The main types and methods of surgical intervention in the treatment of eye diseases

One of the most important areas of therapy for eye diseases is surgery. With it, you can restore partially or completely lost vision, improve the condition of blood vessels, eyeball tissues, remove dangerous neoplasms and much more. Often, the intervention is shown in the late stages of pathology, when conservative methods of treatment are powerless. But the most common now are surgery to restore vision.


  • 1Types of operations
  • 2Features of the procedure
  • 3Preparation of the patient
  • 4The phased process of
  • 5Postoperative period
  • 6Recommendations for caring for the patient
  • 7Reviews of people
  • 8Video
  • 9conclusions

Types of operations

Progress has moved far ahead and today such pathologies as corneal opacity, myopia and hyperopia, retinal detachment, cataract and much more are easily treated with just one operation.

Currently, there are such types of surgery:

  • Laser correction.The most secure method out of the existing ones. Used to restore visual acuity, treat retinal detachment, cataract and glaucoma.
  • Keratoplasty. It is required to eliminate defects and deformations of the cornea and restore its basic functions. The effect on the corneal tissue is provided by a laser or a scalpel under a special microscope.
  • Vitrectomy.The most complex method of surgical intervention is the process of removing part of the vitreous. The operation is designed to treat opacities, traumas.
  • Cataract removal. The operation is carried out seamlessly and is the removal of the affected lens with a scalpel or laser.
  • Scleroplasty.In this technique, the patient's natural tissues and biomaterials are used. It is aimed at improving the condition of its external tissues.
  • Treatment of glaucoma.It is used for any form of the disease and is performed with a laser beam.
  • Laser coagulation.It is used for detachment of the retina and acts on the principle of cauterization of damaged vessels.
  • EnucleationIs the removal of the eye. It is performed in case of strong penetrating injuries, oncological diseases with a probability of metastases to neighboring organs.
  • Retinopathy of the retina- this method is used in case of strong retinal detachment with already noticeable consequences in the form of reduced visual acuity.

The most suitable method of conducting the operation in each individual case is selected by the attending physician.

Features of the procedure

The most simple method of carrying out the operation is laser, because it practically does not leave any scars, does not require suturing and a long rehabilitation period. In this case, the patient almost the same day feels his results.However, the method has a number of contraindications:

  • Late gestation;
  • Inflammation of the tissues of the organs of vision;
  • Infectious diseases;
  • Destructive corneal changes.
Laser operation to remove pengu-cules

Operations that require the use of surgical instruments (vitrectomy, scleroplasty), involve the imposition of sutures and dressings, as well as close monitoring during rehabilitation.As a rule, they are performed under local anesthesia.

Carrying out a vitrectomy

Any of the presented forms of surgical intervention does not involve a long duration. On average, one procedure consumes from thirty minutes to three hours. Most often, local anesthesia is needed.

Preparation of the patient

Preparation of the patient for the operation begins with the choice of a method, which is usually based on such factors as the type of disease, the general health of the body, the degree of injury, and many others.You may need references and recommendations from other doctors who also need to be considered. Then the date is assigned.

Immediately before the operation, you can not eat, the last one - four hours before the intervention. It is also necessary to wash your face and hands, give up any make-up and, in the first place, decorative.

Recommendations before the procedure of vision correction

It is recommended that your head be washed, since the head and water contacts may be prohibited for some time after the procedure.

The phased process of

The first step of any procedure is the direct preparation of the patient and his location on the operating table. Further - anesthesia (often with drop anesthesia). Above the patient have a special microscope and the surgeon directly begins to make the first incision with one of the appropriate instruments (laser or scalpel), the affected tissue.With scleroplasty and removal of cataracts, it may be necessary to replace natural tissues with biopolymers.At the end of the procedure, a seam and a sterile bandage are applied. The laser device, in turn, is able to cauterize the edges of the wound, so no stitches are required.

Surgery to remove cataracts

If a patient is shown wearing a bandage before his eyes, she should never be removed without the permission of a doctor.

Postoperative period

The recovery period in each case can take place in different ways, taking into account the characteristics of the patient. But in any case, the main criterion for painless rehabilitation is the provision of a sufficient amount of rest and sleep.At this time, they are contraindicated:

  • Harmful habits (both smoking and taking alcohol);
  • Hot water procedures (for a while the person and at all can not be wetted);
  • Physical loads (including sports).

It is recommended to follow the rules of personal hygiene (as far as possible), after removing the bandage, wear sunglasses.It is strictly forbidden to use lenses.

In the post-operative period, there may be a deterioration in well-being. In this case, when it is strengthened, you need to see a doctor.

Recommendations for caring for the patient

The most important for the patient after the operation is the support of close people and ensuring peace and security.In some cases, the patient for the first few days is forbidden to get out of bed, which means that he may need help. He also needs to ensure complete rest, avoiding the effects of irritating factors, and the use of necessary drugs.

The family is recommended to take responsibility for the accuracy of the patient's compliance with the prescribing doctor's instructions.

Reviews of people

Usually people who suffer eye surgery for myopia and farsightedness notice very good results after carrying out the procedure with a laser.Almost all refuse glasses and lenses and do not resort to any other medical measures.

Those people who are doing surgical operations to stop the progression of diseases, mark improvements immediately after therapy. In many cases, ancillary procedures do not cause inconvenience and do not bother.



Treatment of diseases of the visual apparatus is not always just by using glasses and lenses and using medication. Often the only way to completely get rid of the disease or its arrest is precisely a surgical operation. And this technique can not be underestimated, because it is able to fully restore eyesight in just a couple of hours and save the person from unpleasant sensations.