SARS in children
Acute respiratory viral infections of ARVI in children occur in about 75% of all childhood diseases. Infections of the upper respiratory tract (acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute respiratory diseases (ARI), ARVI) - group acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract of different localization, etiology and symptoms.
ARVI - the most common infection on the globe. It is impossible to take full account of the true morbidity. Almost every person several times (from 4-8 to 15 times or more) in the year transfers ARVI mainly in the form of light and subclinical forms. Especially often ARVI are observed in young children. Children of the first months of life are seldom ill, because they are in relative isolation and many of them retain passive immunity received from the mother transplacentally in the form of IgG for 6-10 months. However, children of the first months of life can also be sick with ARI, especially if they are in close contact with patients. The reasons for this may be unstrained transplacental immunity or its complete absence, prematurity, primary forms of immunodeficiency, etc.
Epidemiology of ARVI
According to statistics, a child can get sick from 1 to 8 times a year. This is due to the fact that the immunity produced in a child's body against a single virus is powerless before another infection. And the viruses that cause ARVI, hundreds. These are influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, enteroviruses and other microorganisms. And since parents often have to deal with ARVI, they should know as much as possible about this disease, about the mechanisms of its development and methods of combating viral infection in childhood.
The greatest incidence falls on children from 2 to 5 years of life, which is usually due to their visit to children's institutions, a significant increase in the number of contacts. A child who visits a kindergarten during the first year can get sick with ARI up to 10-15 times, in the second year 5-7 times, in subsequent years 3-5 times a year. The decrease in the incidence is due to the acquisition of specific immunity as a result of the acute respiratory viral infection.
Such a high incidence of SARS in childhood makes this problem one of the most urgent in pediatrics. Repeated diseases significantly affect the development of the child. They lead to a weakening of the body's defenses, contribute to the formation of chronic foci of infection, cause allergization, prevent preventive vaccinations, burden premorbid background and delay physical and psychomotor development children. In many cases, frequent ARVI are pathogenetically associated with asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic pyelonephritis, polyarthritis, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and many others diseases.
Causes of ARVI in children
Factors contributing to the emergence of SARS, pursue the child everywhere. To such reasons it is possible to carry:
- hypothermia, drafts, wet shoes;
- communication with other children, patients with ARI;
- a sharp change of weather, off-season (autumn-winter, winter-spring);
- lowering of the body's defenses;
- hypovitaminosis, anemia, weakened organism;
- reduced physical activity of the child, inactivity;
- improper hardening of the body.
All these factors are factors that weaken the body and contribute to the unhindered spread of the virus.
The causes of frequent ARVI in children - is the high sensitivity of the child's organism at any age, including the newborn baby. At the child frequent ORVI begin from the moment of receipt in a day nursery, a kindergarten or school. Diseases can be repeated by turns. This happens because the immune defense after a viral infection is produced from one type of virus. Penetration into the body of a new virus provokes a new disease, even if a short amount of time has passed after the previous one.
How long does it last for a child?
How long can a baby be infectious and how long does it last for a child?
As a rule, the more time passed from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the less likely that the child is infectious. That time interval when the diseased is capable to infect others, usually begins from occurrence of the first symptoms of disease or simultaneously with them. In some cases, the baby may still look "healthy but the disease process can already be started. It depends on many factors, including the resistance of children's immunity.
The initial moment of the incubation period (when the virus has already entered the children's body, but the disease has not yet manifested itself "in all its glory") is the moment of communication with an already infectious patient. Such a moment can be contact with a sick child in a kindergarten, or accidentally caught "sneeze" in a trolleybus. The final stage of the incubation period is completed with the appearance of the first signs of the disease (when complaints appear).
Laboratory tests can already indicate the presence of the virus in the body already during the incubation period.
The incubation period of ARVI in children can last from several hours to 2 weeks. This applies to pathogens such as rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza, paracoloss, adenovirus, reovirus, as well as a respiratory syncytial virus.
The period during which the child is contagious can begin 1-2 days before the first signs of the disease appear.
How long does it last for a child? If counted from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the period of the disease can last up to 10 days (on average - a week). In this case, depending on the type of virus, the child can continue to be contagious for another 3 weeks after recovery (disappearance of symptoms).
Symptoms of ARVI in children
Whichever type of virus is caused by ARVI, with the classical form of the disease, there are some common symptoms:
- "General infectious" syndrome (the child is shivering, can disturb the pain in the muscles, in the head, there is weakness, the temperature rises, the submandibular lymph nodes increase);
- defeat of the respiratory system (nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, cough dry or with sputum);
- damage to the mucous membranes (rubbing and redness in the eye area, lacrimation, conjunctivitis).
The first signs of acute respiratory viral infection in a child are often characterized by a sudden onset with a clearly marked "general infection" syndrome. With parainfluenza or adenovirus, the first signs are the defeat of the respiratory system (throat, nasopharynx), as well as the reddening and itching of the conjunctiva of the eye.
Of course, it would be easier for both parents and doctors if the ARVI period in children has always been classic. However, the children's organism is a very complex system, and its response to the penetration of a particular virus can not be predicted by one hundred percent. Each organism is individual, so the course of ARVI can be erased, asymptomatic, atypical or even extremely severe.
Since it is unlikely that the parents will be able to guess and predict the course of the disease, it is necessary to know about the conditions under which one will have to consult a doctor in the most urgent way.
Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in children requiring urgent medical attention:
- Temperature indicators have exceeded 38 ° C and little or no response to antipyretic drugs.
- The child is disturbed by consciousness, he is confused, indifferent, can faint.
- The child complains of a severe headache, as well as the inability to turn the neck or make an inclination anteriorly.
- On the skin appear vascular sprouts, rashes.
- There is pain in the chest, the child starts to choke, it is hard for him to breathe.
- There is a multicolored sputum (green, brown or pink).
- Appear edema on the body.
- Cramps appear.
Do not self-medicate, especially if it's about your child. Pay attention also to other organs and systems of the baby, so as not to miss the beginning inflammation.
Temperature in children with ARVI
Children are sensitive enough to an increase in body temperature: an excessively high temperature contributes to the occurrence of seizures in the child. Because of this, do not allow a temperature increase of more than 38-3 ° C.
The temperature should not be brought down to 38 ° C, as it is not necessary to interfere with the body to perform its work - to fight the penetration of the virus. This can provoke the appearance of complications. What you need to do:
- do not panic;
- monitor the state of the child - usually after 3-4 days the temperature should stabilize.
Prolonged ARI in a child with a non-decreasing temperature may indicate the attachment of a bacterial infection. It also happens that when the temperature after the virus infection dropped, the kid seemed to be on the mend, but after a few days he got worse again, and a fever appeared. In such a situation, do not hesitate to call a doctor.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, the temperature can not last more than 2-3 days, maximum - five days. During this time, the body must overcome the virus, having developed its own antibodies to it. It is important: do not specifically knock down the temperature to normal, you can only lower it, so that the body continues to fight with the infection.
Cough with ARVI in children
Cough for ARVI in children is a fairly common symptom. Usually it is present against a background of fever, a cold and other signs of the disease. With the onset of the disease, a dry cough (without sputum) is observed. Such a cough doctors call unproductive: it is hard to tolerate by the child, can disturb the calm of his sleep, negatively affect the appetite.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, after 3-4 days the cough passes into the productive stage - sputum appears. But it should be borne in mind that not all babies can cough it out. For this reason, the child needs help: regular chest massage, light gymnastics, and when a coughing fit the baby should be given a vertical position.
Typically, cough with viral infections lasts up to 15-20 days, but if it lasts more than three weeks, you can suspect a chronic cough. In such cases, it is necessary to have a competent consultation of a children's pulmonologist and an allergist, as well as the appointment of a complex therapy.
Vomiting in a child with ARVI
Vomiting in a child with ARVI can occur simultaneously with the appearance of high fever and cough. With difficulty, the departing sputum, dense and viscous, irritates the respiratory system and provokes a fits of painful coughing in the child. The gag reflex works as a result of the transition of the excitatory signal from the cough centers to the vomiting centers. In some cases, vomiting can occur due to the accumulation of a large number of mucous secretions in the nasopharyngeal cavity, but in this case, vomiting appears without coughing. Most often, vomiting on the background of a cough is not abundant, the child does not seem to be relieved.
It is important to distinguish when vomiting is associated with the simultaneous excitation of cough and vomiting reflex, and when vomiting can be a sign of poisoning or a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to show the child to the doctor, otherwise it can provoke the appearance of unwanted and sometimes severe complications.
Rashes in children with ARVI
If there was a rash in the ARVI in a child - this is a direct reason to call a doctor. It is possible to list several variants of the causes of the appearance of rashes during the illness:
- intolerance to any of the medications taken by the baby;
- an allergic reaction to food that parents usually give the sick child (raspberries, oranges, lemons, garlic, ginger, etc.);
- high temperature, which contributes to increased vascular permeability - in such cases, the rash resembles a different hemorrhage on the skin.
There are also more serious causes of the rash. For example, this is the joining of meningococcal infection: such a rash is usually accompanied by hyperthermia and vomiting. In any of the options, if a rash is found on the child's body, all measures should be taken to deliver the baby to the infectious department as soon as possible. You can simply call an "ambulance" and describe the symptoms of the disease. To delay in this case it is impossible.
The abdomen is sick at an ORVI at the child
Quite often, parents are faced with a situation when the abdomen is sick during ARVI in a child. The pains are most often coelike and localized in the zone of the projection of the large intestine. Doctors can explain this symptom by the combined reaction of the lymphatic system of the intestine and appendix. For the same reason, ARVI can be complicated by an attack of acute appendicitis. In this situation, the most competent act of parents can be a doctor's call to the house, and if the pain in the abdominal area increases, then it will be necessary to call for an emergency.
A large amount of acute respiratory viral infection, accompanied by abdominal pain, can also be accompanied by diarrhea. Diarrhea in ARVI in a child is caused by cramping spasms in the intestine - the reaction of the child's body to the disease. However, most often diarrhea and abdominal pain provoke drugs that the child is forced to take. For example, if a baby is prescribed antibiotics or antiviral drugs, then it can gradually lead to a violation intestinal microflora, or manifest as a reaction of the hypersensitivity of the digestive system to certain types medicines. In any case, a doctor's consultation is mandatory.
Conjunctivitis in children with ARVI
Unfortunately, conjunctivitis in ARVI in a child occurs in almost all cases of the disease, especially when attacking adenovirus infection. Signs of conjunctivitis become noticeable immediately. Initially, a viral infection that provoked ARVI affects one eye, but after one or two days another eye is affected. Both eyes of the child blush, itch, there is a feeling of "sand" in the eyes. The kid squints, rubs his eyelids, constantly cries. Eyes can be covered with crusts, and in the corners can collect light discharge.
Such conjunctivitis gradually passes and independently, as the child recovers from ARVI. However, to alleviate the condition of the baby and eliminate itching and discharge from the eyes faster can help special children's medicines - an antiviral ophthalmic ointment or drops that can be easily purchased in pharmacies.
However, in some cases, conjunctivitis can be the result of an allergic reaction in the child. In this state, the baby not only has lachrymation and reddening of the eyes, but swollen lower eyelids. It is characteristic that allergies affect both eyes simultaneously. If this happens, urgent medical consultation is needed, identification and elimination of contact with a potential allergen, prescription of antihistamine eye drops and medications.
Features of ARVI in children
Children at different ages may respond differently to the appearance of signs of ARVI.
- SARS in an infant may manifest symptoms such as a child's anxiety, poor sleep, loss of appetite; frustration of defecation, excessive tearfulness and capriciousness. Such changes in the behavior of the infant should cause suspicion in the mother, since the baby can not explain his state of health with words.
- SARS in a month-old baby can flow with difficulty nasal breathing, as the baby can not breathe with his mouth. How to suspect that the child has a stuffy nose? The baby becomes restless when sucking, often refuses to eat and repels the breast or bottle. In such cases, it is necessary to clear the nasal passages.
- SARS in a 2-month-old baby can characteristically manifest as shortness of breath with a prolonged wheezing - this symptom is often called an asthmatic syndrome. At the same time, symptoms of intoxication are expressed: grayness or cyanosis of the skin, lethargy, apathy, fever.
- ARVI in a 3 month old child often occurs with a defeat of the respiratory system, which can be complicated by unskilled help with bronchitis or pneumonia. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the difficulty of swallowing and nasal breathing of the child, to regularly measure the temperature. Breastfeeding during this period is extremely undesirable, as the mother's milk in this case will be the best medicine for the baby.
- SARS in a 4 month old child is accompanied by a lesion of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and bronchi, which manifests itself as a runny nose and cough. You can see an increase in submandibular or parotid lymph nodes, spleen. Often develops conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, which is expressed in the redness of the eyes and continuous lachrymation.
- ARVI in children up to a year can be complicated by croup - a condition when the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen, namely, the zone that is directly under the vocal cords. This condition is explained by the fact that in small children this zone contains a large amount of loose fiber, which easily swells. At the same time, the guttural lumen is not large enough. Croup often develops at night, so parents should pay attention to suddenly beginning "barking" cough, heavy breathing, attacks of suffocation, anxiety, cyanosis of lips child. If such signs are observed, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance.
- ORVI at the child 6 month - the period when the kid has already entered or introduces the prikorm. Often at a six-year-old age, a viral infection is accompanied, in addition to the defeat of the respiratory system, by the involvement of the digestive system in the process. This can manifest as signs of acute gastritis or enteritis: there are pains in the abdomen, upset of the stool.
- SARS in a child 1 year can be repeated from 1 to 8 times a year, depending on the immunity. Starting from this age, it is very important to start hardening procedures and strengthen the immune system of the baby so that his body can withstand numerous viruses and bacteria. It is especially important to protect the baby in the autumn-winter and winter-spring period.
- SARS in a child 2 years is more often accompanied by laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea - respiratory tube), or a combination of these diseases. Signs of such defeat - a hoarse voice, dry compulsive cough. Of course, a 2-year-old kid can not yet communicate his complaints coherently. Therefore, parents should closely monitor the condition of the child. If there is difficulty breathing, the intercostal spaces are blurred, the wings of the nose inflated, an "ambulance" should be urgently called.
- SARS in a child of 3 years usually begins in a rise in temperature towards evening. There is a pain in the head, the baby feels apathetic, tired, listless. Most often the disease appears in the season of epidemics, so the diagnosis is easy. The severity of the condition determines the child's well-being.
If you notice any uncharacteristic or suspicious symptoms in the child - be sure to call an "ambulance". Do not be afraid once again to disturb the doctor: the main thing is the health of your baby.
Repeated ARVI in a child
Repeated ARVI in a child is not uncommon, since children are usually very susceptible to a viral infection. Babies are prone to infection with the virus from the first weeks of life, but in the first three months they are not ill as often as in older age. The tendency to the disease is especially pronounced at the age of six months to 3 years, then the susceptibility decreases somewhat, although this may depend on the individual immunity of the organism.
Why there are repeated ARVI? The fact is that immunity has specificity in relation to certain types and even types of viral infection. Such immunity does not differ in resistance and duration. And in combination with a large number of varieties of the virus creates a large percentage of the probability of repeated diseases.
ARVI in a child can occur as a single case, or as a result of a mass epidemic, which often happens in a children's team. That is why the child's morbidity rises, as a rule, with the beginning of visiting a kindergarten or other pre-school or school institutions.
Where does it hurt?Chest pain
What's bothering you?Cough Shortness of breath
Complications of ARVI in children
According to statistics, at least 15% of all diseases of ARVI in childhood leave behind complications for other organs and systems of the body. For this reason, do not forget that in children, acute respiratory infections can occur with an elevated temperature of not more than five days. A longer rise in temperature above 38 ° C may indicate the occurrence of complications or the addition of another disease. Sometimes the temperature seems to go down, but after 1-3 days it rises again: there are symptoms of intoxication, such as tearfulness, pallor, lethargy, increased sweating. The child refuses to eat and drink, becomes indifferent to what is happening. What can be complications of ARVI in children?
- Cough after ARI in a child in some cases can mean the transition of the disease to bronchitis or even pneumonia - the viral infection progresses gradually down the respiratory tract. First, there may be a clinical picture of laryngitis (dry cough, hoarse voice), then tracheitis (painful cough, vocal functions are restored), and subsequently bronchitis. The main sign of bronchitis is cough. At first it is dry and coarse, phlegm gradually begins to form and cough. The difficulty of breathing is added, the temperature rises again, sweating, fatigue. If the child has frequent and heavy breathing (sometimes the baby seems to "grumble"), then bronchiolitis or pneumonia can be suspected. Consultation of a doctor is mandatory.
- The rash in a child after ARVI can be a consequence of several reasons. For example, it can be the attachment of diseases such as rubella, measles, herpes (baby roseola), enterovirus infection, scarlet fever, etc. Or maybe an allergic reaction to drugs, for example, antibiotics. The exact cause of the rash should be determined by the doctor.
- Arthritis after SARS in children can appear after a long illness. Such arthritis is called "reactive". Symptoms of reactive arthritis may appear several days or even weeks after recovery. Usually there is pain in the joint (usually in the morning). It can be a hip joint, knee, ankle, etc. The child hardly gets out of bed, when walking limps, complains of severe pain. Diagnosis of the disease and begin treatment can child rheumatologist, based on the examination and the results of some tests.
Also complications of SARS can be sinusitis (inflammation in the paranasal sinuses) or otitis media. To suspect such diseases it is possible on a constant stuffiness of a nose against a background of a headache, or on shooting pain in an ear along with depression of hearing and feeling zalozhennosti.
Diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infections in children
The main task of the tests conducted for the diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infection in children is the determination of the type of pathogen. Depending on this, a further treatment regimen will be prescribed.
The most common tests for children with ARVI are a general blood test, a general urine test, and immunological tests to detect antibodies to a viral infection.
What indicators usually indicate ARVI?
General blood analysis:
- erythrocytes - the norm or increase due to a deficiency of fluid in the body;
- hematocrit - the norm or increase (with fever);
- leukocytes - the lower limit of normal or lower, indicating a viral etiology of the disease;
- the leukocyte formula is the prevalence of lymphocytes, a slight increase in monocytes;
- eosinophils - a decrease in the number or complete disappearance;
- neutrophils - decrease in quantity;
- ESR in children with acute respiratory viral infection is increased, but for viral infection this indicator is not specific.
General urine analysis:
- changes are not specific, sometimes - a small amount of protein in the urine, which passes after recovery;
- possible, but not at all necessary - a small microhematuria.
In rare cases, ketone bodies can be found in the blood or urine - acetone and acetoacetic acid - chemical complexes, which are formed in the liver when digested in the digestive tract food. Acetone in ARVI in children can appear in different concentrations, and since this substance is initially toxic, its presence in large quantities can cause symptoms of poisoning in the child (in particular, vomiting, as well as the smell of acetone from the mouth or from urinary excretions). Definition and treatment of acetone in blood or urine should be handled exclusively by a medical specialist.
Immunology is an analysis of immunoglobulins M (already released at the initial stages of the disease). This analysis is taken twice - with the first symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection and a week later. Such a study allows you to accurately identify the pathogen. Nevertheless, the immunological method is not always used, but only with a severe and protracted course of the disease.
What it is necessary to survey?Bronchi Trachea Larynx
How to inspect?X-ray of lungs Examination of respiratory (lung) organs Bronchoscopy
What tests are needed?Sputum examination
Who to contact?Infectionist Pediatrician
Treatment of ARVI in children
Children with a mild and moderate form of SARS can be treated at home. Hospitalized only in the following cases:
- with a severe form of the disease, or in the presence of complications (inflammation of the lungs, croup, etc.);
- at the age of a child under 1 year, or from 1 to 3 years;
- at unsatisfactory epidemiological and material conditions.
The standard of ARVI treatment in children provides, first of all, the removal of intoxication of the body. To do this, use a lot of warm drinking, complex multivitamins, and in more severe cases - in / in the introduction of glucose and blood substitutes. At high temperature, antipyretic drugs may be used in the form of tablets or rectal suppositories, and in severe cases, as intramuscular injections.
During the period of fever the child is shown bed rest. In the absence of complications, antibiotics and sulfonamide preparations are usually not used, but in In some cases, they are still prescribed to young children, since the recognition of a complication in an infant very difficult.
The protocol for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children with complications includes the appointment of bronchodilators (for pneumonia or bronchitis). Antibiotics are used with caution, taking into account the allergic inclinations of the child. When stenosis of the larynx they use sedative drugs, antispasmodics, in severe cases, inject hydrocortisone.
Modern treatment of ARVI in children implies the appointment of drugs aimed at eliminating the main symptoms of the disease. What are these drugs:
- antitussives in the form of syrups, chewing or ordinary tablets;
- Warming creams or balms based on natural ingredients, which are rubbed into the skin of the chest;
- other warming procedures (mustard or compresses) according to indications;
- vitamin preparations to strengthen the immune forces.
More details about the drugs in ARVI, we'll talk below.
Drugs for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children
All anti-virus products are divided into 4 categories:
- homeopathic antiviral agents;
- especially antiviral medications;
- interferons and interferon stimulants;
- means, stimulating immunity.
Let's consider separately all these categories.
- Homeopathy in ARVI in children. Most often, Viburkol suppositories, Ocilococcinum and Aflubin are prescribed from this category of medicines, EDAS-103 (903) or Gripp-Heel funds are slightly less common. Homeopathic specialists say that the listed homeopathic remedies stimulate the protective function and this is often true, although the pharmacodynamics of these drugs studied. As a rule, homeopathic remedies have an effect already at the first methods of the preparation.
- Specific antiviral agents. In pediatrics, antiviral drugs like Arbidol, Rimantadine, Ribavirin and Tamiflu are more often used (in some cases also Acyclovir, according to the indications). These drugs inhibit the entry of the virus into cellular structures, block the reproduction of the virus, but they have a different spectrum of activity and are not intended for all children's age groups.
- Interferon drugs and their stimulants are probably the most popular group of antiviral drugs. For example, Viferon in ARVI in children suppresses the development of the virus and destroys it in 1-3 days. Interferons are able to rid the body of a viral infection, both during the incubation period, and from any period of the disease. In addition to injection of interferons, the most interesting are suppositories of Viferon, suppositories of Kipferon and nasal droplets of Grippferon. Perhaps the only contraindication to the use of these agents may be an allergic tendency organism of the baby to the ingredients of medicines, especially to the components of candles - cocoa butter or confectionery fat. By the way, medications that activate the production of interferons (Amiksin, Neovir, Cycloferon) It is recommended to use only for prophylaxis, but not for ARVI treatment, because of the slow action of such preparations.
- Immunostimulating drugs - Isoprenosin, Riboxin, Immunal, Imudon, Metuluracil, Bronchomunal, IRS-19, Ribomunil and others. One of the most popular listed medications, isoprinosine in ARVI in children is used more as a prophylaxis, however, like other immunostimulants. The reason is that the effectiveness of the action of immunostimulants is observed only after 14-20 days from the beginning of immunostimulating treatment. Also, these drugs can be used to restore the body after recovery.
As you know, antibiotics for ARVI in children with a classical course of the disease are not prescribed, since they have nothing to do with a viral infection. Antibiotic therapy is used only in case of complications, or if they are suspected: most often prescribe drugs-derivatives of ampicillin.
Nutrition for children with ARVI
Nutrition for ARVI in children is about the same as with a common cold. The main condition - the baby should be offered food only if there is an appetite. Do not feed the child by force.
You can not also give your child harmful products: chips, soda. It shows an abundant warm drink and easily digestible food, rich in vitamins, for example, vegetables, fruits, berry purees and jellies.
Young children are advised to offer apple compote without sugar, decoctions of dried fruits. In the absence of allergies to berries, you can prepare morsels or berry jelly, or simply give warm mineral water without gas.
As a drink for children from 3-4 years to make compotes, you can use apricots, cherry plum, pears (if there is no allergy). You can offer a weak green tea - it contains antioxidants, which help remove toxins from the body.
It is desirable to avoid broths and infusions from strawberries, currants - such berries are more allergens. Replace them with bananas, grapes or kiwi.
Diet for ARVI in children should contain easily digestible and healthy food:
- products for cooking dishes should preferably be mashed and mashed, the food should be light and soft;
- in the period of illness, try to avoid buying baby food, it is better to cook yourself from fresh porridge products, puree, mashed soups;
- at the stage of recovery it is important to enrich the diet with proteins, so use white meat, minced meat or boiled egg white as food additives;
- children from 3-4 years can be offered lean fish, such as pike perch, cod, etc .;
- do not forget about sour-milk products - they will support the balance of microflora in the intestines. Suitable fresh yogurt, natural yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, acidophilic mixture. To such products, you can add a spoonful of honey (in the absence of allergies);
- As the child recovers, return to normal nutrition, but do it gradually so as not to burden the body.
Be reasonable in choosing food for your child in ARVI: food should be nutritious, vitaminized, varied, but you should not overeat and use harmful foods.
In addition to treatmentAntibiotics for ARVI Than to treat? Ibunorm baby Pakseladin
Prevention of ARVI in children
Prevention of acute respiratory infections in children is mainly aimed at increasing the resistance and strengthening the immunity of the child's body. What measures have a preventive focus:
- tempering (outdoor games, reception of air baths, cool showers, walking on grass without shoes, night rest in a cool room, swimming in pools and open water);
- stabilization of digestive processes (consumption of vegetables and fruits, adherence to diet and drinking, support of intestinal microflora);
- regulation of stool, normalization of nutrition;
- ensuring a full sleep (rest not on a filled stomach, ventilated air in the room, enough sleep).
Preventive measures should be carried out systematically, without forcing the child, and explaining to him the need for a procedure for maintaining health.
If necessary and a poor state of immunity, you sometimes have to resort to the use of drugs that stimulate immune defense.
Preparations for the prevention of acute respiratory infections in children
Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic ability has a special multivitamin complex Vetoron. It is prescribed internally from the age of 5 to 3-4 drops, and from 7 years - 5-7 drops per day, or in capsules from 6 years of age from 5 to 80 mg once a day.
It is recommended to take ascorbic acid, retinol and B vitamins in a dose according to age. The best proportion of the abovementioned vitamins is presented in the preparations "Undevit "Complevit "Hexavit". Dragee take from 2 to 3 times a day for a month. In the autumn-winter period it is useful to give the baby a rose hip syrup in an amount of 1 h. l. per day.
Recently, drugs-adaptogenes, which stimulate the body to resist infection, are very popular. We bring to your attention the schemes of taking the most popular drugs of this category:
- Immunal - intake inside 1 to 3 years - 5-10 cap., From 7 years - 10-15 cap. three times a day;
- Drops of Dr. Tays - inside with a one-year age of 10-20 cap. three times a day;
- Drops Hexal - inside by 6 drops from 12 years of age twice a day;
- Tincture of aralia - from 1 to 2 cap. / Year of life, once a day for half an hour before meals, for 14-20 days.
As an emergency preventive measures, it is possible to take medicines based on medicinal plants (color chamomile, sage, calendula, colanchoe, garlic or onion), or local immunocorrective agents (Immu- don, IRS-19).
ARVI in children are prone to relapse, so you need to find your prescription for prevention, which will allow you to forget about the disease for many years.
How to treat ARVI in children
A happy, healthy child is the dream of most parents. The presence in the surrounding world of a variety of bacteria, viruses, which the kid encounters, becomes the cause of diseases. What does the common diagnosis of ARVI in children mean? Bronchitis, influenza, and a host of other medical conditions are indicated by a mysterious abbreviation. ARVI is a large group of diseases that have a viral etymology, affecting the upper respiratory tract, mucous membranes. What is the difference between ARI and respiratory infections caused by viruses?
Causes of acute respiratory viral infection in children
The diagnosis of "acute respiratory diseases" is a common name for the mass of diseases in children, in which the respiratory tract becomes affected. The causative agents are bacteria or viruses. ARVI is a separate subgroup in the structure of acute respiratory disease, the development of which is caused by viral infections. Formation of the immunity of the child begins with the infant: if the infant does not contact the "hostile" environment for almost a year, the yearling and older children begin to actively explore the world.
Expansion of the familiar boundaries of communication brings not only new knowledge, but also causes acute respiratory diseases. What infections of a viral nature in children doctors are referred to as ARVI:
- Flu. Easily mutating, which is the cause of pandemics / epidemics, this virus is represented by three species: A (the most dangerous are atypical: "pig "chicken"), B and C.
- Paragripp. This type of SARS in most children affects the throat and trachea, the baby can cause an attack of stenosis of the larynx.
- Rhinovirus. Inflammation of the nasal passages, discharge of mucus, reddened eyes - symptoms of acute respiratory infections, better known as snot.
- Adenovirus. They have a long incubation period, an erased form of the flow, manifesting periodically "triple bouquet inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, pharynx and eye (conjunctivitis).
- Enteroviruses (intestinal flu). To general deterioration of state of health, as well as at any kinds of ARVI, strong diarrhea, dehydration joins.
- RS (respiratory syncytial) infection. The object of action of these viruses are the lower respiratory tract - bronchi, lungs. For this group of SARS are characterized by: dry, hysterical cough in children, rapid breathing, shortness of breath.
Infection of an infectious disease occurs by getting viruses from a sick individual, releasing into the air the smallest particles of sputum or mucus from the nose, to a healthy one. Weakening of immunity leads to infection and development in children of acute respiratory infections. Trying to reduce risks, do not forget that the sick person remains infectious up to 10 days from the time of infection.
Possible causes of acute respiratory viral infections in many children are:
- Decreased immunity:
- lack of vitamins;
- stressful situations;
- frequent colds.
- Visiting kindergartens, clubs, schools.
- Presence of chronic / autoimmune diseases.
- Insufficient body hardening.
The first signs and symptoms of the disease
For SARS are characteristic features of the manifestation of symptoms depending on the type of virus. An important role is played by the seasonality of the diseases: influenza, rhinoviruses, catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract - constant satellites autumn-winter period, enterovirus forms are characteristic for spring and summer, whereas adenovirus infection is year-round "Byaka". Common signs of the presence of acute respiratory viral infections in most children are:
- redness of the eyes;
- sore throat;
- irritation of the trachea.
To determine the type of viral infection, only a pediatrician can prescribe the correct treatment. However, mothers of children are not superfluous will be knowledge of features of symptoms of ARVI:
- With the flu, the general symptoms of intoxication in children come to the fore: lethargy, weakness, muscle pains, "twisting" of legs and pens. The main indicator is a rapid rise in temperature to critical indicators, the problematic of its "knocking down".
- Disease of the intestinal form of SARS is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, nausea. The temperature rises to high marks, but it is easily knocked down by antipyretic drugs.
- Clinic adenovirus infection is characterized by the duration of catarrhal manifestations, a slight increase in temperature, a general deterioration of immunity.
- The remaining forms of acute respiratory viral infection proceed according to the general "scheme the appearance of a common cold, perspiration in the throat, cough (dry or wet). It is possible to raise the temperature to 38-3, C.
To make the correct diagnosis, determining the viral nature of the disease in children, the pediatrician will help:
- Inspection of the child. Includes:
- collection of information on the appearance of symptoms of SARS;
- visual examination of the throat;
- listening to the airways;
- temperature measurement.
- Collection and analysis of laboratory results:
- a smear from the mucosa (PCR);
- determination of the serological response of the virus (DSC);
- express method of detecting the virus on the basis of a nasal epithelial smear.
- Radiography (fluorography) in case of suspected pneumonia.
Treatment of ARVI in children
Reaction to the penetration of foreign bodies into the body in the acute respiratory infections is a rise in temperature. Many mothers are frightened by the growing column of the thermometer, trying to lower the rates. This leads to a prolonged recovery: at a temperature of 38 and above, the children's organism begins to actively produce antibodies to the virus. The mistaken treatment of acute respiratory viral infections is largely due to the "self-activity" of parents, low pediatrician qualifications, when antibiotics are prescribed for the common cold, viral tracheitis and other infections.
Initiation of ARI treatment should be after a mandatory consultation with the district pediatrician. In anticipation of a doctor's visit, create optimal conditions for a speedy recovery: bed rest, proper nutrition - diet and abundant drink, clean, ventilated child room. What medicines will help to level the symptoms of SARS in children:
- Antipyretic drugs: "Panadol "Paracetamol" in the form of syrups (1 measuring spoon for children under 3 years), tablets. Daily dosage for children - 60 mg per kg of body weight, single dose - 15 mg / kg.
- Solutions for washing the nasal passages: "Salin "Aquamaris". No less effective is the "home" version of saline. You can achieve the required concentration by dissolving a teaspoon of sea / table salt in a glass of boiled water.
- Vasodilating drops: Snoop, Nazivin contribute to the recovery of nasal breathing, drying out the mucous membrane. For young children with ORVI, "Protargol" with silver proteinate or "Complex drops produced in pharmacies at the request of parents, will perfectly suit. Duration of use in ARVI should not exceed 3-5 days.
- Preparations for cough. A light, moist cough is indicative of an upper respiratory tract infection. Mucolytic agents: "Pills for cough "Mukaltin" should be taken in a dosage of 1 tablet half an hour before meals 4 times / day.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs. "Ibuprofen "Naiz "Nurofen" differ complex action: reduce rheumatic syndrome, reduce temperature, remove inflammation and swelling. Dosage depends on age and weight. The maximum permissible norm of nimesulide is 5 mg, of ibufen 20 mg per kg of body weight.
The viral etymology of the disease in children involves the use of medicines, the effect of which is directed to strengthening of antiviral protection of the body, as well as the fight against bacteria, if the bacterial infection:
- Antiviral drugs: "Acyclovir "Arbidol". Produced in the form of tablets. In the first days of the disease, the dosage is: 1 tablet (2 mg) 5 times a day. Babies up to 2 years are prescribed a half dose. Children under 5 years of age are treated with Viferon suppositories with vitamins C, E, which have complex antiviral and immunostimulating effects.
- Antibiotics. "Biseptol "Amoxiclav "Clarithromycin" are effective in the presence of bacterial infection accompanied by cough; "Ampicillin "Flemoxin soluteba" coping well with tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. Dosage is selected by the doctor individually for the child in accordance with the instructions.
- Stabilizing means. The effect of preparations "Fenistil "Loratidine" is aimed at reducing the manifestation of allergic effect in children with ARVI. Dosage for children up to a year - 10 drops up to 3 times a day, up to 3 years - 15 drops, older - 20 drops.
To alleviate the condition of the baby with a virus infection will help the centuries-old recipes of folk healers:
- Vitamin teas. Herbal collection, cooked with equal parts of chamomile, magnolia vine, linden, perfectly cope with the intoxication of the body in children with ARVI. Dosage - half a glass of broth every 2 hours.
- Lemon-honey infusion. A slice of lemon, a teaspoon of honey and a tiny piece of ginger, filled with boiled water, will boost the child's immune forces.
- Cabbage leaf. Spread the thin layer of honey heated to the temperature of the sick kid's body and attach to the chest for the night, with a towel. Wet, easily expectorating cough, improvement of well-being, normalization of breathing - the results of the procedure.
The use of the principles of homeopathic treatment is characteristic of the means available in most pharmacy chains. Effective drugs for specific symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection, prescribed by doctors to children, are:
- Aflubin. Has a preventive effect that increases the immune response of the body as a result of monthly intake of viruses and colds during the season. The first days (1-3) should be taken up to 8 times / day, gradually reducing the number of doses to three per day. Dosage: drop - to children before the year, up to 4x - toddlers to 5 years, 5-9 drops at a time to school-age children.
- Oscillococcinum. Excellent fights against the flu at the initial stage of the disease. Effective in the "elimination" of residual symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection. For children, it is recommended to dilute the tablet in water (up to 100 ml). With the appearance of the first symptoms, one dose should be taken. The second tablet, diluted with water, it is necessary to drink small portions (on a teaspoonful) every quarter of an hour.
Possible complications after SARS in a child
Antibiotic therapy for viral infection, increased treatment with antipyretic drugs, as well as its absence, sometimes cause complications in children. What are the possible consequences of ARVI:
- Respiratory tract infections complicated by bacterial lesions of their lower part: pneumonia, bronchitis, purulent angina in children.
- Laryngitis, tracheitis is dangerous for newborn babies, children up to a year. A small lumen of the larynx of the baby with stenosis closes, causing problems with breathing. In such cases, the child must undergo a course of treatment in the hospital of a pediatric hospital.
- Chronic rhinitis, otitis, proliferation of adenoid tissue in children - the consequences of adenovirus form of ARVI.
- Taking medication in excess dosages, lack of proper treatment, transferring ARVI to the baby "on his feet" often become the cause of secondary infections, causing kidney, liver, nervous system, GIT.
Prevention of influenza and other respiratory viral infections
Avoiding the disease and reduce the chance of catching ARVI will help preventive measures aimed at:
- Strengthening the body's immune defenses. Admission of vitamin-mineral complexes for children before the autumn season of colds and viruses will stimulate the creation of a reliable "barrier" to infections.
- Prevention of acute respiratory infections. Contrast shower, walking barefoot, regular airing, charging and exercise will help at home to strengthen the protective mechanisms of the child.
- Development of immunity to certain strains of influenza. Vaccinations made in early autumn, contribute to the development of antibodies to a specific type of virus.
- During epidemics of acute respiratory infections, mothers with children should avoid crowded congestions of people. For pre-school children and schoolchildren it is desirable to limit the attendance of entertainment centers, shops, circles.
Video: how and what to treat a child with ARVI - Dr. Komarovsky
People's wisdom that catarrhal diseases with the help of tablets can be cured in a week, but, having provided the right care, drinking and diet - for 7 days, not far from the truth. Children have the majority of acute respiratory viral infections in the classical form: snot, cough and fever accompany up to 90% of viral infections. Why should not you force feed your child in case of a disease, how to help the baby's organism to cope with a cold more quickly, you will learn by watching the video below.
Why does the child have complications after ARVI?
from the question is unclear.. write me into the world in detail, I can tell you about the frequent mistakes of the parents-maybe it will help you.
~ * ~ Alexandra ~ * ~
ARVI-acute respiratory viral infection, more earlier - acute respiratory disease, do you see a difference? if you have already started on this and the complication, the children's organism for viruses, as for sweet tooth confectionery, they stay there for a time, but get out after 2-3 courses of antibiotics. The temperature should be knocked down even 3, if, analgesics not only knock it down but also help to fight the infection, leaving a child with a temperature you are sacrificing his kidneys, the body is weakening and the viruses are even easier becomes. Do not run such things, even snot, they already have a lot to say.
because they did not fully cure ODS
Can very weak immunity? And how do you feel?
After antibiotics, immunity drops even more, they contribute to the development of chronic diseases, so they are very cautious. Raise immunity necessarily, when the child is completely healthy, try to begin hardening, it is not necessary to pour cold water, you can air baths, gradually without fanaticism. To bring down temperature as to you here advise with 3, it is not necessary, analgesics with viruses do not struggle, and on kidneys just the same they and can influence. This temperature is reduced only in children prone to seizures, birth trauma or with CNS damage. A rise in body temperature on the contrary indicates that the body is fighting and the immune system is working. And perhaps it is worth consulting with another pediatrician and immunologist. And the causes of frequent diseases can be very much - lack of certain vitamins, weakening of immunity against vaccination (an individual approach to inoculation), the ecological situation in the city, some inaccuracies in the regime, or you can dress warmer than necessary, it is very difficult to say without knowing you and your the girl. Ask Yulia Yefremova, if the doctor offers his help - it is worth appealing.