- What diet is prescribed by
- The main recommendations of
- The products that improve liver function
- What is forbidden and allowed for eating with hepatosis
- Video on topic
In hepatosis, liver cells undergo pathological changes due to the accumulation of lipids( triglycerides) in them and to a lesser degreecholesterol. The disease provokes an inflammatory process in the hepatocytes( steatohepatitis) or the replacement of normal tissue by fibrotic( steatofibrosis).
To avoid complications and prevent further "obesity" of the gland, you must adhere to a diet. Medical nutrition also helps to remove lipids from the liver, that is, to reduce the severity of pathology.
What kind of diet is prescribed by
? Fat hepatosis can form against the background of alcohol abuse. In this case, acetaldehyde lowers the enzymatic activity of the gland, because of which the metabolism of fat is broken and, as a result, fatty liver infiltration. Non-alcoholic hepatosis develops due to obesity, hypoglycemia, type II diabetes, arterial hypertension, hepatitis of the viral etiology or taking some medications, and a sharp drop in weight.
When a diet is chosen by a doctor for liver hepatosis, all concomitant diseases are taken into account. If the disease has developed because of abdominal obesity, then the diet is also aimed at reducing weight. On an individual basis, a hypocaloric diet is developed in which the energy value of a daily diet depends on the stage of obesity, physical activity, age and sex of the patient.
According to the formula, the nutritionist calculates the required number of calories to support basic metabolism. The maximum patient can consume 1800 kcal per day, the minimum energy value of a daily diet is 1200-600 kcal( the patient is in the hospital).Rapid weight loss can be fraught with the development of steatohepatitis due to excessive intake of free fatty acids into the gland with relatively low lipolysis. Patients with obesity are prescribed a No8P diet.
With weight reduction, regression of fatty hepatosis is also noted. Patients with diabetes should remove simple carbohydrates from the menu, and reduce the use of complex. This will help improve the metabolism. If hepatosis is an alcoholic etiology, then vitamin therapy is added to the main therapy. It is prescribed the reception of nicotinic acid, vitamins B1, B6, B2, B12, C. They should be taken in usual therapeutic doses for 14 days.
If the patient does not have obesity, then the treatment table No5 is prescribed. The purpose of the diet is to reduce fat metabolism, normalize cholesterol and activate the intestines. Nutrition therapeutic involves the restriction of proteins to 100 grams, carbohydrates to 400 g and fats to 80 g. The energy value is approximately 3300 kcal.
The main recommendations of
The diet in the pathology of the liver involves the following rules:
- is an exception to the diet of animal fats and digestible carbohydrates. From all the recommended caloric intake( according to the age norm) 30% of fat should be taken away;
- removes saturated fats( pork fat, cow's butter, fatty meat) and increases the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids( fish, seafood, vegetable oil, dietary meat, nuts, olives);
- a day is allowed up to 300 mg of cholesterol, which means that offal, egg yolk, red caviar, dairy products, smoked products are removed from the menu;
- you can not eat fried foods or what's being prepared deep-fried;
- requires sufficient intake of vitamins and probiotically enriched products.
The work of the gland is adversely affected by purines, oxalic acid, nitrogen extractives, essential oils, cholesterol, oxidation products( excreted during frying), therefore, they are removed from the diet. The patient is not allowed to eat fat meat and fish, canned food, sausages, smoked products, beans, vegetables with oils( garlic, onion, radish, radish), spices, spices, vinegar, fatty milk or cream, cakes, cakes, buns.
One of the conditions of the diet is that only those dishes that are stewed, baked or cooked are used.
Meals should be frequent and regular, it is desirable that the gap between them is not more than 4 hours. Sharp weight loss harms the liver, so fasting, like overeating, is contraindicated. Alcohol and any alcohol-containing beverages should be excluded even in minimal quantities, as the products of its decomposition negatively influence the liver cells and provoke their dystrophy and degeneration.
It is necessary to limit the use of salt( maximum 10 grams), because it detains fluid in the body, and this affects the quality of bile( it is dense).The inability of bile to quickly and qualitatively break down nutrients to more simple leads to a disruption in metabolism, food retention in the intestine, and consequently, increased fermentation and putrefaction.
Products that improve liver function
Positive effect on the state of the gland is the use of foods with pectin, lipotropic substances, fiber. Therefore, the following components should be added to the diet:
- artichoke. It reduces the indicators of "bad" cholesterol and promotes bile secretion;
- greens, vegetables, fruits. The greatest benefit is in the pumpkin, as it unloads the gland and is quickly digested. From the pumpkin you can make juice, cereal, casseroles. Carrots, Bulgarian peppers, beets contain beta-carotene( a precursor of vitamin A).Cabbage stimulates the detoxification function of the gland. Rosehip, citrus, blackcurrant have antioxidants, which prevent oxidation and aging of cells;
- oats and buckwheat groats. It contains vitamins of group B and nicotinic acid. They are useful for the gland;
- dried fruits. In dried apricots contains the necessary magnesium and potassium;
- products with bifidobacteria( yoghurt, fermented baked milk, kefir, acidophilin) with low fat content. They contribute to the normalization of the intestinal microflora;
- cottage cheese. It is saturated with lipotropic substances;
- honey. Positively affects the liver tissue, activates bile secretion;
- linen, olive, sunflower oil and nuts. Rich in vitamin E and omega-3 acid, which protects the cell membrane from destruction;
- free liquid. It should be drunk from 1.5 liters per day. It removes toxins from the intestine. Contributes to detoxification and self-purification of the gland water with citrus fruit juice.
Lipotropic substances contribute to the synthesis of lecithin, which is necessary for the formation of lipoproteins, their synthesis is the most important way of utilization of fats from the liver. If the concentration in the blood of lipotropic substances is insufficient, the biosynthesis of lipoproteins slows down, and this leads to the accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the gland.
Lipotropic substances include methionine, vitamin B12, folic acid, lipoic acid, calcium pangamate. Contains these substances in beef, chicken eggs, seafood, lean fish, low-fat cottage cheese, soy, fiber, apples, beets, buckwheat. The more these ingredients will be in the approximate diet, the faster the fat will come out of the liver.
In addition to the standard vegetable broths and soups, low-fat red and white meat( beef, veal, chicken, rabbit, turkey), cereals, sour-milk drinks, lean fish, soft-boiled eggs, it is also allowed to eat vegetables, sweetberries and fruits( and fresh ones too), sauces from sour cream.
Calculate the menu for a week, taking into account the prescriptions of the No5 diet, is not so difficult, because many authorized ingredients of
Milk and sour cream, butter and vegetable oil can be added to the already cooked dishes, as their temperature treatment is excluded. To improve the taste of the dish, you can put greens, cumin, bay leaves. For dessert you can eat marshmallows, marmalade, caramel, iris, jam.
For hepatosis, the following ingredients should be removed from the menu:
- fish and meat broths;
- fatty meat, sausages, smoked products, canned food;
- greasy or salted fish;
- by-products, animal fat;
- vegetables with coarse fiber( white cabbage, turnip, radish, radish), as well as with ethanedioic acid and essential oil( sorrel, spinach, onion, garlic, sauerkraut);Eggs hard boiled or fried;
- spicy spices and spices, sauces( black pepper, horseradish, mustard, mayonnaise, ketchup);
- fatty milk and cottage cheese;
- chocolate, cake, cheese curd, puff pastry, cakes, baking;
- coffee and cocoa;
- sour berries and fruits( green apples, cranberries, red currants);
- alcoholic beverages, as well as fizzy drinks.
Sample menu for patients
Observing the rules of diet No5, the patient receives all the necessary substances, so it is used for a long time or even recommended as a normal diet. The list of allowed products with pathology sufficient to prepare different dishes for a long time.
There is no specific hepatic therapy for liver hepatosis, treatment consists of proper nutrition, the use of hepatoprotectors( vitamin E, ursodeoxycholic acid, a-lipolic acid), alcohol withdrawal, lifestyle changes. If the cause of the disease is established and under control, and the patient complies with recommendations about what can be eaten and what can not be, the regression of fat gland dystrophy is observed after 6 months.