a number of diseases. The cause of the occurrence of bronchitis is a viral infection. The disease usually develops during the cold season, as a result of a flu, a cold that is caused by certain viruses (adenovirus, rhinovirus).

Symptoms of development of bronchitis in children

Symptoms of acute bronchitis appear only on 3-4 days, and the disease usually lasts up to 4 weeks. In children, the picture of acute bronchitis is pronounced:

1. heat,

2. weakness,

3. cough.

First cough dry, and then through time, it becomes wet. With a prolonged cough in children, wheezing appears: coarse dry and wet medium bubbly. The disease can go to acute bronchiolitis.

Acute obstructive bronchitis in a child is when the disease occurs with bronchial obstruction syndrome. The child has wheezing with prolonged exhalation. Such children are very restless.

Chronic bronchitis initially has a local character. Local forms are a prerequisite for the development of diffuse bronchitis, when all the bronchial tree is affected, the wall thickens. A characteristic sign of chronic bronchitis is a prolonged cough, dry with remission and moist when exacerbated.

Symptoms of acute bronchitis in children

Acute bronchitis has a number of manifestations that distinguish it from ordinary bronchitis, which occurs without obstruction. The main symptoms of the illness include the features of respiratory failure:

  • wheezing,
  • dyspnea,
  • wheezing in a child,
  • especially at night,
  • manifestation of cyanosis,
  • even manifested tachycardia.

Also, the symptoms of the disease include coughing, drowsiness, a feeling of fatigue, a decrease or lack of appetite, a lack of expression of the skin. The child begins to be capricious, sleep can break, and night awakenings with weeping.

The child begins a fever, although only yesterday he seemed to be cheerful and healthy. Usually, fever lasts for several days, as the elevated body temperature lasts a long time. At the beginning of the disease, the child coughs dry, then goes into a wet cough, with the separation of sputum. When listening to the respiratory organs (lungs) by the doctor, rattles (dry, rough) are audible. And after the child cleared his throat, when listening to the number of wheezing changes. As the treatment cough for a long time does not pass. If such episodes of the disease in a child are repeated quite often, it is necessary to do a diagnosis (differentiated) with bronchial asthma.

Diagnosis of pediatric bronchitis

Bronchitis of infectious etiology begins with rhinitis, nasopharyngitis, moderate intoxication, fever body, weakness, feelings of weakness, sadness behind the sternum, dry, turning into a damp cough. Auscultatory signs are absent, or severe lungs are determined by severe breathing, dry wheezes. There are no changes in peripheral blood. Such a course is observed more often when the trachea and major bronchi are affected.

In the case of moderate-to-moderate flow,

  • general malaise,
  • weakness,
  • there is a strong dry cough with difficulty breathing and shortness of breath, pain in the lower parts of the chest and abdominal wall, associated with overstrain of muscles when coughing.
  • Cough gradually turns into a moist,
  • sputum gets mucopurulent or purulent.
  • In the lungs at auscultation, hard breathing is heard, dry and moist finely bubbling rales.
  • Body temperature is subfebrile.
  • There are no marked changes in peripheral blood.

Severe bronchitis in children is observed with a primary lesion of bronchioles. Acute symptoms of the illness subsided by the 4th day and with a favorable outcome completely disappear by the 7th day. Acute bronchitis with a violation of bronchial patency has a tendency to protracted flow and transition to chronic bronchitis.

Severe acute bronchitis of toxic-chemical etiology. The disease begins with a painful cough with the discharge of mucous or bloody sputum, quickly joins bronchospasm (against the background of an elongated exhalation dry wheezing are heard), dyspnea progresses (up to suffocation), symptoms of respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia increase. Radiographically, symptoms of acute emphysema can be determined.

Diagnosis can be carried out by external signs and by X-ray. The picture shows a picture of the disease. Laboratory confirmation of blood is also used to confirm the diagnosis. Such a diagnosis will accurately determine the nature and cause of chronic bronchitis (infectious or allergic). When the form of the disease is contagious, then in the blood formula there is an accelerated index of ESR, and when the form of the disease is allergic, there is an increased amount of eosinophils in the blood.

How to treat traditional methods of bronchitis in a child?

Treatment is established by the attending physician when examining the child by the method of listening, in case of dispute, an x-ray is assigned.

The first rule that mom must remember is: no self-treatment! Only a specialist can decide how to be treated:

1. hospitalization or treatment is at home;

2. what analyzes, studies need to be done;

3. what medicines to take in this case and to solve a number of other important questions.

If the doctor has decided that hospitalization is not necessary, and the treatment will take place at home, it is necessary to create a special regime for the child (medical-quiet). If the child is in a good mood, do not put him to bed. It is best to surround the baby with care, to create a quiet environment. Frequent airing of the premises is necessary, wet cleaning. The child should be in warm clothes. Ши C C C C C Cши C C C C C C C д C C C C C Cши Cши д C C C д C C Cши C C C C C C C C C C д C C Cши C C C C C C C C C C C

In the period of the disease, you must adhere to a certain diet. If the child's appetite is not affected, it is necessary to give more fruits, vegetables, along with the usual products that are necessary for a child of this age. Fluids should be consumed by the child, as much as possible (contributes to liquefaction and sputum discharge). It can be juices, and fruit drinks, and teas, and so on.

Methods of treatment of bronchitis in children

Treatment of the disease is complex: with the help of medicines and physiotherapy procedures. Quite small children treatment course is in the hospital, for seniors, home treatment is possible. To medicinal products include: bronchodilators, antispasmodics, expectorants. Children are recommended to vibrate the massage, to speed up the withdrawal of bronchial sputum. Apply antibiotics in rare cases, when the disease in a recurring condition.

Usually in the treatment of bronchitis appoint:

1. means for coughing;

2. anesthetics and antipyretic agents;

3. increased fluid intake;

4. bed rest;

5. the appointment of bronchodilators: beta-agonists in the form of inhalation, albuterol, to relax the airways;

6. antibiotics.

It is necessary to undergo a full course of treatment and follow the recommendations of the attending physician. The doctor can prescribe physiotherapy, it can be carried out both out-patiently and permanently. For this, a wide variety of methods are used, depending on the severity of the disease. The use of methods of physiotherapy extends the range of methods of therapy and significantly shortens the duration of treatment. The advantage of this method is the complete absence of medications.

Never resort to self-medication of children's bronchitis! It happens that such treatment of bronchitis leads to more severe complications than the disease itself. Do not risk the health of your beloved child!

How to treat children's bronchitis from home remedies?

Along with the medicines (which the doctor appointed), other procedures are also used for the home treatment of the disease. It:

1. thermal procedure (foot baths, common baths);

2. mustard plasters;

3. inhalation;

4. make infusions and decoctions of herbs (medicinal);

5. special efficiency is given by the medicinal fees: breastfeeding, breast teas (they should be picked up for your child, only the doctor).

6. Bed rest,

7. abundant warm drink with honey, raspberry, lime color.

Prescribe for the treatment of the disease antiviral and antibacterial therapy, vitamin therapy (ascorbic acid up to 1 g per day, vitamin A 3 mg 3 times a day), cans on the chest. With a pronounced dry cough, antitussive preparations are prescribed Codeine, Libexin, and others. With a wet cough - mucolytic drugs Bromgeksin, Ambrobene, etc. Indicated in the home treatment of the disease in children inhalation expectorants, mucolytics, heated mineral alkaline water, eucalyptus, anise oil using a steam inhaler. Inhalations are carried out for 5 minutes 3 - 4 times a day (for 3 - 5 days). Bronchospasm is stopped by the appointment of euphyllinum (0.15 g 3 times a day). Antihistamines are indicated.

Causes and prevention of pediatric bronchitis

The cause of acute disease is usually a bacterial infection. This is, first of all, contaminated air, chemical vapors, the effect of smoke.

Your child went to a kindergarten, and health problems began. Day or two in the garden - two weeks on the sick leave. And so for a long time. Systematic colds, colds, eventually - bronchitis.

The causes of the disease are banal.

1. First, it's infections (nasopharyngeal).

2. Secondly, the accumulation of children (each child has a "set" of bacteria).

3. Thirdly, the raw or cold weather (which is quite important).

4. Fourth, perhaps, nasal breathing has been disturbed. Fifth, active or passive (if parents smoke) smoking.

The main factor in the development of the disease is bronchial obstruction, which is expressed in the spasm of bronchial tissues. On the background of bronchitis there are signs of spasms due to the influence on the bronchi of negative factors of an infectious nature.

The infectious factors that cause the development of the disease in a child are:

  • adenoviruses,
  • rhinovirus,
  • mycoplasma.

To non-infectious causes of bronchitis are mainly allergic manifestations. It is allergy and is the main factor in the development of obstructive bronchitis in children.

The damaging agent penetrates the trachea and bronchi with inhaled air by hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways. Acute inflammation of the bronchial tree is accompanied by a violation of the bronchial patency of the inflammatory or bronchospastic mechanism. Characterized by hyperemia, swelling of the mucous membrane, on the walls of the bronchi in their lumen mucous, mucopurulent or purulent secret, degenerative changes of the ciliary epithelium. In severe forms of bronchitis in a child, the inflammatory process captures not only the mucous membrane, but also the deep tissues of the bronchial wall.

Prevention of bronchitis

Dear Mom and Dad! To prevent the disease of your child is easier than to cure. In order to prevent the child from such a disease as bronchial asthma, it is necessary to make a diagnosis and find out:

1. Does the child have an allergy (food, medication, etc.) );

2. Whether there were diseases (allergic) in the family. Especially, bronchial asthma (on the paternal and maternal lines);

3. Determine eosinophilia in peripheral blood tests;

4. Determine the concentration of total and allergen-specific IgE in the blood.

Knowing all the causes of your child's illness, all the predispositions to illness, you will easily help him and yourself, cope with the disease. If all the symptoms of the disease have disappeared, then it is healthy.

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