Pneumonia

The first signs of pneumonia in children and adults

Pneumonia is a disease that has an infectious origin and is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue in the event of provoking physical or chemical factors such as:

  • Complications after viral diseases (influenza, ARVI), atypical bacteria (chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella)
  • Effects on the respiratory system of various chemical agents - poisonous fumes and gases (see. chlorine in household chemicals is hazardous to health)
  • Radioactive radiation, to which infection is attached
  • Allergic processes in the lungs - allergic cough, COPD, bronchial asthma
  • Thermal factors - hypothermia or burns of the respiratory tract
  • Inhalation of liquids, food or foreign bodies can cause aspiration pneumonia.

The cause of the development of pneumonia is the emergence of favorable conditions for the multiplication of various pathogenic bacteria in the lower respiratory tract. The original causative agent of pneumonia is the aspergillus mushroom, which was the culprit of the sudden and mysterious deaths of researchers of the Egyptian pyramids. Owners of domestic birds or lovers of urban pigeons can get chlamydial pneumonia.

For today, all pneumonia is divided into:

  • out-of-hospital, arising under the influence of various infectious and non-infectious agents outside the walls of hospitals
  • hospital, which cause hospital-acquired microbes, often very resistant to traditional antibiotic treatment.

The frequency of detection of various infectious agents in community-acquired pneumonia is presented in the table.

Causative agent Average% detection
Streptococcus is the most frequent pathogen. Pneumonia caused by this pathogen is the leader in the frequency of death from pneumonia. 3, %
Mycoplasma - affects most children, young people. 1, %
Chlamydia - chlamydial pneumonia is typical for people of young and middle age. 1, %
Legionellae - a rare pathogen, affects weakened people and is the leader after streptococcus by frequency of deaths (infection in rooms with artificial ventilation - shopping centers, airports) , %
Hemophilus rod - causes pneumonia in patients with chronic bronchial and lung diseases, as well as in smokers. , %
Enterobacteria are rare pathogens, affecting mainly patients with renal / hepatic, cardiac insufficiency, diabetes mellitus. , %
Staphylococcus is a frequent pathogen of pneumonia in the elderly population, and complications in patients after the flu. , %
Other pathogens , %
The causative agent is not installed 3, %

When the diagnosis is confirmed, depending on the type of pathogen, the patient's age, the presence of concomitant diseases, a corresponding therapy, in severe cases, treatment should be performed in a hospital setting, with mild forms of inflammation, hospitalization of the patient is not is required.

Characteristic first signs of pneumonia, the vastness of the inflammatory process, acute development and danger of serious complications in untimely treatment - are the main reasons for the urgent circulation of the population for medical help. At present, a sufficiently high level of medical development, improved diagnostic methods, and a huge the list of antibacterials of a wide spectrum of action has considerably lowered a death rate from an inflammation of lungs (cm. antibiotics for bronchitis).

Typical first signs of pneumonia in adults

The main symptom of the development of pneumonia is a cough, usually it is first dry, obtrusive and persistent. protivokashlevye, expectorants with a dry cough), but in rare cases cough at the beginning of the disease can be rare and not strong. Then, as the inflammation develops, the cough becomes pneumatic with pneumonia, with a discharge of mucopurulent sputum (yellow-green color).

Any catarrhal virus disease should not last more than 7 days, and a sharp deterioration of the condition later 4-7 days after the onset of an acute respiratory viral infection or influenza indicates the onset of an inflammatory process in the lower respiratory ways.

Body temperature can be very high up to 39-40C, and can remain subfebrile 3, -3, C (with atypical pneumonia). Therefore, even with a low body temperature, coughing, weakness and other signs of malaise, you should definitely consult a doctor. Caution should be a repeated temperature jump after a light gap during the course of a viral infection.

If the patient has a very high temperature, one of the signs of inflammation in the lungs is the inefficiency of antipyretic drugs.

Pain with deep breath and cough. The lung itself does not hurt, as it is devoid of pain receptors, but involvement in the pleura process gives a pronounced pain syndrome.

In addition to cold symptoms, the patient has dyspnea and pale skin.
General weakness, increased sweating, chills, decreased appetite are also characteristic for intoxication and the onset of the inflammatory process in the lungs.


If such symptoms appear either in the midst of a cold, or a few days after the improvement, these may be the first signs of pneumonia. The patient should immediately consult a doctor to undergo a complete examination:

  • To pass blood tests - general and biochemical
  • To make a roentgenography of a thorax, if necessary and a computer tomography
  • Sputum for culture and sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics
  • Sputum for culture and microscopic determination of mycobacterium tuberculosis

The main first signs of pneumonia in children

Symptoms of pneumonia in children have several characteristics. Attentive parents may suspect the development of pneumonia with the following discomforts in the child:

  • Temperature

Body temperature above 38C, lasting for more than three days, not knocked down by antipyretics, there may also be a high temperature of up to 3, especially in young children. At the same time, all signs of intoxication are manifested - weakness, increased sweating, lack of appetite. Small children (as well as elderly people), can not give high temperature fluctuations with pneumonia. This is due to imperfect thermoregulation and immaturity of the immune system.

  • Breath

There is frequent shortness of breath: in children up to 2 months of age, 60 breaths per minute, up to 1 year, 50 breaths, after a year, 40 breaths per minute. Often the child spontaneously tries to lie down on one side. Parents may notice another sign of pneumonia in the child, if you undress the baby, then when breathing from the patient lung can be noticed the retraction of the skin in between the ribs and the lag in the process of breathing one side of the chest. There may be irregular breathing rhythm, with periodic stops of breathing, changes in the depth and frequency of breathing. In infants, shortness of breath is characterized by the fact that the child begins to nod his head in time with the breath, the baby can stretch his lips and inflate his cheeks, foamy discharge from the nose and mouth can appear.

  • Atypical pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs caused by mycoplasma and chlamydia differ in that first the disease passes like a cold, there is a dry cough, runny nose, swelling in the throat, but the presence of dyspnea and a stably high temperature should alert parents to the development pneumonia.

  • Character of cough

Because of the perspiration in the throat, only coughing can appear first, then the cough becomes dry and painful, which is amplified by crying, feeding the baby. Later, the cough becomes wet.

  • Behavior of the child

Children with pneumonia become capricious, whiny, sluggish, they are disturbed by sleep, sometimes can completely refuse to eat, and also to appear diarrhea and vomiting, in babies - regurgitation and rejection of breasts.

  • Blood test

In the general analysis of blood, changes are detected that indicate an acute inflammatory process - increased ESR, leukocytosis, neutrophilia. Shift of the leukoformula to the left with increasing stab and segmented leukocytes. In viral pneumonia, along with high ESR, there is an increase in leukocytes due to lymphocytes.

With timely access to a doctor, adequate therapy and proper care for a sick child or adult, pneumonia does not lead to serious complications. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of pneumonia, the patient should be given medical care as soon as possible.

zdravotvet.ru

Lung inflammation: causes and at-risk groups

Inflammation of the lungs, otherwise called pneumonia, is a disease of one or both of the lungs, which can be caused by various pathogens.Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, mortality from pneumonia was extremely high - one-third died. Modern medicine is able to cope with the disease itself, if it is diagnosed in time, but can not affect its spread in any way. In the world millions of people get pneumonia every year, 5% of them are deadly.

Signs and symptoms of pneumonia can range from moderate to severe, depending on factors such as the type of germ that causes the infection, age and general health. Moderate symptoms and signs are often similar to a cold or flu, but lasts longer.

The main symptoms and signs of pneumonia are:

  • Fever, which is manifested by excessive sweating and chills.
  • Cough, which causes sputum.
  • Pain in the chest with breathing and coughing.
  • Dyspnea.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

In infants and infants, the symptoms of infection may not appear. Sometimes they may have vomiting, fever and coughing, restlessness and fatigue, lack of joy and energy, shortness of breath, which also hinders the consumption of food.

Important

If the patient is over 65 years old or suffers from poor health and immune system, then their temperature may be below normal. Elderly people who are already diagnosed with pneumonia may experience a sudden loss of memory.

A visit to the doctor is necessary when the temperature rises to febrile temperature, an impassable cough, especially with a purulent expectoration. With a disease such as pneumonia, the causes of the occurrence significantly affect the age categories. Read also "The temperature without symptoms of a cold in an adult".

There are several groups of risk, which shows an address to a doctor at the first sign of pneumonia:

  1. Children under 2 years oldwith the initial signs of the disease.
  2. Adults over 65 years of age.
  3. People with weakened immune system. People who have HIV / AIDS, who has had organ transplants, who take steroids in the long term are in danger.
  4. People undergoing chemotherapyor a treatment that suppresses the immune system.
  5. For some elderly people and people with heart failureor chronic lung problems, pneumonia can quickly become life-threatening disease.
  6. Chronic illness. It is most likely to get pneumonia if the patient already has asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart disease.
  7. Smoking. Smoking damages your immune system and the body is harder to fight bacteria, it provokes pneumonia.
  8. Hospitalization.

Most often, pneumonia is provoked by bacteria.

A special place is occupied by viruses and in rare cases, fungal infection.

Microbes that cause infection usually get through air vapors.

In rare cases, pneumonia can develop from an infection that has penetrated the body in a different way, for example, when bacteria enter the lungs through the circulatory system.

The most common cause of inflammation is mild in adults - a streptococcus.

This form of the disease is called pneumococcal pneumonia.

In more rare cases, the causes of pneumonia are other types of bacteria:

  • Haemophilus influenzae.
  • Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia - an outbreak tends to occur every 4-7 years, common among children and adolescents.

Atypical pneumonia, occurring less frequently, is caused by chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella.

Viral pneumonia has recently become more common, accounting for 50% of all cases.

In addition to viruses and bacteria, the development of pneumonia can be facilitated by other factors that cause specific forms of the disease:

  • toxic pneumonia;
  • drug pneumonia;
  • fungal pneumonia;
  • parasitic pneumonia.

The more rare causes of bacterial pneumonia are:

  • Chlamydial psittacosis, or parrot disease, causes a rare form of pneumonia called ornithosis, which can be transferred to people from infected birds such as parrots, long-tailed parrots, pigeons, canaries and wavy parrots.

    This pneumonia is also called "parrot fever" or "parrot disease".

  • Legionellosis pneumonia, or legionellosis, Pittsburgh pneumonia, legionnaires' disease.

    This is a rather unusual form of pneumonia, caused by Legionella - a kind of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

The most common causes of pneumonia are viral and bacterial infections. The causative agents of bacterial pneumonia may include:

  • Pneumococcus;
  • staphylococcus aureus;
  • Haemophilus influenzae.

Often, inflammation of the lungs occurs against the background of flu and cold, and it is explained by the fact that the immunity weakened by the disease creates comfortable conditions for penetration into the lungs and active propagation of pathogens that previously could not overcome the protective barrier organism.

In a special group of risk are people whose immunity suffered or did not have time to get strong enough:

  • children under two years of age;
  • aged people;
  • patients with immunodeficiency;
  • oncological diseases;
  • people who underwent surgery, general anesthesia and artificial ventilation.

As you noticed, the causes of the disease can be different, and, therefore, there is no universal treatment for all cases. A thorough examination is necessary, which will accurately determine the pathogen. Only then the doctor will be able to draw up a scheme of adequate treatment that will avoid harmful consequences.

The inflammatory process in such an important organ as the lung is dangerous for its complications, which without proper treatment can lead to a fatal outcome:

  • pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura);
  • destruction of lung tissue;
  • pneumothorax (rupture of the pleura with the subsequent ingress of air into the pleural cavity);
  • pulmonary edema;
  • abscess of the lung (filling of its parts with pus).

The risk of these complications is very high, so self-medication can not be dealt with categorically. At the first symptoms of pneumonia it is important to consult a doctor, because it is developing rapidly.

Most often they are similar to cold and flu symptoms:38-39,5 degrees Celsius, cough, shortness of breath, general weakness, severe fatigue, headache, chest pain, especially when trying to take a deep breath. But unlike the flu, with pneumonia on day 3-4 of the disease, the symptoms do not go down, but only intensify, sputum with blood veins may appear. This is a fairly clear signal for action, when it's time to take tests and carefully examine the doctor.

Increasingly, there are cases of pneumonia without symptoms, when the background of the inflammatory process does not even increase the temperature.Cough is also not the most revealing symptom - it may not be, if the focus of inflammation is away from the main airways.

Is pneumonia transmitted by airborne droplets?

Many microorganisms can cause pneumonia. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air. The human body usually prevents these microbes from infecting the lungs, but sometimes microorganisms overpower the immune system, even under conditions of excellent health.

Treatment of pneumonia at home is not the best solution.The disease is treacherous and better round the clock surveillance by health professionals, because the baby's condition can suddenly deteriorate. To prevent this from happening, the child is pierced with antibiotics, physiotherapy, and physical education. After recovery, the child must be registered in the clinic, where for a year for his condition, doctors are observed. If the disease does not go completely and comes back, the child is diagnosed with Chronic pneumonia.

The causes of pneumonia are classified according to the types of microbes that cause it, and places where you can get infected.

  • Acquired outside the hospital pneumonia

    Acquired pneumonia outside the hospital is the most common type of pneumonia, caused by:

    • Bacteria, bacteria-like organisms and viruses. Mycoplasma causes a more moderate manifestation of pneumonia, in contrast to other types of pathogens. Walking pneumonia is a term used to describe inflammation of the lungs that does not require adherence to bed rest. Mycoplasmal pneumonia is just that type.
    • Fungal infection. This type of pneumonia is the most common manifestation among people with chronic health problems or a weakened immune system. And also in people who inhaled a large amount of fungal bacteria by airborne injection.
  • Acquired in hospital pneumonia

    Some people get pneumonia during their stay in the hospital and treat another disease. This type of pneumonia can be severe, because the bacteria that cause it can be more resistant to antibiotics. People who are on artificial oxygen supply, often used in intensive care units, are at a higher risk of getting sick.

  • Acquired in medical institutions of pneumonia

    In this case, bacterial infection occurs in people who live in long-term social protection institutions or have been treated in outpatient clinics, including renal dialysis centers. This type of pneumonia can also be caused by a bacterial infection that is more resistant to antibiotics.

  • Pneumonia of desire

    Pneumonia of aspiration appears when the patient inhales food, drink, vomiting or saliva into the lungs. Aspiration is more likely if something breaks the passage of these substances into the lungs, for example brain trauma or problems with the pharynx, as well as the abuse of alcohol or drugs.

Lung inflammation develops as a complication from another disease, or occurs independently. In infants, pneumonia is a complication of the flu or cold. They affect the increase in the number of microbes, and they provoke pneumonia. The incubation period of pneumonia is a week. At this time, inflammation occurs in the lungs, and the disease does not remind itself of itself.

Inflammation in a child will have the following symptoms: pallor, fever, heavy breathing. With such symptoms, the child will recover within two weeks.

  • This form of pneumonia is more easily tolerated by children who have good physical development, and timely treatment has been started.
  • If everything is left to its own devices, then pneumonia can take the form of medium gravity and heavy.
  • Symptoms of mild-to-severe pulmonary inflammation: severe blanching, frequent coughing, increased breathing, high fever (38 C), and general weakness of the body.

This development of the disease is treated within a month. But if the inflammation is noticed on time and timely measures are taken, the treatment period will be reduced to 20-25 days.If time is lost and treatment is not performed, then the inflammation of the lungs flows into a severe form. This poses a threat to the life of the child and the recovery of the baby will be extremely long.

  • Symptoms of severe inflammation: a strong temperature (40 C), pronounced blueness in the area of ​​the lips, nose and nails, severe shallow breathing.
  • With this form of the disease, oxygen starvation begins, the vital processes of the organism are disrupted.
  • Perhaps the beginning of other inflammatory processes.

Depending on the course of the disease and the attendant factors, treatment can be both outpatient and requiring hospitalization. After determining the cause and type of pneumonia, antibiotics are selected that can kill the pathogen.

More commonly prescribed antibiotics of a broad spectrum of action, but in some cases specific drugs are required, because bacteria have learned to adapt to new conditions and often show resistance to those antibiotics that used to be successful with them fought.

In the case of viral origin of pneumonia, some antibiotics may be powerless, they are combined with antiviral drugs.

Attention

Folk remedies like inhalations, mustard plasters and other things can only be used in conjunction with traditional medicines and only in consultation with the attending physician. They are not able to cope with the serious inflammatory process independently, and they can even aggravate the situation.

When the disease is diagnosed and treatment is prescribed, it is important to make every effort to help the body cope with the infection.

To do this, it is enough to follow the simple rules known to everyone:

  • bed rest for the entire duration of the illness;
  • compliance with the diet (nothing fatty, roast, spicy, difficult to digest, minimum salt);
  • categorical refusal to smoke for the entire duration of the illness;
  • abundant drinking;
  • Respiratory gymnastics (if it is not contraindicated by the doctor).

Postponed pneumonia does not give stable immunity, so repeated infection with the same type of disease is likely. Vaccines have been developed against certain types of pneumonia, and some of them are suitable for children from the age of two who are at risk. You can ask them from your therapist.

During periods of exacerbation of respiratory diseases or in contact with a sick pneumonia, you should often wash your hands with soap.Restorative effect will have a healthy lifestyle, quitting smoking, a proper diet and moderate physical activity.

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gajmorit.com

All about pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs is an infectious disease of the pulmonary parenchyma, mainly of bacterial origin. Lesion of the lungs is accompanied by fever, dyspnea and changes in the radiograph.

Classification

Pneumonia is divided as follows:

  • Typical, developing against a background of high temperature and intoxication;
  • Atypical, in which changes in the lungs are not always accompanied by the usual clinical symptoms.

Depending on the morphological form:

  • Focal;
  • Focal and drain;
  • Segmented;
  • Croupous;
  • Interstitial (this type of pneumonia some pulmonologists call into question).

In the lung tissue, the pathogen can get into the following ways:

  • bronchogenic (ingestion of infectious material from the upper parts);
  • hematogenous (with blood flow from other foci of infection);
  • by direct inhalation of an aerosol containing a large number of microbes or chemicals. There are also causes of infection, such as injuries or operations on the chest.

According to the infectious agent that caused the disease, pneumonia is divided into bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, chlamydial, mycoplasmal and mixed genesis.

Most often, out-of-hospital pneumonia is detected, this form occurs when infected at home. Often, the causes of inflammation - viral infections, they violate the natural ways of cleaning the respiratory tract from mucus, which easily penetrates into the lung tissue.

Hospital-acquired forms of the disease can occur if the patient has been in the hospital for more than 72 hours. The causes of inflammation are microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants.

Symptoms of the disease

There are 4 main signs on which you can suspect pneumonia, and it is for them you can suspect the development of this terrible disease:

  • Intoxication;
  • Cough;
  • Respiratory disorders;
  • Physical changes, they are determined by the doctor when examining the patient.

Signs of intoxication. This is a high temperature, exceeding 38 degrees, it lasts more than 3 days. The patient becomes sluggish, apathetic, the skin is pale, the appetite is weak, sleep is disturbed, dyspnoea and palpitations are observed, excessive sweating. The intoxication syndrome comes out in the elderly patients in the first place.

Cough

It is one of the main signs of pneumonia. At the beginning of the disease, cough may be absent or be dry, unproductive. When the infiltrate begins to resolve, the cough becomes wet, with a mucous or mucopurulent discharge. The absence of a cough may be indicative of another disease.

Breathing disorders:

  • dyspnea of ​​a mixed character, with no signs of constriction of the bronchi.
  • Increased respiration;
  • Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, in severe cases blueing touches large areas of the body. The change in color intensifies with physical activity.
  • Tachycardia;
  • Participation of auxiliary muscles in breathing (retraction of intercostal spaces, wings of the nose).

Inspection of the patient

When listening to the lungs appear small bubbling rales or crepitation (as if the snow is crunching). Chryps are identified over a restricted area of ​​the lung that is affected by the inflammatory process.


Breathing can be both hard and weak, as if coming from afar. When tapping the chest determine the foci of blunting.

Each of the signs, taken separately, can not speak in favor of the diagnosis of "pneumonia". The greatest value is represented by such symptoms as fever, rapid breathing, increased voice tremor, radiologic signs.

Atypical pneumonia

This diagnosis is made in cases where the following pathogens are detected: mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella or virus. Symptoms can be very diverse, ranging from typical signs of pneumonia, and ending with blurred forms. More often atypical inflammation is found in children and young people under 40 years old. The leading symptom is a persistent cough that occurs with or without fever.

Mycoplasmal pneumonia

Often begins development with rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis. The temperature can be either subfebrile or high. Later, a cough resembles that of pertussis, dyspnea. Typical extrapulmonary manifestations - pain in the muscles and joints, skin rashes. The general condition of the patient does not always suffer, there may be no inflammatory changes in the blood.

Bloody sputum is allocated, patients complain of pain in the chest. The diagnosis is confirmed on the X-ray, where light areas of lung tissue are found, and the pattern of the lung is increased. Often, mycoplasmal pneumonia occurs as a bilateral inflammation of the lungs.

Chlamydial pneumonia

Its signs resemble inflammation caused by mycoplasmas. The patient often finds rhinitis, hoarseness, bronchitis. Inflammation of the lungs can easily be confused with a viral infection. Symptoms from the side of the lungs appear gradually, pronounced pertussis cough, shortness of breath, an increase in temperature. On the x-ray, small inflammatory infiltrates are determined.

Legionellosis pneumonia

Many people know the disease as a "Legionnaires disease". The causes of pneumonia in this case - air conditioners installed in the premises. The patient becomes sluggish, apathetic, a runny nose and cough in the early days of the illness may not bother.

Sometimes the manifestation of the disease begins with diarrhea, and only then do other symptoms that indicate pneumonia.

All atypical forms of pneumonia require the identification of the cause of the disease - an infectious agent. A big role in diagnostics is given to bacteriological research and ELISA.

Possible complications

The consequences of pneumonia can be very serious, secrete pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications.

In extrapulmonary complications include such conditions as:

  • Infectious-toxic shock;
  • Heart failure;
  • DIC is a syndrome in which bleeding develops.

Pulmonary complications:

  • Abscess of the lung;
  • Pneumothorax;
  • Pleurisy.

Treatment of pneumonia

If the diagnosis is established or if it is suspected, antibacterial therapy is immediately prescribed. If there are doubts about the correctness of the diagnosis, the decision to prescribe antibiotics is taken on the basis of an X-ray and a blood test. It determines neutrophilia, an increase in white blood cells, high ESR, toxic granularity, a shift to the left

The choice of a remedy remains the prerogative of the doctor. The following medicines are used:

  • Macrolides;
  • Cephalosporins;
  • Derivatives of penicillin;
  • Fluoroquinolones.

To cure pneumonia, antibiotics should be used for a long time, at least 7-10 days, sometimes a combination of medicines is required. Rehabilitation includes complex measures aimed at all resorption of inflammatory exudates.

When coughing, medicines are prescribed that have an expectorant and diluting effect. To cure a viral infection, antiviral drugs are prescribed. In the fungal nature of the disease, Fluconazole can be administered intravenously.

Rehabilitation for pneumonia is based on detoxification therapy. Patients are assigned a sufficient volume of fluid through the mouth. Infusion therapy is performed according to indications, it helps to cure dehydration of the body, falling blood pressure, bleeding, violation of microcirculation.

Preventive measures

First you should stop smoking. Prevention of pneumonia is reduced to increasing nonspecific defense of the body and preventing viral infections. Great influence on the immune system has hardening. Rehabilitation for pneumonia is also a breathing exercise, but before performing them, you should consult your doctor. As a preventive measure of pneumonia, a diet with a high content of proteins and vitamins is prescribed.

Nutrition patients

There is no special diet for pneumonia. Patients are assigned light food, which contains a sufficient amount of vitamin A, B and C, as well as proteins and carbohydrates. The amount of salt in the diet is reduced, it is recommended to drink more liquid - juices, fruit drinks, tea, broth of wild rose.

Lean meat, dairy products, fresh and stewed vegetables, fruits, cereals and bread are shown. The diet should be followed and after the improvement of the patient's condition, the composition of the products is about the same. It is recommended to include sour-milk products, since massive antibacterial therapy damages the intestinal microflora.

When the patient went on the mend, the diet is gradually expanding due to meat products and fats.

ingalin.ru

Inflammation: symptoms in adults and children

Among the most dangerous diseases of the respiratory system in the first place is pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs occurs in people regardless of age and can cause serious disruption to the body and even death.

Pneumonia is classified according to a number of signs:

  • According to the etiological sign, the disease occurs:
    • virus;
    • bacterial;
    • mycoplasmal;
    • fungal;
    • mixed.
  • According to clinical and morphological manifestations, the disease can be:
    • croupous;
    • focal;
    • interstitial;
    • parenchymal;
    • mixed.
  • In the course of the disease, pneumonia is distinguished as:
    • sharp;
    • acute prolonged;
    • atypical;
    • chronic.
  • In the spread of the inflammatory process, pneumonia happens:
    • one-sided;
    • two-sided;
    • focal;
    • total;
    • share;
    • sub-division;
    • basal;
    • draining.

Inflammation of the lungs in adults occurs by infection of the alveoli and bronchial epithelium.

The development of the disease occurs within 2 - 3 days, after which there are symptoms on which it is possible to diagnose pneumonia.

The disease often occurs against the background of a weakening of the defenses of the body.

This can contribute to the following factors: hormonal changes in the body, frequent colds, malnutrition, constant intoxication.

Symptoms of pneumonia in adults are almost always similar to the appearance of a cold or flu.

If the high body temperature lasts more than 5 days and does not decrease with the use of paracetamol, you can suspect the presence of pneumonia.

The main manifestations of pneumonia are:

  • increased body temperature;
  • cough, at first the disease is dry, with development - with abundant phlegm;
  • dyspnea;
  • increased fatigue, weakness;
  • fear caused by lack of air;
  • pain in the chest.

Depending on the type of pathogen, the symptoms of pneumonia are acute or occasionally. It is very important to determine the presence of a serious disease on time, and begin treatment. It is not always the usual examination of a doctor can reveal pneumonia. To clarify the diagnosis, you need an additional examination in a medical facility.

It is especially difficult to determine the latent or chronic form of pneumonia. And yet an experienced doctor can diagnose it according to the following symptoms:

  • the appearance of a patchy blush on the cheeks;
  • sweat on the forehead with a slight load;
  • constant thirst;
  • the occurrence of pain in the chest when turning the body;
  • painful sensations with deep breath;
  • uneven, intermittent breathing;
  • frequent pulse.

Inflammation of the lungs in adults and children varies in risk factors. The disease develops for the following reasons:

  • In adults:
    • weakened immune system;
    • smoking;
    • alcohol abuse;
    • diseases of the bronchopulmonary system;
    • frequent colds;
    • poor-quality food;
    • general anesthesia during surgical interventions;
    • endocrine diseases;
    • heart failure;
    • old age;
    • forced prolonged immobility.
  • Children:
    • supercooling or overheating;
    • frequent acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis and other diseases of the respiratory system;
    • birth trauma;
    • Congenital heart defect;
    • hereditary immunodeficiency;
    • hypovitaminosis;
    • hypertrophy;
    • chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx.

In children and adults, the symptoms of pneumonia also have differences. In a child, they are usually the least pronounced.

  • If for an adult a high body temperature is a frequent symptom, then in children, pneumonia is not necessarily accompanied by fever. Sometimes children endure this disease, as they say, "on their feet."
  • With the development of pneumonia caused by streptococcal infection, children do not develop fibrin in the cavities of the alveoli. Thanks to this, after recovery, breathing is fully restored.
  • Symptoms of pneumonia in children are often similar to those that appear at the initial stage of bronchitis: dry cough, hoarseness.
  • A loose stool, a lack of appetite, a frequent cough, a blue around the mouth against a catarrhal disease or inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx - a good reason for examining the child for pneumonia.
  • Cough is the main symptom of the disease in both children and adults.

What are the symptoms of pneumonia in adults: symptoms of croupous inflammation

Pathogens - streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, Klebsiella. The inflammatory process occurs both in the whole lobe of the lung, so in its segments. The onset of the disease is acute: high fever, chills.

The development of the disease occurs in four stages.

  1. Stage of the tide. There is a sharp hyperemia of the lung tissue and the patency of the capillaries in the affected areas is impaired.
  2. Stage of red curing. The number of leukocytes in the alveoli increases. The affected lung becomes denser.
  3. The stage of gray curing. In the lumens of the alveoli, a large amount of fibrin accumulates, which complicates the process of gas exchange in the lungs.
  4. The resolution stage. Degraded infiltrate in the alveoli.

Symptoms of croupous pneumonia:

  • increase in body temperature up to 40 Celsius;
  • dyspnea;
  • cough;
  • confusion of consciousness;
  • weakness;
  • Rusty sputum;
  • pain in the chest.

Symptoms of viral pneumonia in adults

It develops against the background of viral infectious diseases. Pathogens - influenza viruses, parainfluenza, measles, chicken pox, adenovirus. Symptoms are similar to the manifestation of colds:

  • high body temperature;
  • severe headache;
  • shortness of breath;
  • pain in the chest;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • pain in the muscles;
  • coryza.

Possible bloody discharge or pus in sputum.

Symptoms of radical inflammation of the lungs in adults

Pathogens - staphylococcus, pneumococcus, hemophilic rod. The peculiarity of the ailment lies in the fact that it is difficult to diagnose. The disease has 2 forms: tumorous - proceeds imperceptibly and slowly; inflammatory - manifests itself quickly.

The main symptoms are:

  • coughing;
  • sore throat;
  • increased body temperature;
  • an increase in leukocytes in the blood.

For the diagnosis of this type of pneumonia, an X-ray scan is required.

Symptoms of Chlamydial Inflammation of the Lung in Adults

The causative agent is chlamydia. Most often affect the genitourinary system of the body of men and women. Chlamydia pneumonia is atypical and occurs mainly in children. In adults, it can develop against a background of reduced immunity. It is similar in appearance to an ordinary cold.

The main symptoms are:

  • the temperature rises to 3, - 38 Celsius;
  • a sharp sharp cough;
  • strong weakness;
  • a hoarse voice;
  • can develop into bronchitis.

Symptoms of fungal inflammation of the lungs in adults

The disease was provoked by fungal infections: candidomycosis, blastomycosis, streptotrichosis, actinomycosis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis. The most dangerous pneumonia, as it is very difficult to diagnose. The patient may not even suspect the presence of fungal inflammation of the lungs. Fungi damage the lung tissue, forming cavities in it.

The main symptoms are:

  • cough;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • dyspnea;
  • presence of pus in sputum;
  • muscle pain.

What are the symptoms of pneumonia in older adults?

  • there is no acute onset of the disease;
  • the temperature is raised slightly;
  • drowsiness, weakness, apathy;
  • significant shortness of breath;
  • tachycardia;
  • a blush on one cheek;
  • painful sensations in the chest during breathing.

The development of pneumonia in this category of persons can be accompanied by concomitant diseases:

  • emphysema of the lungs;
  • pneumosclerosis;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Especially dangerous is the development of pneumonia in acute vascular insufficiency. In this case, emergency care is needed, since there is a possibility of septic shock and pulmonary edema.

Inflammation of the lungs in people with alcohol dependence

People who are prone to excessive drinking alcoholic inflammation is particularly difficult.This is due to strong intoxication of the body. Possible manifestation of various psychoses:

  • visual and auditory hallucinations;
  • disorientation in space and time;
  • excessive overexcitation;
  • inadequate behavior.

Chronic form of pneumonia occurs if the disease is treated in an untimely and inappropriate manner. It is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • a cough with purulent discharge;
  • deformation of the chest;
  • hard breathing;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • inflammation of the nasopharynx and mouth;
  • changes in blood composition;
  • tachycardia;
  • decreased immunity;
  • intoxication of the body.

Treatment of pneumonia in adults

In most cases of pneumonia, the doctor diagnoses on the basis of the clinical picture of the patient's illness and the X-ray.

In some cases, we can talk about the etiology of the disease before carrying out the relevant bacteriological studies.

Depending on what kind of pneumonia, symptoms and treatment in adults differ.

The main component of the treatment are drugs aimed at fighting the pathogen. The remaining drugs are aimed at removing the symptoms of pneumonia.

If not severe pneumonia in adults, in-patient treatment is provided. It consists of the following measures:

  • taking medications that dilate the bronchi for sputum discharge;
  • reception of antibiotics, antiviral drugs for fighting the pathogen of pneumonia;
  • the passage of a course of physiotherapy;
  • performance of exercise therapy;
  • compliance with diet, abundant drink.

In severe cases, the patient is shown hospitalization.

Medication for inflammation of the lungs in adults includes the following drugs to kill infection and relieve symptoms:

  • For the treatment of infection:
    • penicillins: amoxiclav, ampicilli, xacilli, arbenicillin;
    • aminoglycosides: gentamycin, kanamycin;
    • Lincosamides: clindamycin, lincomycin;
    • macrolides: sumamed, clarithromycin;
    • carbapenems: thienes, meronem.
  • Symptoms:
    • corticosteroids - to relieve inflammation;
    • mucolytics - for sputum expectoration;
    • antipyretics - to reduce temperature;
    • bronchodilators (list of drugs) - for cough and breathing;
    • antihistamines - to relieve allergies;
    • drugs that remove intoxication;
    • vitamins - to strengthen the body and improve immunity.
  • Concomitant treatment of pneumonia in adults includes the following procedures:
    • UHF;
    • inhalation;
    • UFO;
    • electrophoresis;
    • paraffin therapy;
    • pneumomassage.

Known in Russia, Dr. Komarovsky believes that along with antibiotics and cough tablets, physiotherapy procedures for the treatment of pneumonia are no less important. During the exacerbation, the patient needs to take medication and adhere to bed rest.And after the state of health improves, the result of treatment should be fixed by various auxiliary procedures.

For the treatment of pneumonia, folk remedies are widely used. Healing plants, fruits and roots are recommended for making beverages, inhalations, compresses. Many recipes of traditional medicine can be found on forums in the topics of discussion of the treatment of pneumonia.

Emergency care for pneumonia in adults includes the following activities:

  • oxygen therapy - with severe respiratory failure;
  • injections of non-narcotic analgesics - with severe pleural pain;
  • anti-shock therapy - with toxic shock;
  • psychotropic drugs - in case of mental disorders in people with alcohol dependence;
  • detoxication therapy - with severe intoxication.

Inadequate treatment of pneumonia can cause the following complications:

  • destruction of lung tissue;
  • pleurisy;
  • obstruction of the bronchial tree;
  • acute heart failure;
  • the spread of infection through the bloodstream (sepsis);
  • meningitis;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • septic shock.

Prevention of pneumonia in adults:

  • strengthening immunity;
  • hardening of the body;
  • timely treatment of colds;
  • timely treatment of caries;
  • to give up smoking;
  • frequent wet cleaning and airing of the room;
  • avoidance of hypothermia.
.

gajmorit.com

All symptoms of pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs or, as it is also called, pneumonia is a disease of an infectious nature, it occurs in both adults and young children. Its pathogens can be various bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi and so on.

Pneumonia can develop as a complication of some illness of the upper respiratory tract, as a result of hypothermia, trauma and so on. As a rule, the symptoms of the disease appear immediately, from the first days of the illness.

Common signs of pneumonia

Usually it is not difficult for doctors to recognize pneumonia, because its symptoms are very clear. The patient has a temperature increase sometimes to significant digits - 39-40 degrees. Simultaneously with this sign, there is a pronounced chill and sweating. Also the first symptoms of this terrible disease include the phenomena of general intoxication. Patients complain of severe headaches, vomiting, nausea, lethargy and loss of appetite.

On examination, you can see that the patient's face is hyperemic, and the blush may be more pronounced on the side where the affected lung is. Very often on the lips appear herpes rashes in the form of vesicles. On the background of dyspnea, which can be 30-40 respiratory movements per minute, cyanosis of the lips may occur. Also, signs of pneumonia include a slight decrease in blood pressure and tachycardia (up to 100 beats per minute).

Often, this lung disease is accompanied by conjunctivitis, that is, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes. And in some cases, the symptoms of this pathology include also icterism, that is, icteric staining of mucous membranes and skin. It is caused by the destruction of erythrocytes in that lobe of the lungs, where the pathological process is localized, liver dystrophy occurs, blood levels of bilirubin increase.

Often the first signs allowing the doctor to suspect the patient of this disease is the occurrence of pain in the muscles and joints against the background of fever, which are often localized in the chest area and in the upper part stomach. It happens also against the background of a significant increase in temperature, confusion, hallucinations and delirium may occur, and psychosis may develop. All these symptoms should alert the doctor, because pneumonia is a very serious disease, fraught with the development of a number of complications. In order to establish an accurate diagnosis, fluorography, blood and sputum analysis, as well as examination of the function of external respiration.

Pulmonary signs of pneumonia

With such a lung disease as pneumonia, a number of specific symptoms arise, and along with a fever, a cough appears, at first it is dry and painful, and then it becomes wet. Sputum can be a rusty shade due to the fact that it contains an admixture of red blood cells. Sometimes blood sprouts may appear in the sputum, and at times it may be all stained with blood.

On the side where the inflammatory process is localized, there is pain, which is intensified during coughing and deep breathing. Often because of unpleasant feelings a person takes a compulsory position: lies on his side, on the side where inflammation in the lungs. Also, a doctor who knows how inflammation of the lungs manifests will necessarily pay attention to the lag of the affected side of the chest during breathing.

During an objective examination, along with an increase in temperature, percussion the doctor will detect a shortening of percussion sound over the zone of pneumonia. During auscultation, one can hear breathing with a bronchial tinge; in the lungs, small bubble wet crepitic wheezing occurs early. All these signs indicate that the patient needs to conduct a study such as fluorography, that is, to do an x-ray of the lungs. During the period of illness the patient is contagious, so it must be isolated from others, including children.

Focal pneumonia, which usually occurs in patients who have chronic bronchial or cardiovascular disease, the signs usually do not have very pronounced. There is a rise in temperature to 3, degrees, when a cough appears mucopurulent sputum, the patient can complain of pain in the chest. At auscultation, crepitating rales in the lungs are heard.

Features of pneumonia in old age

If this severe lung disease has occurred in the elderly, then it is not so easy to recognize it. The disease is manifested by a slight rise in temperature, pain in the chest area with deep breathing, lack of appetite and growing weakness.

Often, patients already in the first days of illness are so weak that they can not get out of bed. Upon examination, the doctor can detect other symptoms of the disease, such as severe shortness of breath, severe tachycardia, dry tongue and a bright blush on one of the cheeks. With auscultation you can hear wet rattles.

In elderly people with severe cardiovascular pathology, septic shock and pulmonary edema can develop. A harbinger of shock is a strong tachycardia. Then there is a sharp weakness, there may be a decrease in temperature, the skin becomes gray, there is a pronounced cyanosis, dyspnea increases, the pressure drops below the 90/60 mark.

A person develops acute heart failure and develops pulmonary edema, so he needs urgent treatment. Doctors, at the first suspicion of this dangerous disease should send the elderly person for examination, and if necessary - and hospitalize.

Features of pneumonia in childhood

Even small children may develop pneumonia, so their parents should closely monitor their health and recognize the symptoms of pneumonia in children at the proper time. The disease usually begins acutely: children are fevered up to 39 degrees, there is shortness of breath (if the child less than two months, the frequency of respiratory movements in it can reach up to 60), cyanosis in the nasolabial area triangle. Also, children have weakness, they become apathetic and refuse to eat. Diagnosing this disease in children is not so easy, but if it is not done in time serious complications can develop.

In older children, the disease usually occurs in the same way as in adults. In this case, children have fever, there is a cough with phlegm and pains in the chest. The behavior of children also changes: they can become capricious, sluggish, irritable.

Chronic pneumonia

The chronic form of this disease develops as a result of unresolved acute pneumonia. It can occur in both adults and children. During the exacerbation, sweating and general weakness are observed, the temperature rises. There is also a cough with mucopurulent sputum, and sometimes pain in the chest.

With a bronchoectatic form of the disease, the patient can have hemoptysis, changes in fingernails and phalanges of the fingers (like "watch glass" and "drum sticks"), loss of appetite and weight loss. Above the focus of inflammation at auscultation, small bubbles, and sometimes even medium bubbling rales, can be heard, and bronchoconstriction reveals the presence of bronchiectasis. This form of pneumonia in both children and adults often leads to complications, such as spontaneous pneumothorax, pleural empyema and amyloidosis of the kidneys.

Such a pathology as pneumonia requires compulsory treatment in a pulmonary physician. After all, this serious disease can lead to a number of serious, deadly complications.

ingalin.ru

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