How can you determine pneumonia in a child?
Each parent sooner or later wondered: how to determine pneumonia in a child? This ailment in children manifests itself more often than other diseases. Intensive development of medicine over the past 50 years has been able to mitigate the impact and consequences of the disease.
Recovery of the child occurs in almost all cases (subject to timely treatment of parents to doctors). Inflammation of the lungs in most cases is caused by infectious causes. The most common factor is bactericidal viruses (pneumococci), which are a permanent refuge in the nasal cavities.
At the age of six, the disease is provoked by a hemophilic rod. A child of school age is exposed to chlamydia, mycoplasma, which is a viral source of such a pathology.One of the key tasks of the lungs is the oxygen supply of the body.The oxygen message in the body occurs due to the vascular channels that perform the transport task. The fulfillment of the responsible task occurs due to the alveoli (small sacciform regions of the lung). Under normal operating conditions, the alveoli do not disintegrate together on exhalation.
Children were the first to feel the success of medical development in the fight against pneumonia. Relatively recently, this disease was considered a serious enemy of health and even the life of the patient. Today pneumonia as a disease with a fatal outcome is already nestrashna. However, a positive result of treatment is dependent on a qualitative, rapid diagnosis, respectively, correctly formulated therapy.
Factors provoking pneumonia in children
A group of factors causing the disease is headed by bactericidal viruses. The virus group of ARVI is not excluded (as the cause of pneumonia, and the means of transporting other viruses to the lungs). Separate cases of ailment can be provoked by fungal viruses or intracellular microbes.
The intrauterine pneumonia is not an exception. Viral microelements affect the amniotic fluid at the expense of the placenta at the time of fruiting or birth canals prone to inflammation. As a result, the newly born baby can already be sick with pneumonia.
Parents should be aware of how to recognize pneumonia in order to detect the disease in time.
Children's risk groupThe following factors are characteristic of a group of children most susceptible to this disease:
- the weight of the child is small enough;
- during pregnancy, the mother suffered a viral, bacterial disease;
- anemia iron deficiency;
- heart malformation;
- the affected nervous system;
- long period of stay in the stationary block.
In the latter case, the likelihood of pneumonia is very high. The causative agent of the disease in this situation is an aggressive flora with a negative reaction to antibiotic drugs.
Symptomatology of pathology
An experienced practitioner is able to establish the correct diagnosis of the disease, determine a successful course of treatment. In some cases, the diagnosis of pneumonia requires the results of an X-ray study. Do not be afraid to use a similar method of analysis, because the quality of the definition of an ailment is only will increase, which may well compensate for the negative impact of X-rays on the body the kid.
A person who has contracted pneumonia is troubled by the following symptoms:
- there is a cyanotic skin color, lips;
- lack of appetite;
- retraction of the soft tissues of the baby's breasts;
- a feeling of anxiety, increased drowsiness;
- Increased respiration (age before, month - 60 times a minute, month - 1 year - more than 55 times, 1-3 years - more than 40 times);
- the airways are hanging;
- temperature over 38º C for 2-3 days.
This desire is explained by the fact that in such a situation the chest widens, the breathing is slightly facilitated. In parallel, there is a pale-blue hue of the lips, the edges of the nose. When this symptomatology develops, you should immediately apply to inpatient treatment, because the risk of death due to dysfunction of the central nervous system due to oxygen insufficiency.
Diagnosis of newborns
It is necessary to pay attention to the behavioral changes of the baby. There is lethargy, in rare cases - anxiety, capriciousness, loss of appetite. There are malfunctions in the respiratory processes: the rhythm is lost, the respiration is predominantly superficial, in which additional muscle groups are included. The temperature of the body increases, but in rare cases is quite high. The presence of a cough is uncharacteristic. There may be diarrhea..
One-year-old, six-year-olds with pneumonia change in behavior, shortness of breath, high fever, loss of appetite, do not feel like drinking. A pale blue shade of the nose and lips appears at the last stage of the pathology. The presence of a cough is not always observed. Due to oxygen deficiency there is a high probability of diarrhea.
Using a phonendoscope, even a qualified doctor is not always able to determine the presence of pathology. This is the insidiousness of the disease. Any diagnosis of pneumonia is based on lung X-rays.
Treatment of the disease
The negative influence of pneumonia affects cardiac activity and a number of important organs. A serious complication may be the appearance of purulent cavities in the lungs.The severe form of the disease requires in-patient treatment, but many patients with mild pathology cope with the disease at home. Often, a doctor can not diagnose pneumonia during a call to the house. In such cases, the child with the parents goes to the children's polyclinic. With effective in-patient treatment of the baby, the process is allowed to be completed at home (with the necessary requirements for the patient's maintenance). The superiority of treatment at home is in the child's own atmosphere, the probability of being infected again with a virus in the hospital is excluded. The hospital has many viral microorganisms that have developed a certain immunity for antibacterial drugs.
It is the use of antibacterial drugs aimed at fighting pneumonia. The mild form of the course of the disease is treated with prescribed penicillin preparations administered by mouth. The concomitant medication is macrolide. The second line of medicines does not need a prescription for the initial stages of therapy. Complex form of the disease requires the appointment of antibiotic injecting drugs. Using several injections, the doctor observes the patient's condition. In case of improvement of health and lowering of temperature less than 3, º C without the use of means for removing the heat of the introduction of antibiotics by intramuscular route is terminated, an oral method of taking medicines..
When the temperature indicators of the baby returned to normal, the patient is recommended to sleep in fresh air (within reasonable temperature limits). Older children may go out three weeks after the disease, but only in the case of an effective treatment result, in the absence of key signs of pathology. If treatment has passed without special complications, specific rehabilitation exercises are not appointed.
Symptoms of pneumonia in children
Pneumonia in a child is an acute infectious disease that occurs with inflammation of the respiratory parts of the lungs. The disease is accompanied by the accumulation of inflammatory fluid in the pulmonary vesicles-alveoli. Symptoms of pneumonia in children are similar to those in adults, but are supplemented by severe fever and intoxication.
The term "acute pneumonia in children" is out of use in medicine, because the very definition of the disease includes a characterization of an acute process. The International Council of Scientists-Experts decided to divide pneumonia into groups according to other signs that determine the outcome of the disease.
How dangerous is pneumonia?
Despite the progress in medicine, the incidence of lung inflammation in children remains high. Pneumonia is a life-threatening, life-threatening condition. Infant mortality from pneumonia remains high enough. In the Russian Federation, within a year, it dies from pneumonia & g; about 1000 children. Basically, this terrible number unites infants who died from pneumonia in the age of 1 year.
The main causes of the fatal outcome of pneumonia in children:
- Later, parents applied for medical help.
- Later, the diagnosis and delay of the correct treatment.
- Presence of concomitant chronic diseases that worsen the prognosis.
In order to timely establish an accurate diagnosis and take measures to treat a dangerous disease, you need to know its external signs - symptoms.
The main symptoms of pneumonia in children:
- Fever - increase in body temperature to high figures (8 8 ° C).
- Dyspnoea - increased frequency of respiration more than 40 per minute (in children 1-6 years).
- Cough dry or with phlegm.
- Appearance of cyanotic coloring of the skin of the lips, nasolabial area, fingertips.
- Changes in respiratory noise in the lungs during listening (wheezing, hard breathing).
- Intoxication, expressed general weakness, refusal to eat.
The increase in body temperature in a child is the first symptom of many diseases, for example, a common viral infection (ARI). In order to recognize pneumonia, we must remember: an important role is played not by the height of the fever, but by its duration. For microbial inflammation of the lungs it is characteristic continuation of fever for more than 3 days against the background of competent treatment of viral & g; infection.
If we evaluate the significance of the symptoms for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children, the most terrible sign will be the appearance of dyspnea. Shortness of breath and tension of additional muscles are more important signs than having wheezing when listening to the chest.
Cough is a symptom of pneumonia in children. In the early days of the disease, cough can be dry. With the resolution of acute inflammation of the lung tissue, the cough will become productive, moist.
If a child with a respiratory viral infection (ARI) has similar symptoms, an urgent call for a doctor is necessary. Underestimation of the severity of the baby's condition can lead to sad consequences - the development of acute respiratory failure and death from pneumonia.
The doctor will examine the small patient, prescribe an examination and an effective treatment. Listening to the lungs in the early days of the disease may not reveal characteristic signs of inflammation. The presence of disseminated wheezing when listening is often a symptom of bronchitis. To clarify the diagnosis for suspected pneumonia, an X-ray of the lungs is necessary. X-ray symptoms of pneumonia are darkening (infiltration) of pulmonary fields, which confirms the diagnosis.
Laboratory Symptoms of Pneumonia
Valuable information about the fact of inflammation in the body carries a general blood test. Signs that increase the presence of pneumonia: a high content of white blood cells in 1 cu. mm blood (more than 15 thousand) and an increase in ESR. ESR is the sedimentation rate of red blood cells. This analysis reflects the amount of inflammatory metabolic products in the liquid part of the blood. The magnitude of ESR shows the intensity of any inflammation processes, including inflammation of the lungs.
How to determine the risk of a child with pneumonia?
The following factors are identified that increase the risk of lung inflammation in children:
- Delayed physical and mental development of the child.
- Low weight of a newborn baby.
- Artificial feeding of a baby under the age of 1 year.
- Refusal of vaccination against measles.
- Pollution of air (passive smoking).
- Overcrowded dwelling, where the baby lives.
- Smoking of parents, including mother's smoking during pregnancy.
- Lack of microelement of zinc in the diet.
- Mother's inability to care for an infant.
- Presence of concomitant diseases (bronchial asthma, heart disease or digestive system).
What forms can the disease have?Pneumonia in children is different for reasons and mechanism of occurrence. The disease can affect the entire lobe of the lung - this is a shared pneumonia. If the inflammation occupies a part of the lobe (segment) or several segments, it is called segmental (polysegmental) pneumonia. If the inflammation is covered by a small group of pulmonary vesicles, this variant of the disease will be called "focal pneumonia".
In inflammation, passed to the respiratory tissue of the bronchi, the disease is sometimes called bronchopneumonia. The process, caused by viruses or intracellular parasites such as chlamydia, is manifested by swelling (infiltration) of the perivascular tissue of the lungs from both sides. This type of disease was called "bilateral interstitial pneumonia." These symptoms of difference can be determined by medical examination and X-ray examination of sick children.
Inflammation of the lungs in children doctors are divided according to the conditions of origin for domestic (out-of-hospital) and hospital (hospital). Separate forms are intrauterine pneumonia in newborns and pneumonia with a pronounced lack of immunity. Community-acquired (home) pneumonia is called inflammation of the lungs, which has arisen in ordinary home conditions. Hospital (nosocomial) pneumonia is a case of illness that occurs after 2 or more days of the child's stay in the hospital for another reason (or within 2 days after discharge from there).
Mechanism of the development of pneumonia
The entry of a microbial pathogens into the respiratory tract can occur in several ways: inhalation, swallowing of nasopharyngeal mucus, dissemination through the blood. This way of introducing a pathogenic microbe depends on its kind.
The most frequent causative agent of the disease is pneumococcus. The microbe enters the lower parts of the lungs by inhaling or swelling of mucus from the nasopharynx. Intracellular parasites, such as mycoplasma, chlamydia and legionella, enter the lungs by inhalation. The spread of infection through the blood is most typical for infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
The type of causative agent that causes pneumonia in children depends on several factors: the age of the child, the place of origin of the disease, and also from the previous treatment with antibiotics. If within 2 months before the present episode the baby has already taken antibiotics, then the causative agent of the current inflammation of the respiratory tract can be atypical. In 30-50% of cases, community-acquired pneumonia in children can be caused by several types of microbes at the same time.
General rules for the treatment of pneumonia in childrenTreatment of the disease the doctor begins with the immediate appointment of antimicrobials to any patient with suspected inflammation of the lungs. The place of treatment is determined by the severity of the manifestation of symptoms.
Sometimes with a mild course of the disease in children of older age groups, treatment at home is possible. The decision on the place of treatment is made by the doctor, according to the patient's condition.
Indications for treatment in a hospital of children with pneumonia are: severity of symptoms and a high risk of an unfavorable outcome of the disease:
- The age of the child is less than 2 months, regardless of the severity of the symptoms.
- The age of the baby is younger than 3 years with lobar pneumonia.
- Inflammation of several lobes in a child of any age.
- Severe concomitant diseases of the nervous system.
- Pneumonia of newborns (intrauterine infection).
- The small weight of the baby, the delay of its development in comparison with peers.
- Congenital malformations of organs.
- Chronic concomitant diseases (bronchial asthma, heart disease, lung, kidney, cancer).
- Patients with decreased immunity from various causes.
- Impossibility of careful care and accurate performance of all medical appointments at home.
Indications for the urgent placement of a child with pneumonia, in the department of children's intensive care:
- Increasing the number of breaths & g; 0 in 1 min for infants under the age of one year, and for children older than the year, shortness of breath & g; 0 in 1 min.
- The retraction of the intercostal spaces and the jugular fossa (fossa at the beginning of the sternum) with respiratory movements.
- Moaning breathing and violation of the right rhythm of breathing.
- Fever that does not respond to treatment.
- Violation of the child's consciousness, the appearance of convulsions or hallucinations.
In uncomplicated course of the disease, body temperature decreases within the first 3 days after initiation of treatment with antibiotics. External symptoms of the disease gradually decrease in intensity. X-ray signs of recovery can be seen in the pictures of the lungs no earlier than 21 days after the start of antibiotic treatment.
In addition to antimicrobial treatment, the patient must comply with bed rest, plenty of drinking. Expectorants are prescribed if necessary.
Prevention of pneumonia
Protection from respiratory viral infection plays an important role in preventing the incidence of pneumonia.
It is possible to carry out vaccination against the main pathogens of pneumonia in children: a hemophilic rod and pneumococcus. At present, safe and effective vaccine-tablets are developed against microbes that cause pneumonia and bronchitis. Preparations from this class "Bronchovax" and "Ribomunil" have a children's dosage. They are appointed by the doctor to prevent such a dangerous disease as pneumonia.
How to quickly identify pneumonia in the home?
How to identify pneumonia in the home? Pneumonia is a common infectious disease that affects the lung tissue. The inflammatory process develops in the alveoli and bronchi, leading to the appearance of pathological changes in them. Inflammation of the lungs is most common in children, but it is often diagnosed in adults. The causative agents of the disease are mycoplasmas, staphylococci and viruses. Depending on the type of microorganisms entering the lung tissue, the symptoms may vary.
Causes of pneumonia
Pneumonia occurs not only when it comes in contact with pathogens and viruses, it can also occur in bedridden patients with impaired pulmonary circulation. Therefore, the patient is often advised to turn over. This will help to avoid the formation of pressure sores that cause blood infection. The treatment takes about a month and includes the use of antibiotics, immunomodulators and restorative drugs, as well as physiotherapy. A good effect is given and some folk remedies.
The main signs of the disease are: pain behind the sternum, painful cough with sputum separation, severe fever, increased fatigue, pain in the muscles and joints.If you have at least one of these symptoms, we recommend that you consult your doctor immediately.
Weakened immunity contributes to the rapid development of the disease, exacerbating its course of bad habits: smoking and alcoholism. The inhalation of tobacco smoke promotes irritation of bronchial mucous membranes. Other reasons for the development of pneumonia are: surgical interventions, chronic heart and vascular disease, endocrine disorders, malnutrition, poor environmental conditions. Inflammation of the lungs can be bacterial, viral and atypical. It can be quite difficult to understand what kind of disease the patient has. Signs of pneumonia can not be recognized, confused with the symptoms of colds and SARS. However, there are specific signs of how to recognize pneumonia.
How is pneumonia diagnosed?
So, let's figure out what to do if you are faced with such a disease as pneumonia, how to determine pneumonia? Clinical manifestations depend on the degree of damage to the lung tissue and the age of the patient. In children and older people, this disease is more severe. One of the characteristic signs of pneumonia is pain when coughing. Rare coughs eventually pass into a painful, debilitating cough. In addition, the body temperature rises sharply to 39-40 ° C and is accompanied by a fever. There are pains in the chest and stomach with inspiration, sneezing and coughing.In the next stages of the disease, the patient experiences constant aching pain behind the sternum, breathing becomes more frequent. Sputum contains impurities of pus and has a yellow or brown color. When the temperature rises, the skin becomes dry and begins to peel off. Developing intoxication, which manifests itself in the form of rapid heartbeats and headaches. Dehydration begins.
In addition to the characteristic symptoms of pneumonia, there is a decrease in appetite, the appearance of an unhealthy blush on the cheeks, especially from the inflamed lung. Due to a strong decrease in immunity, stomatitis and eruptions on the lips may appear. Urine is released in small amounts and has a dark color.
In order to avoid serious complications, it is necessary to pass the examination and immediately begin treatment. Focal forms of the disease affect individual lobes of the lung and can occur without pronounced symptoms. Under the influence of some factors, focal inflammation can become aggravated and quickly capture the entire lung.
How to cure pneumonia on an outpatient basis? For proper treatment of pneumonia, complex therapy is required. The course of treatment is selected individually, depending on the causative agent of the disease and the main symptoms. Usually appoint several drugs compatible with each other. They can be picked up only by a doctor, in addition, in some cases, treatment should be adjusted.
Why take antibiotics?Focal pneumonia, previously considered a fatal disease, with the help of modern antibiotics is completely cured. The main task of doctors is to select an effective antibiotic. Many pathogens of infection eventually become resistant to certain antibiotics, especially if they are not taken correctly.
Before the beginning of therapy it is necessary to hand over sputum for analysis. Sowing on nutrient media will help identify the causative agent of infection and select an antibacterial drug.
Light forms of pneumonia occur when the body gets mycoplasma, chlamydia and pneumococci. These pneumonia have their own characteristics, with the help of which doctors distinguish them from other forms of pneumonia. When pneumococcal infections are prescribed antibiotics penicillin series. If the disease is caused by mycoplasmas, antibiotics of the tetracycline series, fluoroquinolones and macrolides will be effective. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones are suitable for the destruction of chlamydia. The duration of treatment depends on how quickly the symptoms begin to subside. It is recommended to take antibiotics for at least a week.
How to remove phlegm?An important part of the treatment is the excretion of phlegm from the lungs. Accumulation of sputum in the lungs promotes the multiplication of bacteria and aggravation of the course of the disease. Now, in the treatment of pneumonia, ambroxol is most commonly prescribed. This drug dilutes sputum without increasing its volume, activates bronchial peristalsis, which contributes to rapid excretion of sputum from the bronchi, stimulates the production of surfactant - a substance that prevents the gluing of the walls of the alveoli. Due to these properties, this drug can replace most mucolytics and antitussives. It can be used by inhalation or in the form of tablets and syrups.
A good effect in pneumonia is given by warming up and physiotherapy methods of treatment. They can be prescribed after lowering body temperature. At home, you can put banks and mustard plasters, carrying out these procedures in turn. Then go to the procedures conducted in the clinic. With pneumonia, UHF, electrophoresis with drugs, magnetotherapy, etc. are prescribed. In the recovery period, you can go through paraffin therapy and mud therapy. Exercise of respiratory exercises begins immediately after bringing the body temperature back to normal.
Folk methods of treatment of pneumonia
Reception of antibiotics can be combined with the use of such drugs:
- 1 tbsp. a spoonful of St. John's wort and 3 tbsp. spoons of elecampane pour, l. boiling water. Broth boil on low heat for 30-40 minutes. Melt 2 cups of lime honey in a water bath. Add 1 cup of vegetable oil to the liquid honey. Then decoction of St. John's wort and elecampane strain and add to it the mixture of honey and butter obtained. Infuse the medicine in the refrigerator for 2 weeks in a glass container, then take 5 times a day for 1 hour. spoon. The course of treatment is 2 weeks.
- 250 g. of aloe leaves finely chopped, mixed with, l. Cahors and 350 g. liquid honey. Infuse for 2 weeks, strain and take 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day.
Rehabilitation of the patient
After treatment of pneumonia, it is recommended to eat a small piece of propolis daily, and also to inflate balloons. This exercise is necessary to increase the volume of the lungs and restore their functions.
Tip 1: How to identify pneumonia
The respiratory system is very vulnerable to viruses and bacteria. Virtually any microorganism can cause a type of pneumonia. However, there are common signs that allow suspected pneumonia.
- Try to take a deep breath. When pneumonia attempts to collect a lot of air into the lungs leads to a fit of coughing. In general, coughing, often with wheezing and copious sputum discharge, becomes the main symptom of the disease. In this case, people feel pain or "inconvenience" in the chest.
- Remember how many days your "catarrhal disease" lasts. If it lasts for more than a week, there is a worsening of health immediately after its improvement, it is likely that your lungs are inflamed.
- Look at how strongly the pallor of the skin is expressed against the background of other symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection (temperature, headache, runny nose, cough). In children, the nasolabial triangle mostly turns white and even slightly blue.
- Pay attention to general weakness, decreased ability to work, quick fatigue, severe sweating, deterioration of appetite and sleep disturbance. These symptoms can be a sign of pneumonia.
- Measure the temperature. In case of inflammation of the lungs at a low body temperature, shortness of breath or confused breathing is observed even at rest. At high temperature (38-3, degrees), often such antipyretic agents as paracetamol, ibuprofen and the like do not help.