Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye, accompanied by edema of the conjunctiva, increased tearing, photophobia. The disease can occur against a background of bacterial or viral infection, as well as contact with the eye mucosa of allergens or fungi. For the treatment of this ailment, local and general medications, as well as folk remedies, can be used. In this article we will analyze what is conjunctivitis, what kinds of it exist, what are the causes of this disease, what symptomatology and possible complications it can give, as well as what diagnostic and drug treatment this disease requires.
- 1Definition of disease
- 2Types and Classifications
- 5Possible complications
- 7.2Folk remedies
Definition of disease
Conjunctivitis is a disease accompanied by inflammatory changes in the mucosa. It is covered by 30% of all diseases occurring in ophthalmology. Conjunctivitis can be an independent pathology, but it is often accompanied by other eye diseases, including keratitis, dry eye syndrome, scarring or perforation of the cornea.
The disease occurs in adults and children, it often develops against a background of reduced immunity, stress, fatigue, increased physical exertion.
Conjunctivitis is the common name for similar eye diseases that have similar symptoms. It is considered incomplete without specifying the cause of mucosal damage (viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis).
Types and Classifications
In medicine, there are two main types of conjunctivitis:
- Endogenous. They develop against other diseases, including tuberculosis, measles, smallpox.
- Exogenous. Develop as an independent disease in contact with the mucosa pathogenic factor.
According to the nature of the current, acute and chronic forms of the disease are distinguished.
On etiology distinguish such varieties of conjunctivitis:
- Bacterial. This form of conjunctivitis is always accompanied by the appearance of purulent discharge. Usually, it affects only one eye, but if you ignore the rules of personal hygiene, it can spread to the second eye.
- Allergenic. They are accompanied by a strong edema of the conjunctiva, photophobia. With this form of the disease, the patient can have cough, rhinitis.
- Viral. Characterized by the appearance on the eyelids of follicles and infiltrates, as well as easily separable films. Both eyes are usually affected.
- Chlamydia. Such diseases develop in a short time, usually one eye. Over the centuries, films are formed over the centuries to glue them together.
- Fungal. Accompanying the allocation of whitish or greenish pus. Affect one or both eyes.
Separately, in medicine, traumatic conjunctivitis is developed that develops against the background of mechanical or chemical damage to the eye, as well as metastatic conjunctivitis. The latter develop against the background of common diseases of the body.
Conjunctivitis can be triggered by various factors. Among them are:
- Bacterial infections: staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli. Also, the development of this disease can be provoked by pathogens of diphtheria, syphilis or gonorrhea.
- Viruses, including adenoviruses, measles, herpes virus.
- Mushrooms, including yeast-like, mold species, actinomycetes.
- Allergens. These include medicines, cosmetics, pollen of plants and so on.
Also, nonspecific forms of conjunctivitis can be caused by exposure to mucous unfavorable external factors. Such can be tobacco smoke, dust, aerosols and so on. Such factors usually lead to a mild form of the disease, which occurs in a few days when treated with medication.
You can distinguish conjunctivitis from other diseases by a number of characteristic symptoms. These include:
- foreign body sensation in the eye;
- puffiness, hyperemia of the eyelids;
- itching and burning;
- increased tearing.
With bacterial and fungal forms of the disease, the patient has purulent discharge of a greenish, whitish or yellowish hue (depending on the type of infection). Also in patients with inflammation of the conjunctiva, general symptoms such as dizziness, decreased efficiency may be observed.
Increased temperature is observed in patients rarely. Usually it occurs against the background of common infections in the body.
Prolonged and frequent conjunctivitis can give complications to the organs of vision. Their type depends on the type of conjunctivitis:
- In patients suffering fromallergic form of the disease, develop corneal erosions, which can be accompanied by the formation of ulcers. Also, such patients may experience atrophic changes in the cornea.
- With conjunctivitis,caused by chlamydiae, patients may experience lymphadenitis or scarring of the eyelid. Also they can develop an inflammation of the inner ear.
- Viral form of the diseaseleads to the appearance of erosions on the cornea, which is difficult to treat. It can also lead to a sharp decrease in visual acuity.
- Whenbacterial formthe patient has a decreased vision. If the patient does not receive the necessary treatment, he may go blind.
Bacterial infection that provoked conjunctivitis can spread to other organs. It can cause meningitis, sinusitis, sepsis. For this reason, it is necessary to start treatment as early as possible and monitor the patient's condition if the disease runs long and hard to provide him with the necessary help if his state of health.
If a patient is suspected of having conjunctivitis, the patient should consult an ophthalmologist and take an examination. If suspected of the allergic nature of the disease, the patient may be assigned allergic tests conjunctival, nasal, sublingual. When suspected of the bacterial nature of the disease, the patient may be assigned cytological smears, biomicroscopy of the eye and a fluorescein installation test.
According to the results of the examination, the patient can also be consulted by a venereologist, dermatologist, phthisiatrist, venereologist, allergist. In this case, the treatment will be appointed on the basis of the conclusions of all specialists who examined the patient.
All forms of conjunctivitis are amenable to drug treatment. It involves the use of general and local remedies that stop the symptoms of the disease and eliminate the cause of the disease. ATIn some cases, in the general therapy of such diseases, folk remedies can be used to relieve the symptoms of the disease - compresses, lotions, eye drops.The type of medicines, as well as the duration of treatment of this disease directly depends on the causative agent of conjunctivitis and the form of the disease. Usually, therapy with such a disease lasts up to 7 days, in difficult cases, the duration of treatment with medications can be extended to 2 weeks.
For the treatment of conjunctivitis, mainly preparations of local use are used. Among them are:
- Anesthetic dropsfor relief of the symptoms of the disease. This is Pyromecaine, Lidocaine.
- Antisepticsfor the hygienic treatment of the eye. More often used for this purpose Dimexide, Furatsilin.
- Antibacterial agents. They are used in the treatment of bacterial form of conjunctivitis. Most often used as such agents are Floxal.
- With allergic formdiseases use antihistamines, for example, Dibazol. In case of viral form of the disease, antiviral agents are used, for example, Kerecid.
Drug therapy is carried out for 5 days. In most cases, uncomplicated conjunctivitis is enough for a complete recovery.
In the framework of complex treatment of the disease, folk remedies can be used. The most effective of them are:
- Honey drops.For their preparation, mix honey with boiled water in the proportions:. The resulting drops should be applied several times a day until the symptoms disappear completely.
- Application for eyes based on dill.For their preparation you need to pass the dill through the meat grinder, gently squeeze the resulting gruel through the cheesecloth. Then in the dill juice, wet the cotton clean shawl and apply it to the eyes for 20 minutes. This drug should be used in the first stages of the disease.
- Lotion from the leaves of dope.For their preparation you need to take 30 grams of leaves, pound them, pour a glass of boiling water and insist for 30 minutes. After this, the infusion should be expressed, it can be soaked with gauze to apply to the eyes for 15 minutes.
- Infusion of plantain for washing the eyes.To make it, you need to take 10 grams of plantain seeds, finely chop them and pour a glass of boiling water. Insist means should be half an hour, then strain through cheesecloth and cool.
- Applied on the basis of wild rose berries.To prepare this remedy, you need to pour 2 tea boxes of berries with steep boiling water and let them brew for 30 minutes. After this, the infusion will need to be filtered through gauze and cool. Use for lotions with purulent conjunctivitis.
Before using this tool, make sure that you are not allergic to those folk remedies that you plan to use. For this it is necessary to apply a small amount of infusions for lotions on the elbow bend. If there is no reaction to them, you can use them for the eyes. If you have any reaction to such drugs, you do not need to use them - this can exacerbate the symptoms of conjunctivitis.
To avoid the occurrence of conjunctivitis, simple preventive rules should be observed. They provide for:
- timely treatment of any bacterial infections, including infections that triggered rhinitis or tonsillitis;
- compliance with personal hygiene rules, use only personal handkerchiefs, towels;
- compliance with general rules for working with contact lenses;
- strengthening of immunity, intake of vitamins, especially in the autumn and spring period;
- timely isolation of patients with various forms of infection.
Particular attention to preventive measures should be given to those people who often face an allergic form of conjunctivitis. They need to protect themselves from contact with the allergen. According to the indications, it is possible to undergo the immunization procedure in order to reduce the sensitivity of the organism to the pathogen.
The video tells about effective home remedies for conjunctivitis. An important point - regardless of the form and extent of the disease, apply these recommendations only after consulting a doctor.
- Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye, accompanied by hyperemia of the mucosa, its redness, swelling.
- The disease can be triggered by a bacterial, viral, fungal infection. It can also be provoked by allergens, mechanical trauma to the mucosa.
- The main symptoms of conjunctivitis are redness and swelling of the mucosa, increased tearing, photophobia, itching and burning in the eye.
- To make a diagnosis, you need to undergo an examination with an ophthalmologist, as well as pass cytological tests of purulent discharge (with a bacterial form of conjunctivitis). Patients with suspected allergic form of the disease are prescribed allergic tests.
- Conjunctivitis is treated with local medications, including eye drops and ointments.
- Prevention of conjunctivitis involves the implementation of basic hygiene rules, strengthening the body, timely treatment of infections.