Poisoning: first and medical care

Poisonings are acute and chronic with a wide variety of chemical and toxic substances.

Here we will talk about the provision of first-aid first aid at home and emergency medical aid in a hospital hospital. Acute poisoning is a serious damage to the body, in a short time developing as a result of chemical or bacterial effects.

Long-term effects on the body of small doses of the damaging agent cause chronic poisoning, in which there may be acute periods and states of remission. Many therapeutic measures are common for all types of treatment of intoxication.

CONTENTS

Rules for the provision of first-aid and medical assistance

General measures in all cases of poisoningth are reduced to immediate removal and neutralization of the poison, which has got into an organism, its neutralization and liquidation of consequences of destructive action of a toxic substance.

Poisoning routes

Poison can enter the body in various ways: through the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, skin, mucous membranes, etc. The poisoning caused by the poison can be limited only by the place of the first contact of ( local action). When absorbed into the bloodstream, the venom exerts a general effect on the , is often manifested by the predominant lesion of individual organs.

Detection of poisoning is based, first of all, on the questioning of the patient, his relatives, neighbors, friends. Sometimes the victim hides the fact of poisoning( when attempting suicide) and then the study of secretions( vomit, feces, urine, rinsing water, etc.), and also the remnants of poison found near the victim acquires special significance.

Through the mouth

In adults and children, cases of food poisoning, poisoning with medicines and poisonous plants are common.

In case of taking a poison through the mouth it is necessary to rinse the stomach as quickly as possible on the scene( it is possible with the addition of adsorbents: tannin, egg protein, kefir, activated carbon).The amount of water used for gastric lavage should be sufficiently large( up to 10 liters).If you enter an ordinary probe for some reason it is impossible, then enter the child's probe through the nose. More often in the domestic environment, the patient is given a large amount of warm, slightly saline water( 2-3 liters), and then causes vomiting by irritating the root of the tongue with a finger or a spoon.

Any lavage of the stomach may be imperfect or delayed;in the latter case a part of the toxic substances can enter the intestine.

In this case, it is necessary to use internal antidotes or adsorbents that bind toxic substances. To protect the mucosa from irritating and cauterizing actions, enveloping agents are prescribed: protein water( three egg whites per liter of water), milk, jelly, jelly, starch or flour( water mixture).

The cause of most childhood poisoning are iron-containing drugs, vitamins and medications.

Poisoning in the child takes a special place, more about them can be found here: Poisoning in children: the first urgent help to the child, The child was poisoned by medicines: what to do and first aid.


The list of substances that can be poisoned through the digestive tract is very large. Especially relevant is the poisoning of poisonous mushrooms.

Half the cases of all poisoning occur in the following substances:

  1. soap, washing and bleaching agents and products for polishing furniture;
  2. vitamins;
  3. pesticides, insecticides and agents used to control weeds;
  4. cleaner for sewage and kitchen equipment;
  5. perfume, colognes, cosmetics;
  6. medications sold in pharmacies without a prescription;
  7. various acetones, varnishes, solvents.
  8. alcohol, cigarettes, mushrooms;
  9. substances related to the operation of the car;
  10. heavy metal salts containing lead, mercury and other toxic components.

In these publications you can read in detail about the provision of the first pre-medical and emergency medical care for poisoning children with alcohol, drugs and toxic substances, drug poisoning in adults. There is a separate page devoted to poisoning with alcohol, its surrogates and methyl alcohol.

By inhalation of

In case of poisoning through the respiratory tract , the sick person should be removed from the poisoned area and placed in a spacious, warm and well-ventilated room, free from uncomfortable and, sometimes, harmful gases, to provide the victim with sufficient oxygen and clean fresh air( fan, fan, open window).If necessary, external cardiac massage and artificial respiration.

Poisoning through the respiratory tract is most often caused by ammonia, carbon monoxide, chlorine, household gas.

This page details what to do and how to provide first aid for carbon monoxide poisoning.

Through the skin

Through the skin, poisonings of occur mainly when bitten by poisonous animals. Here you can see the pages of this site on the bites of adults and children with various insects and animals:

  1. Bites on the body: what to do, first aid
  2. Dog bites: what to do
  3. Bites of poisonous snakes: first aid
  4. Bite of man by man: what?first aid

In all cases where there are data on the absorption of a poisonous substance, funds are prescribed that reduce and dilute its concentration: abundant drinking of alkaline and mineral waters, sweet warm tea, coffee. It is useful to warm the area of ​​the kidneys and the whole body with heaters, compresses, solux and various heaters.

The sequence of treatment measures is determined by the patient's condition and the nature of the poisoning. Help should be as quick as possible. In case of serious poisoning, as well as in case of doubt in the diagnosis, it is necessary to send the victim to the hospital after giving him first aid.

There is a large number of chemical agents.


First First Aid and Emergency Medical Assistance for Poisoning

In case of poisoning through the skin of

  1. , undress the victim and wash the skin contaminated with poison with the poison:
  2. call an ambulance, before her arrival observe the condition of the victim.

If penetrating the poison through the

  1. lungs, remove the victim from the area of ​​action of the poison agent;
  2. protect your own lungs( tie your mouth and nose with a handkerchief, try to inhale the poisoned air as little as possible);
  3. call an ambulance;
  4. , being outside the area of ​​influence of a poisonous substance, render the first medical aid to the victim.

When poisoning through the digestive tract

  1. stop the intake of poison in the body;
  2. for a minute, do not stop monitoring the breathing and heartbeat of the victim;
  3. call the ambulance;
  4. dilute the poison that enters the patient's body( large amounts of water or milk);
  5. cause vomiting( if poisoning is caused not by oily or corrosive substances and the patient is conscious);
  6. neutralize the poison;
  7. use adsorbents( activated charcoal, egg white, etc.).
  8. use one of the folk remedies used as antidotes: strong tea, a burnt bread crust, a suspension of magnesia.

Useful properties of medicinal plants for poisoning

The potato juice in ancient Tibetan and Indian medicine was considered and is considered one of the best antidotes for various poisonings.

powder of tubers of the narcissus is used as a coating agent for poisoning. Before consumption, the tubers are cleaned, threaded on a string and immersed in boiling water for a few seconds. Then they are dried in the shade and ground into powder.

A mixture of milk with egg whites of is given to victims of poisoning to maintain vomiting.

When is poisoned with hemlock, belliger, bleached or digitalis , patients are given to drink vinegar with water in large quantities. If you do not have vinegar on hand, give the patient a glass of juice of sorrel, cranberries or currants. You can also use juices, cucumber, beetroot, brine( cabbage or cucumber) or very acid kvass.

If the liver is damaged as a result of poisoning, then the deciduous root decay ( 20 g per 300 ml of water) has a good effect. Take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day before meals.

To cause vomiting in poisoning, you can use powder from the roots of claw of European ( 0.5 g each).

With long continued vomiting, drink vodka with salt ( a glass of vodka - 1 tablespoon of salt).Drink 2 tablespoons every 15 minutes. The effect is enhanced if the alternation of taking vodka with salt with the intake of orange juice. Instead of orange juice you can enjoy its fruits.

For any poisoning through the gastrointestinal tract, a good result is the ingestion of olive oil ( olive oil) with water or warm milk( 1 tablespoon of oil per 200 ml of liquid).

dill ( in the form of powder, grass or ground seeds) has been used as an antidote in Russian folk medicine since ancient times. Grass or powder from her take 1 tablespoon, powdered seed powder - for ½ teaspoon every 15 minutes, three times.

An antidote for various poisonings has always been valerian root ( 1 teaspoon ground root for 500 ml water, boil for 5 minutes, strain, take 100 ml every hour) or anise extract ( depending on the degree of poisoning, take from6 to 15 anise fruits per 400 ml of water, boil for 12-15 minutes Drink 100 ml and try to induce vomiting. After cleaning the stomach drink another 100 ml of decoction).

To remove intoxication and radiation damage:

Cranberry - binds and removes radionuclides and heavy metals from the body.

Raspberry - prevents side effects of sulfonamides. Antitoxic agent.

Grape juice - detoxifies toxins in the intestines.

Fresh cabbage juice delays the absorption of toxins in the intestines and removes radionuclides from the body.

Beetroot prevents oncological diseases, accelerates the removal of toxins.

Walnut ( fruit, infusion or tea from leaves) has antitoxic and fortifying properties.

The mug is big. Decoction of roots is used to remove mercury salts from the body( 1 tablespoon - 3-4 times a day).

Dandelion officinalis. Decoction of roots and herbs is an antitoxic.

Infusion of inflorescence clover meadow is an antitoxic agent.

Schisandra Chinese - increases the body's resistance to lack of oxygen.

Ginseng is an antitoxic, anti-radiation, fortifying agent.

Zamaniha high and lefzevaja sophloreal - increase resistance of an organism. Possess antitoxic properties.

Rhodiola rosea ( golden root) is an antitoxic and antiradiation agent.

Scummy. A good remedy for poisoning with alkaloids and heavy metal salts.

Ashberry ordinary - rowan fruits have anti-radial properties.

Black currant - fruits bind and remove salts of mercury, tin, cobalt, lead. It has anti-radiation properties.

Nettles is used as an antitoxic agent.

The medicinal hermit. is taken after irradiation as an anti-radiation agent. Common lingonberry

. It is used to combat dysbacteriosis, smooths out the negative effects of drugs( especially antibiotics and sulfonamides).

The Aralia of Manchu. Preparations from aralia recommended for poisoning with chlorine, chlorophos, nitrates.

Cornflower blue. Antitoxic agent( one fourth of a glass of infusion of flowers 3 times daily before meals).

Alder. Broth of alder cones is used in folk medicine for dysbacteriosis( especially after taking antibiotics and sulfonamides).

Plantain large. Plantain preparations are used as antitoxic and antiradiation agents.

Sweet cherry. Promotes elimination of heavy metal salts from the body.

Coffee. Used for poisoning with sleeping pills and drugs.

Horsetail of the field. Horsetail preparations are used for lead poisoning.

Green tea. Discharges strontium-90 from the body.

Garlic. Tincture of garlic removes salt from the body of lead.

. Source: NGNogov. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia.- Moscow: Izd-vo Eksmo, 2012.