What is testosterone
The body of a man and a woman produces thousands of different hormones per day, responsible for the work of different body systems. Testosterone refers to sex hormones from the androgen class and has a steroid nature. In men, the testes and hypothalamus meet the synthesis of this biological substance. In women, testosterone is produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands, a small part of the hormone produces the liver.
For what the hormone testosterone meets in women
In boys of adolescence, the hormone is responsible for puberty, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics - broad shoulders, narrow thighs. In the female body, testosterone is the precursor of estrogens. It provides growth and maturation of the egg, is responsible for the development of the mammary glands, the formation of the figure by the female type. In addition, testosterone has a number of secondary functions, which include:
- normalization of the sebaceous glands, maintaining skin elasticity;
- providing smooth growth of hair and nails;
- formation of a strong bone skeleton - growth and development of bones, ensuring the correct mineral metabolism;
- maintaining sexual attraction to the opposite sex;
- development of muscle mass;
- stimulation of hematopoiesis of the bone marrow;
- maintaining a stable mental state.
Indications for the analysis of
The level of androgens in a woman's body is constantly changing and this does not always indicate that there are health problems. For example, during pregnancy, the number of major male hormones also increases. This is necessary to ensure normal growth and development of the skeleton of the fetus. The reason for the visit to the doctor to prescribe a blood test for testosterone in women, can serve as such conditions or diagnoses:
- deterioration of the hair, skin, nails;
- menstrual cycle disorder;
- suspected of infertility;
- development of secondary male sexual characteristics - male hair type( growth of a beard or mustache, hair on the chest), the appearance of a hoarse voice;
- decreased sexual desire;
- hormonal imbalance;
- gynecological diseases, of different origin;
- pregnancy planning;
- appearance of acne on the face and body.
When to pass the test
Testosterone in girls reaches the maximum concentration at the time of onset of ovulation. This is necessary to increase sexual activity and safe conception. To get the most reliable results, you need to correctly determine the day of the menstrual cycle, in which to take the analysis. The first day of menstruation begins as the starting point - this is considered the beginning of a new menstrual cycle. The test for testosterone in women is assigned:
- with a cycle time of 21 to 23 calendar days for 2-3 days from the beginning of menstruation;
- with a 28-day cycle - for 5 days;
- if the menstrual cycle lasts more than 28 days, the analysis is scheduled for 7 days.
The results of the study of the hormonal constituent of blood largely depend on the preparation of the patient and his behavior before taking the tests. To obtain the most accurate results, doctors recommend adhering to the following rules:
- The day before the test is done, all physical exertion should be discarded.
- During the day, if possible, stop taking any medications, especially hormone drugs.
- Remove from the diet fatty, salty, fried foods.
- Refuse alcohol, sweet fizzy drinks, coffee, cocoa, tea.
- One day before giving blood for analysis, all sexual intercourse should be completely ruled out.
- Try not to overwork, to maximum limit yourself from stress and any emotional outbursts.
- It is not recommended to carry out hormone analysis if you have recently undergone an ultrasound procedure or X-ray.
- It is not advisable to visit a solarium, sauna or bathhouse a few days before taking blood.
How to give testosterone to a woman
For the research, the laboratory worker takes blood from the vein. The biomaterial is obtained under sterile conditions - a doctor's office or an analysis room - with a disposable syringe. In order to objectively assess the patient's condition and make a correct diagnosis, the doctor should be aware of all the circumstances that may somehow affect the results of the analysis.
A woman must tell a laboratory technician or a doctor if she adheres to a non-traditional diet plan( dieting, vegetarianism or raw diet).To come to the laboratory is recommended in advance( for 20-30 minutes), in order to have time to calm down and bring the breath back to normal. Blood from a vein is taken only in the morning and on an empty stomach - 12 hours before delivery it is necessary to completely refuse food, alcohol and smoking.
If the patient does not have the opportunity to come to the laboratory in the morning, the blood should be taken after 6 hours of fasting, eliminating fats from the last meal. The level of hormones can affect the time of year. It is established that the amount of testosterone in the blood rises with the onset of autumn. Typically, if the test for testosterone in women is carried out this season, the lab technician takes this fact into account and makes a note in the direction sheet. The study period is 1-2 days, after which the doctor compares the results with the norm.
Normal in women
The level of sex hormones in girls and women can vary depending on the time of day, the day of the menstrual cycle and age. To determine the level of testosterone, two types of tests are carried out:
- Analysis of the total level of testosterone in a woman. The test results show how much of the whole hormone is in the body at this stage of life. Norms are considered to be from 0.26 to 1.30 ng / mol.
- Study of free testosterone. Free is called the type of hormone that does not bind to blood proteins for transportation.
Analysis for the total level of hormones is considered ancillary. It helps to clarify the diagnosis. Particular attention is usually paid to active( free) testosterone. Its reference( normal) parameters for different women of different ages are:
Age of the woman
Minimum values, nmol / l
Maximum values, nmol / l
Over 18 years of age:
follicular phase( 1st to 7th day of the menstrual cycle)
Menopause( over 60 years)
The doctor analyzes the results of the analysis. It is believed that testosterone in women is lowered if the test showed data below the mean values - less than 0.31 nmol / L( provided that the woman is in reproductive age).Changing the hormonal background in any of the parties is a clear sign of health problems. So, the vibrations of androgens can lead to cardiovascular diseases, provoke the development of obesity or disruptions in the endocrine system.
The lack of a sex hormone can be suspected when sudden changes in the behavior of a woman. She becomes sluggish, apathetic, often a bad mood grows into hysteria or depression. Since androgens are responsible for maintaining libido, women with reduced testosterone have a lack of sexual desire and insufficient production of vaginal lubrication. In addition to the listed abnormalities, the following symptoms may also indicate violations:
- a feeling of constant fatigue;
- increased sweating;
- sleep disturbance( insomnia);
- tachycardia( painful heart palpitations);
- increase in body weight;
- change voice timbre;
- painful discomfort during sexual contact( the phenomenon is due to insufficient release of lubricant);
- brittle nails;
- fragility of bones;
- impairment of cognitive abilities( decreased concentration of attention, memory, spatial orientation).
A decrease in testosterone levels is considered normal if a woman experiences menopause. In other cases, the deficiency of the sex hormone is affected by:
- eating disorders( vegetarianism, raw food, long starvation);
- sharp climate change;
- decreased functional activity of the ovaries;
- alcohol abuse;
- development of renal failure;
- excess weight;
- taking certain medications( for example, with peppermint, licorice root);
- a rare stay in the sun;
- genetic predisposition;
- adrenal disease;
- pathologies affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland;
- some autoimmune diseases - osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis.
Testosterone is higher than normal in women
The concentration of steroid hormones naturally increases in the morning and decreases noticeably in the evening. For these reasons, it is recommended to come to the test in the morning. It is believed that there is an excess of testosterone in the body if the woman complied with all the rules of the analysis, and its results were above the average values - more than 3, 75 nmol / l( assuming that the woman is in reproductive age).
As manifested by
A clear sign of increased testosterone is the appearance of masculine features - broad shoulders, a narrow pelvis, growth of hair on the face and chest, hoarseness. Such external changes begin to appear from adolescence, progressing according to the age of the girl's growing up. In addition to the development of secondary sexual symptoms of hormonal imbalance, the following symptoms also often indicate:
- increased sexual activity;
- hair loss;
- skin dryness;
- excessive irritability and aggressiveness;
- menstrual cycle, up to a complete absence of menstruation;
- appearance of acne, comedones, oily skin;
- a sharp set of weight, difficulties with losing weight;
- mammary atrophy;
- difficulty with conception, infertility.
Testosterone is above the norm in women always observed during pregnancy. This is considered the norm and is important for the development of the skeleton of the child. The change in balance is greater when ovulation occurs, hormonal contraceptives are taken, during sports or after a recent psychoemotional shock. To hormonal imbalance can also lead:
- is an improper diet that involves eating foods that are high in fat or simple carbohydrates;
- hereditary predisposition;
- polycystic ovarian tumor;
- decreased activity of the pituitary gland;
- Cushing's syndrome is the active work of the adrenal glands;
- , sexually transmitted diseases - gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and others;
- endometriosis - abnormal proliferation of endometrial cells( inner layer of the uterine wall);
- insensitivity of tissues to insulin - type 2 diabetes mellitus;
- of the thyroid gland.
The therapy scheme is chosen by the physician, depending on the results of the analysis, the condition and complaints of the patient. Without fail it is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol, smoking, normalize sleep. The lack of testosterone in the female body is as dangerous a condition as its excessive amount. The reproductive system suffers from deficiency, the woman has a decreased sexual desire, she becomes incapable of conceiving and bearing a child.
An important condition for increasing androgen is the normalization of nutrition. You should give up various diets, increase the number of foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals in the diet, especially zinc and magnesium. Favorably on the level of sex hormones affect:
- nuts and seeds;
- poultry meat;
- fatty fish - salmon, tuna;
- all varieties of cabbage;
- dried fruits - figs, dates, dried apricots;
- berries - watermelon, black currant, plum, pomegranate, raspberry;
- vegetable oils;
- spices - garlic, onion, cardamom, red pepper, turmeric.
Be sure to go in for sports. This will help not only improve the figure, make it slimmer and strengthen the muscular corset, but also normalizes the natural production of testosterone. Particular preference is given to cardio training - running, exercising on simulators, riding a bicycle. Eliminate all sources of stress to the maximum. Sleep 8-10 hours a day. At serious rates of reduction the doctor chooses hormone replacement therapy.
In case of increasing the concentration of androgens in the blood, it is also necessary to adhere to a certain diet, including in the diet products rich in vitamins and minerals. From power loads it is better to refuse, replacing heavy cardio training with relaxing sports - fitness, yoga, swimming. From drug treatment doctors are more likely to prefer those drugs that contain an analogue of the female hormone estrogen, diuretic or hypoglycemic agents. Such medicines include:
According to the analysis, for the normalization of the endocrine system, the pituitary and hormonal alignment, a woman can begin to recommend hormonal oral contraceptives. The choice of such medicines is handled by a gynecologist. Especially popular among doctors and women are the following medicines:
You can donate blood for research in public medical institutions, having a referral from a doctor. In addition, many private clinics are involved in conducting such tests. The cost of the service varies depending on the level of the laboratory's qualifications and the region of your residence. Approximate prices of tests for testosterone levels in women in Moscow:
Name of the clinic