Ecology of the family, the formation of a healthy lifestyle

The topic " Ecology of the family and the formation of a healthy lifestyle among its members ".

The problem of educating a healthy lifestyle has been of interest since a long time. Philosophers such as J. Locke A. Smith, C. Helvetius, and others, spoke of the decisive role of educating a healthy lifestyle in the development of man and believed that the latter is practically impossible without the first.


Education of a healthy lifestyle in children

The development of a healthy lifestyle for children is one of the pressing problems in our society.

An important role in the formation of a healthy lifestyle for a child is played by the family. Parents have the opportunity to develop the personality of the child, based on his individual abilities, who know better than anyone else. They are responsible for his physical, moral, mental, social upbringing and development. They want to see their children healthy, cheerful, active, hardy, strong, intelligent.

Family is the most important and important thing that is in the life of every child. She plays the most important role in his life and determines his future. Each member of the family must create in it conditions and comfort necessary for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and thereby shape it in the future generation. Health - is an integral part of the existence of each of us and it depends on us how it will be.

Parents are obliged to teach their children a healthy lifestyle, to pawn from early childhood, to accustom it to good, and set a good example for imitation and only then will we have a healthy people and a healthy nation.

Family for the child is the place of birth and the main habitat. In the family he has close people who understand him and accept him as he is - healthy or sick, kind or not, complaisant or prickly and daring - there he is. It is in the family that the child gets the basics of knowledge about the world around him, and, given the high cultural and educational potential of parents, continues to receive not only the basics, but the culture itself all his life.

The family is strengthened by common business and cares, everyday life, filled with useful content, joint leisure and recreation. Physical education is of great importance for the family.

Family largely determines the attitude of children to physical exercises, their interest in sports, activity and initiative. This is facilitated by close emotional communication between children and adults in different situations, their naturally occurring joint activities( discussing the successes of the country's sporting life, experiences when watching TV sports programs, illustrations in books on sports topics, etc.)

Children are particularly susceptible to beliefs, positive behaviorfather, mother, family life. Personal example of parents, joint physical education, healthy lifestyle are the main components of the success of physical education in the family.

Family as a small social group and social institution

A family, as a rule, is a more complex system of relations than marriage, as it can unite not only the spouses, but also their children, as well as other relatives. The family is a blood relationship, marriage or adoption, the unification of people connected by commonality of life and mutual responsibility for the upbringing of children.

The main features of the family are:

  1. Marriage, blood ties or adoption links.
  2. Shared accommodation.
  3. Total family budget and household.

Usually the "core" of a family is considered to be a married couple, and all the statistical classifications of the composition of families are built according to the addition to the "core" of children, relatives, parents of the husband and wife.

Types and types of families that are

Depending on the family structure, the family can be:

  1. Nuclear ( simple) - consists of spouses and children who depend on them. This family includes two generations.
  2. Extended - consists of several nuclear families or from a nuclear family and other relatives( three or more generations).
  3. Incomplete - in which one of the parents is missing. The absence of one of the parents can be caused by different reasons: death, absence of marriage, divorce.

The most common in modern Western countries are nuclear families. There are no more than 3 role positions in them( the father is the husband, the mother is the wife, the son is the brother or the daughter is the sister).Each person can be simultaneously a member of several nuclear families, however, these families do not form an extended family, since they do not live "under one roof."

In extended families, as a rule, life is more rationally organized, young people have more time, fewer quarrels arise from small things, more attention to someone else's opinion. Nevertheless, there may be interference in the privacy of children, petty custody, strict control by the parents.

In nuclear families, the emphasis is on marital relations, and the parent relationship of the father and mother with the children, the children among themselves, serve as an addition to marriage. On the contrary, the extended family with its entire structure discovers that the bond that cementizes it is the bloodiness of parents and children, brothers and sisters.

The number of children is allocated by families:

  1. Childless .
  2. Small child ( 1-2 children).
  3. Large children ( 3 or more children).

Low-income families are those families in which there are "few children" from the demographic point of view( for the reproduction of the population).From the point of view of social psychology, for the emergence of primary group relations among children, two children are not enough, since primary group relationships arise, beginning with 3 members of the group. Known in sociology, the fact of the stability of primary groups, which consist of 5-7 members, is confirmed in the sociology of the family by divorce statistics - an increase in the number of children leads to a reduction in the probability of divorce.

The birth of the second child reduces the probability of divorce by 2.5 times, and the birth of the third child - by 9.5 times. It would be a mistake to consider that the birth of another child strengthens the family, rather in spouses who are confident in the reliability of their relationship, there is a need for children, respectively, they decide on the birth of another child.

According to the distribution of power criteria,

  1. is divided into patriarchal families, where the father is the "head of the family state".
  2. matriarchal family, where the highest authority and influence is enjoyed by the mother.
  3. egalitarian families or partnerships are those where there are no clearly defined family rights where the situational distribution of power between the father and the mother prevails.

Depending on the age of the spouses are distinguished:

  1. Youth family - when the age of spouses is up to 30 years. The main problems of such a family are adaptation to new responsibilities, everyday life, the emergence of roles related to parenthood, problems with employment and economic security.
  2. The family of average matrimonial age . The main problems of such a family - the monotony, the routine of doing household tasks, boredom, the stereotyped relationship, the feeling that the most interesting and significant in life has already taken place and now life "flows" by.
  3. Elderly couple . There are problems related to the health of the spouses, the need for caring for each other, the development of new family roles.

Under the special conditions of family life, the following families are distinguished:

  1. Student families . Typical problems of such a family: lack of housing, full financial dependence on parents, nevertheless such families are characterized by great cohesion, activity, and emotionality. Spouses in such families are receptive to the new, believe in the best.
  2. Distant families - legally fixed, however, in fact they are not. These are families of labor migrants, sailors, polar explorers, artists, athletes, geologists, etc. Husbands and wives for a long time are separately, do not have a common household, the responsibility for raising children and their maintenance is, as a rule, one of them. In these families there is a great danger of adultery and the breakdown of the family, but some are very persistent, where the strength of the relationship is due to the freshness of the senses.
  3. Families who expect the birth of a child - there are problems associated with preparing for future roles, excessive concern for the health of the future mother and child.

What family functions are

Family functions:

  1. Reproductive function - reproduction of their own kind. To ensure that humanity does not cease to exist, society has not become a boarding school for the elderly, the population has not decreased, it is necessary that every Russian family has at least 2-3 children.
  2. The educational function of the family is the implementation of the primary socialization of the child and the upbringing of children until they reach social maturity. By education is meant a system of purposeful influences on the person being educated for inculcating certain views, norms and patterns of behavior, as well as certain moral, psychological and physical qualities.

Socialization is a broader phenomenon, which also includes the totality of spontaneously emerging circumstances and factors that influence the formation and development of the individual. Therefore, the educational function of the family is actually realized not only in the form of conscious and purposeful pedagogical influences of parents on children, but also through the whole atmosphere of family life.

  1. Regulatory function and function of primary social control The includes a system for regulating relations between family members, including primary social control and the exercise of power and authority. In the past, the state contributed to the establishment in the family of authority and authority of the head of the family, who throughout life was responsible for the behavior of his offspring. There were punishments for disobedience to parents. Ensuring the implementation of social norms by family members, especially those who due to various circumstances( age, disease, etc.) do not have sufficient ability to independently build their behavior in full compliance with social norms. Family - a small social group, it learns to build their behavior in accordance with existing social norms.
  2. Teaching function - the family is educating the younger generation. Here they teach you to talk, walk, read, count.
  3. Communicative function satisfies the need of family members for communication and mutual understanding. Psychological and pedagogical studies confirm that the formation of various social orientations, attitudes, emotional culture, moral and psychological health of a person are directly dependent on the nature of intra-family communication, the manifestation of psychological attitudes, primarily of adult family members, in communicating the moral and psychological atmosphere in the family.
  4. Emotional function - meeting its members' needs for sympathy, respect, recognition, psychological protection. The function of emotional satisfaction. Lack of warmth and mutual understanding, love can be the cause of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This function provides emotional stabilization of members of society, actively contributes to the preservation of their mental health
  5. The economic function is the management of family members of a common household. Formation of strong economic ties between them. Management of family members of the common household.formation of strong economic ties between them. Standards of family life include compulsory care and support for each family member in the event that he has economic difficulties. Having your own budget. Organization of consumer activities.
  6. Spiritual and Psychotherapeutic function. Spiritual communication - the development of personalities of family members, spiritual mutual enrichment. Psychotherapeutic - allows family members to arrange spontaneous psychotherapeutic sessions.
  7. Intimate-erotic function. There is to meet the intimate needs of the family, regulates the intimate behavior of the husband and wife. Ensuring the biological reproduction of society, thanks to which families are transformed into childbirth going into generations.
  8. Household function. Satisfaction of family members with their biological and material needs. Satisfaction of the need to preserve their health through household methods. Nutrition of the family, the acquisition and maintenance of household goods, clothes, shoes, home improvement, the creation of home comfort, the organization of life and family life, the formation and expenditure of the home budget.
  9. Entertaining and recreational function. Joint organization of entertainment and recovery after work. Care for the health and well-being of family members. Rest, the organization of leisure.
  10. Protective function. In all societies, the institution of the family carries out to a different degree the physical, economic and psychological protection of its members.

In recent years, the family has been the object of an increasing number of sociological and socio-psychological works carried out by Russian and foreign researchers.

What is the family and its ecology

The family is part of the social environment of a person. In the social environment, there are two levels: the macro environment and the microenvironment. The social macro-environment is a combination of material and spiritual factors, directly and indirectly, positively and negatively affecting the personality and changing in the process of people's practical activity( the nature of the social division of labor, the social structure of society, the system of education and upbringing).

The social microenvironment is a part of the environment directly acting on the individual and includes such elements as "... labor, educational or other primary collective, family, school, close friends, information sources of interest to the person and other phenomena of personal life".The family represents part of the social microenvironment in which a person spends about a third of his life.

Sociologists consider the ecology of the family as "a field of knowledge studying various aspects of the interaction of the family, society and nature, including issues of natural family planning, natural feeding of newborns, responsible parenting, raising children as future spouses and parents, healthy lifestyles, etc.. ".

The conditions that determine the direction of the formation of the child's personality, as well as his health, are laid in the family. The fact that the child is vaccinated from childhood and adolescence in the family in the sphere of moral, ethical and other principles determines all his further behavior in life, his attitude to himself, his health and the health of others.

Even at the early school age the child is not yet able to consciously and adequately follow the elementary standards of hygiene and sanitation, fulfill the requirements of a healthy life style, take care of one's health and the health of others. All this highlights the task for parents of the earliest possible development of skills and habits in a young child that contribute to the preservation of their health.

Of course, children's health directly depends on living conditions in the family, health literacy, parents' hygiene culture and the level of their education. As a rule, adults have an interest in the problem of nurturing a habit of healthy lifestyles only when the child already needs psychological or medical help. Readiness for a healthy lifestyle does not arise by itself, but is formed in a person from an early age, primarily within the family in which the child was born and brought up.

The main task for parents is: the formation of a child's moral attitude towards his health, which is expressed in the desire and need to be healthy, to lead a healthy lifestyle. He must realize that health is the most important value for man, the main condition for achieving any life goal, and everyone is responsible for maintaining and strengthening his health.

In this, nothing can replace the authority of an adult. Therefore, parents should themselves take the philosophy of HLS and enter the path of health. Each of the parents wants the child to grow up physically and mentally healthy, without bad habits. In many respects, the formation of a healthy lifestyle depends on the traditional component of this influence: the family life style, the way of life organization, the nature of the relationship between the spouses, the participation of both parents in the upbringing, the proper organization of family time, the parents' attitude to drinking, smoking, the use of narcotic substances.

Criteria for the education of a healthy lifestyle

Parents need to know the criteria for the effectiveness of education HLS:

  • positive dynamics of your child's physical condition;
  • reduction in morbidity;
  • formation of the child's ability to build relationships with peers, parents and other people;
  • decreased anxiety and aggressiveness.

A healthy way of life is a joy for the big and small in the house, but several conditions are necessary for its creation:

  • the first condition is the creation of a favorable moral climate in the family, which manifests itself in goodwill, willingness to forgive and understand, the desire to help,each other, in caring for the health of family members;
  • the second condition for the success of forming a healthy lifestyle is a close, sincere friendship of children and parents, their constant desire to be together, communicate, and consult. Communication is a great force that helps parents understand the child's thoughts and at first signs determine the tendency to negative actions in order to prevent them in time;
  • the third condition - increased attention to the health of all family members. The psychologist V.Karimov, appreciating the role of the family in the formation of a healthy lifestyle, considers it necessary to pay special attention to the following aspects:
  1. Strengthening the all-round health of the people, the nation should begin, first of all, with the family. To implement the educational and educational program "Healthy Family", it is necessary to involve mahalla advisers on issues of religious and educational and spiritual and moral education, women's commissions, mahalla activists, and conduct educational and methodological seminars.
  2. To enlightenment and propaganda work on preparing youth for family life, its development of a healthy lifestyle philosophy should involve not only scientists and relevant specialists, but also mahalla elders with rich life experience, teachers and mentors.

Based on the direct relationship between the problems of family well-being and the upbringing of children, the public should be constantly monitored for such important factors as the age of entering into life, pregnant young women, their health, family conditions, attitude to sport, physical training.

Thus, from the above definitions it is clear that there is no single point of view that human health is considered. But we can conclude that the concept of health reflects the quality of adaptation of the organism to the conditions of the external environment and represents the outcome of the process of human interaction and habitat;the very state of health is formed as a result of the interaction of external( natural and social) and internal( heredity, sex, age) factors.

Health: components and types

It is currently accepted to distinguish several components( types) of health.

Somatic health - the current state of organs and systems of the human body - the basis of which is the biological program of individual development, mediated by the basic needs that dominate at various stages of ontogenetic development. These needs, firstly, are the starting mechanism of human development, and secondly, they ensure the individualization of this process.

Physical health - the level of growth and development of organs and systems of the body, which is based on morphophysiological and functional reserves, providing adaptive responses.

Mental health is a state of the psychic sphere, based on a state of general mental comfort that provides an adequate behavioral response. This condition is due to both biological and social needs, as well as the opportunities for their satisfaction.

Moral health is a complex of characteristics of the motivational and need-informative sphere of life activity, the basis of which is defined by the system of values, attitudes and motives of the individual's behavior in society. Moral health is mediated by man's spirituality, because it is connected with universal truths of good, love and beauty.

The state of children's health today leaves much to be desired. And the increase in morbidity is associated not only with an unfavorable ecological situation, with a constant increase in loads, psychoemotional overstrain and hypodynamia, but also with the refusal of parents to lead a healthy lifestyle. Children's health directly depends on living conditions in the family, health literacy, parents' hygiene culture and the level of their education.

Often the level of knowledge and skills of parents in the field of education of the habit of a healthy lifestyle is low, and interest in this problem arises only when the child already needs psychological or medical help. Most parents do not understand the very essence of the concept of "health", treating it only as the absence of disease, completely disregarding the interrelation of physical, mental and social well-being. As a result, children develop bad habits, which can be very difficult to get rid of.

Criteria for the effectiveness of the education of a healthy lifestyle

Parents need to know the criteria for the effectiveness of education of a healthy lifestyle:

  • positive dynamics of your child's physical condition;
  • decrease in morbidity;
  • formation of the child's ability to build relationships with peers, parents and other people;
  • decreased anxiety and aggressiveness.

Readiness for a healthy lifestyle does not arise by itself, but is formed in a person from an early age, especially within the family in which the child was born and brought up.

The task of parents is to bring the importance of daily health care to the consciousness of their child, to teach the art of strengthening health.

. The main task for parents is to form a moral attitude towards their health, which is expressed in the desire and need to be healthy and lead a healthy lifestyle. He must realize that health is the most important value for man, the main condition for achieving any life goal, and everyone is responsible for maintaining and strengthening his health.

To solve this problem, parents need to remember the rule - "If you want to raise your child healthy, go yourself along the path of health, otherwise it will have nowhere to lead!".

Forms of educational activities

Forms of educational activities are of different nature:

By the directionality of the content

  • is intellectual-cognitive;Social and creative;
  • is professionally oriented;
  • cultural - leisure;
  • sports and recreational;
  • artistic and creative;
  • organizational.

By the nature of the interaction and joint activities of

  • , competitive forms( contests, competitions);
  • spectacular( performances, screenings of movies);
  • productive-creative( protection of projects, exhibitions);
  • communication forms( round tables, meeting evenings);
  • demonstration( presentation);
  • individual self-expression( portfolio).

The concept of health does not have a clear definition in the scientific literature. Someone considers it a property, someone is a process, someone treats it as a state, someone is an ability. As a rule, health is not only the absence of disease, but also a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being. But not all families understand this, believing that if the child is not sick, then he is healthy. Also, not all parents pay due attention to raising the child's knowledge of healthy lifestyles, so many children do not use the elementary rules of "clean hands" and so on.

There is one main direction of family education in the formation of a healthy lifestyle for a child. It refers to work with children. It is necessary to convey the importance of daily care for one's health to the consciousness of your child, to teach the art of strengthening health, to form a moral attitude toward one's health in the child, which is expressed in the desire and need to be healthy, to lead a healthy lifestyle. Parents should pay special attention to the formation of a favorable atmosphere in the home, educate in the child respect for oneself and those around them, taking care of their health. Great importance is the educational impact on the child by the personal example of parents.

Parents are our assistants and allies in extra-curricular activities. The most important direction in after-hour activities is the preservation and strengthening of children's health, the formation of attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle, parents show an example to their pupils, taking part in families in school competitions.

To ensure the success of a healthy lifestyle

The formation of a healthy lifestyle in the family will be successful if: the organizational and pedagogical conditions and mechanisms for introducing a healthy lifestyle in the development of a comfortable family are developed and defined by the

  1. ;
  2. parents are ready to use national cultural traditions in order to educate children about the need to conduct a healthy lifestyle;
  3. will carry out coordinated interaction between the family and the educational institution, taking into account the current trends in the development of the need for a healthy lifestyle.
  4. in the content, forms and methods of preparing youth for family life includes the use of experience in the formation of a healthy lifestyle in a comfortable family.

The formation of a healthy lifestyle in a child should be one of the mandatory components of family education. Family for the child is the environment where he finds examples for imitation and here his social birth takes place.

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