Inflammation of the parotid salivary gland

Content
  • Types of inflammation
  • Symptoms of inflammation of the salivary glands
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment of the disease
  • Prevention of sialoadenitis
  • Related Videos

Inflammation of the parotid gland is called sialadenitis. The cause of the development of pathology is the inflammatory process, which captures internal tissues. Most often, sialadenitis of the parotid salivary gland is diagnosed, sublingual and submaxillary are much less likely to be affected.

Types of inflammation

Depending on the infectious agency, there are two varieties of sialoadenitis. It:

  • viral;
  • bacterial.

Viral sialadenitis

The disease is formed as a result of the entry into the human body of the virus of mumps. The disease is known as "mumps". Transmission is carried out by airborne droplets. After entering the body, the virus penetrates the tissues of the parotid salivary gland, provoking inflammation. In the generalized form of mumps, testicles are affected in men, which can subsequently lead to infertility.

Important! In some cases, viral sialoadenitis develops against a background of cytomegalovirus infection.

Bacterial (nonspecific) sialadenitis

Formed as a result of the introduction of infection through the oral cavity. The provoking factors may be:

  • Poor oral hygiene.
  • Reactive obturation. The narrowing of the duct causes a reduced volume of saliva. The accumulated secret becomes a convenient medium for the propagation of pathogenic microflora, which is constantly present in the oral cavity.
  • Mechanical obturation. It develops as a result of overlapping of the lumen of the duct. In collecting saliva, pathogens actively multiply, causing inflammation.
Sialoadenitis
The bacterial form of sialoadenitis develops as a result of infection of the mouth ducts

The second variant of penetration of the infection is a drift through the blood. The cause may be severe infectious pathologies, in particular, scarlet fever. The third way of infection of the salivary gland is through the lymph. The cause is inflammatory pathology of the face, oral mucosa and pharynx. In honesty, periodontitis, furunculosis or tonsillitis.

The chronic form of sialadenitis develops as an independent disease. The reasons can be hidden at the genetic level. Sometimes inflammation is a response to an autoimmune pathology or some common disease. Quite often the chronic form of inflammation is fixed in the category of elderly patients, which is caused by deterioration of blood supply to the body.

Symptoms of inflammation of the salivary glands

The general symptoms of the disease are as follows:

  • dryness of the oral mucosa due to a lack of salivary fluid;
  • shooting pains;
  • soreness, accompanying chewing, ingestion of food and opening of mouth;
  • puffiness and hyperemia of the skin in the projection of the salivary gland;
  • an unpleasant aftertaste of saliva;
  • possibly the appearance of purulent contents;
  • painful education in the field of inflammation;
  • a feeling of bursting, which indicates the accumulation of pus;
  • increased overall body temperature and weakness.
Parotid salivary gland
The most serious inflammation of the parotid salivary gland, provoked by the ingestion of the virus of mumps

Of particular danger is the "mumps" - an epidemic parotitis - because other pathologies of the body, for example, the pancreas, can be involved in the pathological process. Symptoms of inflammation are: an acute onset with an increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees, swelling in the region of the parotid salivary gland, pain syndrome, increasing during chewing.

Acute sialoadenitis of the parotid salivary gland passes in several stages, each of which is accompanied by a certain symptomatology.

  • Serous sialadenitis. It is typical dryness of the oral mucosa, soreness in the ear region, development of a small puffiness. The lobe is slightly raised. The pain intensification is fixed during the meal. The increase in body temperature is insignificant.
  • The purulent stage. Characterized by increased soreness. There is an increase in body temperature above 38 degrees, increased swelling, restriction on opening the mouth. When pressing on the area of ​​inflammation, there is an outflow of purulent masses. The gland is dense, painful.
  • Gangrenous inflammation. Abdominal gland forms an abscess, serving as an outlet for dead tissue.

In the absence of an adequate state of drug therapy, lethal outcome is possible because of the development of sepsis. The cause may be internal bleeding caused by the melting of the walls of the large blood channels of the neck.

Symptomatic of chronic inflammation depends on the current form of the disease:

Lesion of the salivary glands
  • Chronic interstitial sialadenitis. Most often it develops in the parotid glands (about 85%). Diagnosed in most cases in elderly patients. For a long time it is asymptomatic. The development of the clinical picture is due to the deterioration of the condition, caused by the narrowing of the lumen of the lumen. A sign of an exacerbation is the appearance of a feeling of dryness in the mouth and an increase in the size of the gland. It becomes painful when touched.
  • Chronic parenchymal sialoadenitis. They are mostly sick of women. In the initial stage of development, pressure on the gland generates a significant amount of salty liquid. Later, a feeling of heaviness, condensation is formed. It is possible to excrete saliva with impurities of pus and mucus lumps. In the late stages of iron painless, tuberous, there is a discharge of pus.
  • Sialodochitis- Inflammation of ducts. A typical sign is increased production of salivary fluid during eating and talking, as well as the formation of zaed in the corners of the mouth. During an exacerbation of a pathology in saliva there are admixtures of pus, the gland becomes swollen and dense.

Diagnostics

Acute sialadenitis is diagnosed by examining the patient and collecting the available complaints. The procedure of sialography is used in rare cases, since the introduction of a contrasting substance causes the intensification of the pain syndrome.

Differential diagnosis of sialadenitis
Differential diagnosis is necessary for the correct choice of method of treatment

To confirm the chronic sialoadenitis of the parotid salivary gland, the contrast sialogram technique is used. It allows you to determine the current form of pathology. For the interstitial form of inflammation, the narrowing of the lumen of the duct is typical. In this case, the volume of contrast material penetrated into the gland tissue does not exceed 0.8 ml.

A healthy organ holds approximately 2-3 ml. In the parenchymal format of sialoadenitis numerous cavities with a diameter of up to 10 mm are fixed. The tissues of the gland and the ducts themselves are not determined. The capacity of the cavities is 6... 8 ml of contrast.

Treatment of the disease

Treatment of sialadenitis should be performed by a specialized specialist. Incorrectly selected therapy can cause complications. Uncomplicated forms of inflammation are treated on an outpatient basis (at home). The patient will be recommended:

  • adherence to bed rest;
  • sparing diet - food should be reduced, which reduces soreness when swallowing and chewing;
  • abundant drink - helps to ease the symptoms of intoxication.

Excellent results are obtained by local treatment. On the area of ​​the inflamed parotid salivary gland, you can impose any dry bandages with a warming effect. Compresses based on alcohol and camphor oil help well. In addition, the patient will be recommended to visit the physiotherapy room. The most commonly prescribed procedures are UHF and Sollux.

To ensure the outflow of saliva from the inflamed gland, artificial stimulation is necessary. This is good for any products with a sour taste, for example, lemon slices, cranberries, sauerkraut. The body, in response to irritation of the taste buds, automatically increases the production of saliva.

To activate the process of salivation, you can use medicines, in particular, a solution of pilocarpine hydrochloride. At what point the patient should stimulate the salivation will be decided by the attending physician, relying on the current symptomatology.

Important! Stimulation of saliva secretion helps to avoid its stagnation and facilitates the removal of dead tissue cells from the inflamed gland.

With an increase in body temperature and pain relief accompanying sialoadenitis, the patient is allowed to take drugs from the group of NSAIDs - Analgin, Pentalgin, Baralgin, Ibuprofen and others. The drugs have an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect.

If there is no therapeutic result and overall well-being worsens, there are no improvements within 3 days - or signs of suppurative gland appear, the patient is prescribed antibiotics.

If necessary, surgical therapy is performed: opening and draining of the inflamed gland, in the event of a significant amount of purulent masses. Antibacterial drugs are injected directly into the focus of inflammation.

Surgery
With the development of suppuration, the patient is recommended surgical treatment - opening and draining the gland

Treatment of inflammation of the parotid gland is a long and complex process. In case of exacerbation, the patient is prescribed to take drugs from the group of antibiotics and medicines that stimulate saliva production and drainage.

A good therapeutic result in the chronic form of sialadenitis is shown by X-ray therapy. When diagnosed in the ducts of the gland of calculi - the calculous form of sialoadenitis - surgical treatment is prescribed.

Prevention of sialoadenitis

Specific prevention - the introduction of a specialized vaccine - sialadenitis does not exist. Exclusion of mumps. Vaccination is carried out by a three-component preparation effective against three diseases - mumps, measles and rubella. The vaccine is given to all children aged 1.5 years. Strong immunity is produced in about 96% of vaccinated babies.

Nonspecific prevention is as follows:

  • regular oral hygiene;
  • sanation of all foci of inflammation in the mouth;
  • prevention of stagnation of saliva;
  • rinsing of the oral cavity in the period of infectious pathologies.

To treat inflammation of the parotid gland is carried out by a dentist. If there are signs of the development of mumps, the child should be shown to the pediatrician. Adult patients in this case turn to the therapist.