Hammer-like deformation of the second finger: treatment


  • 1Hammer-shaped deformation of fingers
    • 1.1Symptoms of hammer-like deformity of the finger
    • 1.2Causes of a hammer-shaped toe
    • 1.3When should I see a doctor?
    • 1.4Conservative treatment of the hammer-shaped finger
    • 1.5Operation in the hammer-shaped deformation of the fingers
    • 1.6Percutaneous method of treatment
    • 1.7Rehabilitation after surgery on the hammer-shaped finger
  • 2Effective treatment of hammer-shaped deformity of toes
    • 2.1Causes of the disease
  • 3Hammer-shaped finger: causes, symptoms, treatment
    • 3.1Causes
    • 3.2Types of Hammer-like Deformation
    • 3.3Manifestations
    • 3.4Diagnosis of the hammer-shaped finger
    • 3.5Conservative (non-operative) treatment
    • 3.6Operative treatment
  • 4Hammer-shaped deformation of the toes: treatment without surgery
    • 4.1Features and causes of pathology
    • 4.2Clinical symptoms
    • 4.3Methods of therapeutic correction
    • 4.4Correction of pain syndrome
    • 4.5Efficiency of curative physical culture
    • 4.6Recommendations for the correction of lifestyle
    • 4.7Possible complications
    • 4.8Rehabilitation measures
  • 5Hammer-shaped deformation of toes and its causes
    • 5.1Causes
    • 5.2Symptoms
    • 5.3Treatment
    • 5.4Prevention
  • 6Hammer-shaped deformity of toes: a description of the disease, diagnosis and treatment
    • 6.1Risk groups
    • 6.2How does the disease begin?
    • 6.3Do I need to see a doctor for help?
    • 6.4Diagnostics
    • 6.5Treatment
    • 6.6Conservative treatment
    • 6.7Operative treatment

Hammer-shaped deformation of fingers

The condition at which the finger deforms, resembling the shape of a hammer. Any finger other than a large one can be deformed into a classic hammer-shaped one.

There is a true hammer-shaped deformation of the toe, and there is a deformation caused by constant pressure in the shoes. Consider the true deformation by the example of the 2nd toe of the foot.

Fig. 1

  • When the transverse platypodia progresses, the metatarsal bone descends downward, the proximal phalanx due to traction of ligaments and tendons is forced to rise (Fig. 1). In this case, the area of ​​the proximal interphalangeal joint is rubbed into the shoes and a characteristic corn is formed.

Fig. 2

  • If the second finger is longer than the first, then in the shoe, it begins to rest on the toe and is forced to bend it (Fig. 2). At first, we do not feel this, until a painful corneal coronas is formed, which can be removed only by a scalpel or a surgical laser. This deformation is elastic and decreases with shoe change during 6 months. But there are patients who resort to shortening the 2nd toe to allow them to wear model shoes.

Symptoms of hammer-like deformity of the finger

In patients with hammer-shaped deformity of the finger, pain may appear in the anterior part of the foot, the back surface of the finger in the proximal interphalangeal joint.

Excessive pressure from the shoe on the deformed finger or fingers can lead to the formation of a corn callus. Some people can not recognize that they have a hammer toe, thinking that the fault is close to the shoes.

The pain is often exacerbated in tight model shoes, especially in high-heeled shoes that our women love to wear.

Causes of a hammer-shaped toe

  • Heredity and deformation of hallucks valgus (bone on foot);
  • Wearing tight narrow shoes, the most probable causes, the development of hammer-shaped deformation of the toes;
  • High heels can also cause deformation.

I would like to clarify that the coarse-grained deformation forms for a long time, from a year or more.

In some patients with the Greek type of foot, a hammer-shaped deformity of the foot may develop due to the prevalence of the length of the 2nd finger over the others.

When should I see a doctor?

The most common causes of hammer-shaped deformation, in which patients seek treatment are:

  • Painful coronary calluses
  • Lame walking
  • Complexity in the selection of shoes
  • Aesthetically unsightly kind of finger

Hammer-shaped deformities of the toes are of varying severity - from light to heavy. Can be present in combination with the foot bone of the foot, and almost always occurs with severe deformation of the foot.

Depending on the general health, symptoms and severity of the deformity, the treatment can be conservative or with surgical intervention.

Conservative treatment of the hammer-shaped finger

Non-surgical methods of treating the hammer-shaped toes are aimed at reducing symptoms (eg, pain and / or reduced calluses) and / or restriction of progression to a more serious deformation.

  • Wear supporting shoes
  • Use insoles for arch supports
  • Wear shoes with a wide toe
  • Silicone correctors and napalchniki: protect your fingers from rubbing in the shoes and the formation of corns.

Also, you can remove pain symptoms with medicines and ointments:

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs: nimesil, ibuprofen, ketonal, to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Physiotherapy: Strengthen the foot muscles to maintain the longitudinal and transverse arch, minimizing the risk of deformation.
  • Injections of corticosteroids: Injections of hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs are strong to reduce pain, inflammation and edema directly in the area of ​​the deformed joint.

Operation in the hammer-shaped deformation of the fingers

Hammer-like deformation of the fingers can be eliminated by surgery. Moreover, severe and moderate deformities can only be eliminated by surgery. By and large, eliminating deformation is not very difficult.

The operation is performed under a conductor or local anesthetic. This means that the foot will not feel pain, but the patient may be conscious. If the operator is worried or afraid of surgery, the anesthesiologist provides a sedative effect so that the patient relaxes.

We in our practice use methods of correction of deformation of fingers: open and percutaneous (minimally invasive) techniques of operations.

Open methods through small incisions and minimally invasive through skin punctures of 2 mm. Depending on the severity and duration of deformation, there are several methods.

  • If the deformation and corn formed due to the longer 2nd toe of the foot, then simultaneously shortening of deformation is performed.
  • If the proximal interphalangeal joint is significantly deformed, then there are practically no movements in it. In this case, the removal of part of the joint and its arthrodesis (fixation in the forward position for bone consolidation) is performed. This eliminates the deformation of the finger. In this case, in some cases, the finger is fixed with spokes or special metal structures.

The installation of spokes, titanium alloy screws or biodegradable implants is most often used to fix the bone until they grow together. The spokes are removed approximately 1 month after the operation.

Its removal does not cause pain, but rather an unpleasant feeling. The screws are removed, usually 6-12 months after the operation.

There are titanium intraosseous implants designed specifically for such operations, but there is one downside that they remain in the bone forever.

Considering the inexpediency of removal of the intricate titanium implants, materials were developed that are absorbed within 2 years in the bone.

The so-called biodegradable screws, pins. With their help, more and more operations are performed.

Paitsentu is very convenient, that the fixator does not need to be removed, in fact, performing the second operation.

Percutaneous method of treatment

Through small puncture of the skin 2mm. A special cutter with a lateral sharpening is introduced and an osteotomy of a certain bone site occurs to eliminate deformation.

As a rule, this technique does not use metal structures, locks, be they knitting needles or screws. The fingers are fixed with an elastic bandage in the given position.

It is very convenient for the patient and does not require a repeated operation to remove the fixative. The following video shows an example of such an operation.


In most cases, after the operation, the patient leaves home on the same day, but sometimes remains for a day. The next day there is a first dressing with a doctor, then the patient can be bandaged on his own. After 12-14 days, the removal of stitches.


Laser removal of callus. Laser surgery is a popular method, however, the laser is used mainly for soft tissues (not bones). Therefore, this method is used in addition to surgical instruments.

Rehabilitation after surgery on the hammer-shaped finger

Recovery after surgery to eliminate hammer-shaped deformities of the toes usually depends on the method of the operation performed.

In all cases, the treatment takes about 4-6 weeks, in healthy people, and there is no way to accelerate this process to 1-2 weeks, no matter how much you like.

Patients often return to normal activities and shoes from the 3rd week after surgery, with a slight degree of deformity. After a simple operation, the recovery can be very fast.

Factors that can prolong recovery are age, smoking, non-compliance with recommendations for limiting loads in the early postoperative period.

A source: http://www.ortomed.info/articles/ortopediya/hirurgiya-stopi/molotkoobraznaya-deformaciya-palcev/

Effective treatment of hammer-shaped deformity of toes


  • Causes of the disease
  • Characteristic symptoms of the hammer-shaped fingers
  • How to treat hammer-shaped deformity of toes

How is orthopedic treatment performed, hammer-shaped deformation of the toes and its symptoms - these questions are of interest to many patients.

The deformation of the toes is most common among residents of those areas in which people are forced to constantly be in any shoes.

Problems with curved toes on the feet are caused mainly by wearing low-grade shoes with an inconvenient shoe.

Most people can have aching toes after a long walk in tight or uncomfortable shoes. This pain is not so terrible and passes quickly enough.


If a person begins to be disturbed by a constant or repeated pain in the toes, this is the first call that he is threatened with arthritis, arthrosis or circulatory disorders in the legs.


The true cause of pain after studying all the symptoms can only be established by an orthopedic physician.

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Causes of the disease

Hammer-shaped toes are a pathology of all toes, except for the large one, at which they are deformed: they are warped and become like hammers. Most often there are hammer-shaped curvatures of the second or third finger on the leg.

Scraped toes on the legs always accompany a more complex disease - a change in the shape of the foot, caused by developing flat feet or other foot disease.

The following diseases can provoke the development of this disease:

  • psoriasis;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • diabetes;
  • obesity.

A negative factor in the development of the disease often becomes the constant wearing of shoes with a narrow toe and high heels.

The primary cause of the appearance of the hammer-shaped fingers on the legs is the dominant tension of the ligaments responsible for flexion, and the restriction of the mobility of the joints. Over time, the joints begin to rigidly fix themselves in the same curved position.

Hammer-shaped fingers are most often accompanied by serious foot diseases, for example, flat feet, hollow foot, valgus deformity, as well as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis and many other diseases.

Gradually begins to form a habitual subluxation of the phalanx of the deformed finger, which causes the development of osteoarthritis.

The person's gait changes and, accordingly, from the incorrect walking under the heads of the metatarsal bones painful napotypes grow, and with the rear the sides of the fingers form corns, the cause of which is the continuous friction of the deformed fingers on the inner surface of close shoes or shoes.

In the hammer-shaped deformity of the toes, the patient may experience severe pain, which usually appears during movement and increases when trying to climb the tiptoes. Mostly, the cause of such pain is deforming arthrosis.

With a prolonged flow of hammer-shaped deformation, the patient has difficulty in moving.


And unnaturally curved toes rest against various places inside the shoes, constantly experiencing severe friction.


In these places there are irritations, unhealing worn and even bleeding wounds and sores.

If a person has at least one of the signs listed below, there is a high probability that the hammer-shaped deformation of the fingers may begin to progress:

  1. Longer than the first, the second toe, curved in such a way that the nail phalanx looks to the floor.
  2. On the curved finger, there is a significant tension of the tendons, which does not allow the finger to fully straighten.
  3. The presence of bones on the big toes, or scientifically valgus deformation, while when the foot is in the shoes, the second finger is constantly pressed down first.

Having discovered at least one of these symptoms, immediately consult an orthopedic doctor who will make a visual examination of the feet and their palpation. If it is necessary to confirm the clinical picture, an x-ray is prescribed from three projections. Only after that the doctor will prescribe the necessary treatment.

Hammer-shaped deformation of the toes is divided into:

  1. Non-fixed, when the hammer-shaped finger is still easily straightened by hands.
  2. Fixed, that is, a stable deformation, which can not be straightened without surgery.

And the first thing to begin with, this complex treatment of flat feet.

To this end, the patient is selected special medical footwear, orthopedic insoles or other devices (liners, socks, pads, longes, protective caps).

Also, they prescribe a course of special therapeutic foot massage and exercise therapy, which helps to strengthen the arch of the foot.

The complex of exercises is selected individually for each patient, taking into account specific manifestations of deformation of the fingers.

If there is a more neglected case, you can forget about the methods of conservative treatment, because they will be of little use and they will not bring relief to the patient. Over time, the curvature of the fingers is fixed, dangerous changes occur in the bones, joints, ligaments and muscles of the foot.

Between the tendons and the capsule of the joint, spikes begin to form. Only surgical intervention is suitable for this stage of the disease.

In the surgical treatment of hammer-like deformity of the fingers, two directions can be distinguished: symptomatic and radical.

Symptomatic treatment involves removing the stone on the thumb. This operation allows you to achieve good results in the shortest time.


However, such an operation does not remove the cause of the disease, but only postpones its relapse for a while.


Radical treatment of flatfoot is a process of deep plasty of ligaments and bones. The transverse arch of the foot is practically formed anew. Such treatment is directed, first of all, to the elimination of one of the main causes of the appearance of hammer-shaped toes - flat feet.

Another type of surgical intervention in the radical treatment of the deformity of the fingers is aimed at eliminating the flexural stress of the interphalangeal joints. During this operation, the damaged area of ​​the main phalanx of the deformed finger is excised.

After the surgical operation, a plaster bandage or a special bandage is applied to the patient on the operated foot. tire, carry out a special rehabilitation program that helps restore the tone and balance of the calf muscles and feet.

The postoperative rehabilitation period lasts much longer than with the symptomatic method of treatment, however the effect of the radical method is much better.

A more modern solution to the problem of hammer-like fingers is the operation of endoprosthetics of the interphalangeal joint, when the function of the joint is performed by a special implant. After this operation, the recovery period takes significantly less time.

Preventing the appearance of hammer-like deformation. Fundamental in carrying out preventive measures is the timely detection of transverse flat feet and pips on the legs and the beginning of their treatment in the early stages of the disease. Do not forget about shoes.

It is best to switch to orthopedic shoes with a free rounded toe, which will not put pressure on the protruding hammer-shaped finger, which will allow the feet to feel comfortable.

A source: http://ZdorovyeStopy.ru/deformaciya/lechenie-molotkoobraznaya-deformaciya-palcev-stopy.html

Hammer-shaped finger: causes, symptoms, treatment

Hammer-shaped finger - persistent distortion (deformation) of the finger, which occurs in the first metatarsus-phalanx joint.


The cause of the appearance of the hammer-shaped finger is the curvature of the first toe of the foot, which restricts the space for the second finger, which occurs the lowering of the bones of the metatarsal to the sole, as a result of which the tendons of the flexors are stretched, keeping the fingers in the bent position.

This inevitably pulls the fingers down, causing distortion and deformation. That is, one incorrectly placed bone causes pathological changes in the entire foot.

Increase the risk of development of pathology: arthritis of the joints of the foot, transverse flatfoot, cerebral palsy, congenital claw foot. It is not uncommon to blame cramped and uncomfortable shoes with high heels, which is not entirely correct, since pathology can occur even in people who do not wear shoes.

Types of Hammer-like Deformation

  • Non-fixed - the curvature can be straightened manually
  • Fixed - permanent deformation, which can not be straightened by hands


Hammer-shaped deformity of the joint can occur in any toe of the foot, except the first.

Most often the second finger suffers, acquiring the form of a hammer: it is bent, and the nail phalanx looks down. A stretched tendon can be fingered on the sole surface of the finger.

A characteristic feature is the appearance of hard bone calluses.

The protruding parts of the finger constantly rub against the shoes, which leads to the appearance of irritations, soft calluses, corns, wounds and long-lasting non-healing ulcers.

If the disease is constantly progressing, then a possible complication may be a subluxation in the metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to the development of osteoarthritis. Gradually, there are changes in all tissues of the foot.


It becomes more difficult to walk, pain intensifies when trying to climb to the socks. Constantly arising pain limits mobility of the foot, the load on the bone of the metatarsus increases.


The main cause of the emerging pain sensations is the developing defloretz of the fingers.

When wearing uncomfortable or tight shoes, the situation is rapidly progressively worse. Between the joint and the tight tendon spikes are formed, which makes the curvature of the finger irreversible.

It is possible to change the gait with a change in the direction of reducing the load on the diseased finger, which may not only cause changes in the foot, but also increasing the load on the spine, its deformation and exacerbation sciatica.

Diagnosis of the hammer-shaped finger

The diagnosis is made by an orthopedic doctor on the basis of examination and questioning of the patient. Mandatory X-ray of the foot in different projections.

Conservative (non-operative) treatment

The most important and inalienable stage of foot correction, which has a hammer-shaped deformed finger - is wearing the right shoes.

Such shoes should not constrain the foot, should have a large sock, which prevents friction and progression of pathological changes. Appointed wearing orthopedic insoles. Courses of therapeutic corrective massage and gymnastics are conducted.

It is necessary to treat concomitant pathology, which could provoke this kind of deformity of the fingers.

It is possible to use orthopedic devices that will reduce pain and gradually bring the finger into a straightened position. They include: scallops, longi.

In the place of the greatest friction of the finger, it is advisable to apply protective patches and bandages.

Also, any wounds, injuries and long-term healing sores should be handled on time.

The effectiveness of conservative techniques is much higher in the initial stages of the disease, when there have not yet been irreversible changes in the joints.

Operative treatment

Surgical treatment in the presence of hammer-shaped deformation is not always necessary. The main indications: pain and discomfort when walking, long-lasting non-healing ulcers in places of friction, inefficiency of conservative techniques. There are many methods of surgical intervention.

Perhaps the operative removal of the bone protrusion, but this does not solve the problem of deformation radically.

The most gentle technique is the dissection of the strained tendon, which is possible only in the initial stages of the disease in the absence of irreversible persistent changes in the bones and joints.

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During the operation, it is possible to eliminate the flexural stress in the interphalangeal joints. This can be achieved by removing the site of the main phalanx of the finger with a dislocation. After that, the finger is gypsumed for at least 1 month.

Radical operation involves the formation of a transverse arch of the foot, which requires intervention on ligaments, bones and tendons with a long rehabilitation period.

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A source: http://spina-sustav.ru/bolezni/molotkoobraznyiy-palets-prichinyi-simptomyi-lechenie.html

Hammer-shaped deformation of the toes: treatment without surgery

Hammer-shaped deformation of the toes is a pathology, in which the phalanx in the first metatarsophalangeal joint is constantly in a bent position. A similar condition can develop on all toes except for the large one.

Hammer-shaped deformation of the toes is not only an aesthetic defect: it brings uncomfortable sensations for any localization.

Therefore, when anxiety symptoms appear, you should consult a specialist to design effective ways of correcting the condition.

Features and causes of pathology

Hammer-shaped fingers on the legs provoke the appearance of calluses and other bulges, causing painful sensations while walking.

Deformation can be of two types - fixed or non-fixed.

With a fixed deformation, the finger can be turned and manually, and with non-fixed, medical intervention is necessary.

The most common reasons for the formation of hammer-shaped toes are transverse flatfoot and valgus deformation of the first toe.


Hammer-like deformation of the second toe is more often noted, but it provokes a change in shape and other fingers.


Thus, the foot is completely deformed, its functionality is deteriorating.

If the pathology occurs isolated on one finger, then most of the cause is the excessive length of the bone of the metatarsal.

In addition, deforming factors can be caused by:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • psoriasis;
  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • incorrectly selected shoes.

Clinical symptoms

The condition in which the hammer-shaped toes of the foot are formed, is accompanied by the formation of bone calluses. There is constant irritation, friction of the affected area, and because of this, a wound surface with areas of suppuration appears.

The deformation of the phalanx arises from the fact that the fingers are retracted due to the effect of excessive pressure on the muscles that regulate the mobility of the toes. Possible situations where, due to the strong compression of the hammer-shaped fingers, it is extremely difficult to dissolve.

Among the main signs of hammer-like deformation are the following:

  • lengthening of the finger, turning down the nail phalanx;
  • tension of the tendons, because of which the finger loses its ability to self-straighten;
  • soreness of the affected area;
  • violation of the functionality of the foot;
  • defeat of the skin of the feet.

Methods of therapeutic correction

If pathology is detected at an early stage, then it is usually sufficient to apply conservative treatment. Among them it is necessary to distinguish the following:

  • Wearing comfortable orthopedic shoes. It should not constrain movement and squeeze the foot. Orthopedic insoles are also recommended.
  • Therapeutic massage of the foot area. It is better to entrust this procedure to a specialist. Massage improves the blood circulation of the affected area, helps to eliminate pain.
  • Use of special gel delimiters for fingers. They reduce the likelihood of contact with phalanges and deformation of the fingers.
  • To reduce friction apply cotton swabs, patches. If there are any lesions on the skin, they should be treated immediately.

In the case when the hammer-shaped finger begins to obstruct the habitual movements, when the gait is broken and severe pains arise, the doctor can prescribe an operation to correct the condition.

To eliminate the excessive flexion reflex during surgery, the main phalanx of the affected finger is removed. Then, for four weeks, a cast is applied. This is a sparing version of the operation, but there are also more radical methods.

Correction of pain syndrome

To relieve the pain of the affected area, the treatment involves the use of various local ointments. These include the following:

  • Ointments based on clay. To prepare such an ointment, you must mix a bag of clay and 50 milliliters of sunflower oil. The composition should be thoroughly mixed and applied to the affected area for an hour and a half. Then ointment should be washed off with warm water. Such procedures help to eliminate pain.
  • Ointments based on diclofenac. This anti-inflammatory agent should be applied to the skin in a thin layer, lightly massaging.

Efficiency of curative physical culture

To adjust the deformed finger on the leg, you need to give time to special exercises. This will allow you to straighten the curvature on the hammer-shaped fingers.

To be treated in this way is simple: in the summer, for example, it is recommended to walk barefoot.

It is also possible, with an evening rest, sitting on the couch, to roll the feet with studded balls or special rollers.

In addition, these exercises are quite effective:

  • stretching the legs to the stop, sitting on the floor, during this you need to bend and unbend each toe;
  • flexion and extension of the toes from sitting on a chair or on a sofa.

Recommendations for the correction of lifestyle

An important recommendation is the use of orthopedic methods of correction.

This should be not only wearing comfortable shoes, but also the use of special tools, for example, bandage interdigital bandages.

Such correction measures allow you to straighten the modified shape of the finger, and it will no longer resemble a hammer.

It is not necessary to resort to treatment by folk remedies: it's enough to eat right, practice gymnastics and wear comfortable, fit shoes.

As for the diet, you need to include in the diet vegetables, greens, fruits, foods containing vitamins such as calciferol, tocopherol and B vitamins.

Doctors recommend eating steam, baked, boiled dishes, it is better to exclude fried foods.

Possible complications

Among the patients with this deformity the following complications are possible:

  • infection of the wound surface;
  • swelling of the affected area;
  • bleeding;
  • recurrence of pathology;
  • damage to the nerve structures and vessels of the foot.

Rehabilitation measures

The most important during the rehabilitation period is the return of not only the form, but also the functionality of the affected area. To do this, special exercises are prescribed, drugs for anesthetizing and stimulating recovery of the affected tissues.

In the first time after surgery it is recommended:

  • Keep your leg higher for normal blood flow.
  • Limit prolonged walking or other heavy loads.
  • Use special shoes, crutches for easier walking.

Puffiness and hyperemia of the operated area can last several months. During the rehabilitation period, you should visit the doctor regularly to examine and correct the course of restorative therapy.

A source: https://NogoStop.ru/stopa/palcy/molotkoobraznaya-deformaciya-palcev.html

Hammer-shaped deformation of toes and its causes


  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment
  • Prevention

Hammer-shaped deformity of the toes is not only a cosmetic defect affecting the toes, but also a serious pathology that causes symptoms of pain and a decrease in the capacity for work of a person.

With pathology, deformation occurs most often of the 2nd and 3rd toe of the foot, while they become hammer-shaped.


The reasons for this state are related to the processes of deformation in the foot, although isolated forms associated with the damage of the finger are encountered.


Curvature occurs due to reduced mobility of phalangeal joints, and the lack of movement in the future fixes the finger in a bent position, as the tendons and ligaments atrophy.

Deformation of the toes is a characteristic symptom for valgus deformity, when the thumb of the foot deviates from its axis, as well as a symptom of transverse flatfoot, when the front part is flattened feet.

If the curvature is not treated in time, then the person will develop a persistent deformation, which is negative will affect the ability to normally wear shoes, walk or run for a long time, while fingers gain claw form.


As an isolated form, hammer-shaped fingers are rare, basically this condition is a complication in some pathologies affecting the joints, tendons, muscles and ligaments of the foot. There may be a curvature like one finger, and often it is the second finger, so all the fingers, except the big one, can crochet.

As already mentioned, most of the curvature occurs with valgus deformity (valgus).

Valgus is accompanied by a deviation of the thumb from its axis, the appearance of a build-up - bones in its area, and also curved toes appear.

In addition to external signs, there are symptoms of pain, on the sole there are corns, puffiness. If in the early stages of valgus, the forefoot of the foot hurts only with exercise, then with the progression of the ailment the pain manifests itself in a state of rest.

As with valgus, hammer-shaped fingers also appear with transverse flat feet. The causes of valgus and flat feet are similar:

  • load on the feet when moving or, conversely, as a result of prolonged immobility in one position;
  • wearing uncomfortable shoes, it includes the presence of a high heel, a narrow sock;
  • obesity;
  • diseases caused by metabolism;
  • trauma - the disease develops after rupture of ligaments, trauma of the tendon, bones, joints;
  • diseases associated with a weak musculoskeletal apparatus.

There are only the main reasons for the occurrence of valgus or flat feet, and, consequently, their complication is the appearance of a hammer-like deformation of the fingers.

Separately, curvatures occur with psoriasis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus. Another group of reasons is immobilization or immobility.

Everyone knows that if a fracture or a serious dislocation is obtained, then a plaster bandage is applied, which prevents the bones from shifting. During the time of immobilization, the ligaments and muscles weaken, and later the curvature of the metatarsal bones may arise under the influence of the load.


Pathology can cause infections that affect the joints, they include poliomyelitis, tuberculosis.


The causes of deformity are often associated with congenital or acquired anomalies of the foot structure. This is the presence of a high arch of the foot, a tension of the tendon, a change in gait, genetic abnormalities.

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It should be noted that hammer-shaped toes are dangerous not only for the symptoms of pain and discomfort, but also threaten the formation of calluses, corns, getting a dislocation or joint disease (osteoporosis, arthritis).

Deformities of the toes are accompanied by the process of the appearance of the callus, and the subsequent friction causes inflammation. This can cause suppuration and require the appointment of an operation. But, in addition to internal anomalies, a person has symptoms of pain.

First, the fingers are hurt with the shoe worn, during movement, when pressure and friction occur. A person feels uncomfortable in narrow shoes, it is difficult for girls to wear heels.

There are two forms of the disease. Non-fixed deformation, when joints can be straightened, but at rest they are bent again.

There is also a fixed form when the finger can not be straightened.

The hammer-shaped finger appears when the tendons fail to stabilize the joints, and the longer the treatment is, the higher the chance of a fixed deformation.

The deformed joint, when in a bent state, exerts pressure on adjacent fingers, causing the pain to spread to them.

Since the hammerlike deformity of the second finger is most often observed, the third finger begins to curve along with a prolonged course of the disease.

Still it is possible to note a symptom of a curvature of a nail as the finger constantly looks downwards and on a fingernail there is a pressure.


Diagnosis of the hammer-shaped finger is based on the consultation of the orthopedist and the appointment of radiography. It is important to not miss concomitant pathologies of the joints, such as arthrosis, osteoporosis, and also to reveal the presence of flat feet.

With timely access to a doctor, you can limit the conservative treatment method and not bring the disease before the operation.

The therapeutic effect is achieved only by complex therapy, and for this it is necessary to undergo a course of exercise therapy, the exercises of which will allow developing tendons, ligaments.


Before you start to treat the pathology, you need to adjust the lifestyle, exclude uncomfortable shoes, reduce the load, make sure that your feet do not sweat. All these factors influence the formation of the curvature of the fingers.


Institutes for traumatology and orthopedics are constantly developing devices and devices for the treatment of deformities.

Effective use of orthopedic longs, pads between fingers, protective caps, scallops.

To wear such correctors will have a long time, since the disease causes deformation of the joints, which is not easy to return to normal.

Gymnastics and massage are aimed at stretching the muscles and ligaments, but to give excessive loads during treatment is also not recommended.

This can cause not only the appearance of severe pain, but also lead to dislocation of the joints.

In addition, therapy is prescribed by folk remedies, including therapeutic baths, compresses, which favorably influence the elimination of corns, corns.

If conservative treatment is not effective, then an operation is required. Modern medicine offers many options for the operation, while the methods are minimally invasive, conducted under local anesthesia.


It is often practiced to perform an operation - resection of a part of the phalanx.


The physician can prescribe an arthroplasty, in which the surfaces of the joints are treated, or an arthrodesis is performed, in which the surfaces of the joints are excised and the bones are fixed.


Prevention of the appearance of hammer-shaped fingers is aimed at preventing flat feet.

It is flatfoot often causes valgus deformation of the thumb, and, consequently, of the other fingers, and also leads to the appearance of arthrosis, osteoporosis.

If the valgus or curvature of other fingers begins, then correctors should be used immediately, which will not allow the disease to progress. Individually pick up the correctors can the orthopedist.

In order not to have problems with the structure of the foot, and with your fingers inclusive, you need to wear shoes that do not squeeze your fingers, the front part of the foot.

Heel should be no higher than 5 centimeters, and ideally about 2 centimeters.

If there is a predisposition to flat feet, it is recommended to wear orthopedic insoles or shoes.

If a person has suffered the fate of a fracture of the fingers or lower leg, then during the rehabilitation you need to undergo a massage course, perform therapeutic gymnastics. This will strengthen the muscles and ligaments that suffer from immobilization.

By the way, daily exercise or regular exercise allow you to keep the body in tone, which reduces the risk of developing pathologies.

Deformation of the fingers is also found in athletes who give loads on the forefoot.

These include football players, athletes, as well as ballerinas, and often in the future they are overtaken by pathologies associated with the deformation of the arches of the foot, toes.


To prevent this from happening, athletes are advised to take a course of sports massage, always do warm-up before training and it is necessary to heal trauma.


A source: http://ladysmed.ru/platypodia/cyllosis/talipes-valgus/prichiny-molotkoobraznoj-deformatsii-paltsev-nog-i-simptomy-lechenie.html

Hammer-shaped deformity of toes: a description of the disease, diagnosis and treatment

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are subject to a huge number of people. It is difficult to find a person after 60 years who did not suffer from this or that disease. A significant percentage of all these diseases occur in various pathologies of the joints of the foot.

Risk groups

Hammer-shaped deformity of the fingers is a fairly common disease, most often diagnosed in women. Deformations can be subjected to any of the toes of the foot, except the large one, which creates certain problems when walking.

Factors that can contribute to the development of pathology are many. The most common reasons are:

  1. Diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, psoriasis.
  2. Excess body weight - heavy weight increases the load on the muscles and bones of the foot, increasing the risk of deformation.
  3. Wearing tight shoes, shoes with a narrow toe or shoes with a high heel - when walking, at the stage of the push, the fingers on average can lengthen up to 1 cm. In close shoes, the fingers have nowhere to go and they are naturally bent, which leads to valgus deformation.
  4. Flat feet - in people with a flat feet stop is prolonged, so that the muscles responsible for flexing, as it were, overpower the extensor muscles. This promotes an even greater tension of the tendons and subsequently leads to pathology.

How does the disease begin?

The second toe is usually affected by the valgus deformity of the first. As a matter of fact, the first finger as though comes under the second, forcing it unnaturally to bend. In this case, he has a bent phalanx in the first joint and resembles a hammer in shape.

In addition, due to the lack of a shock phase, the outflow of venous blood from the lower limbs is weakened. People usually complain about painful calluses, which make it difficult to select shoes and create painful sensations when walking.

Hammer-shaped fingers look ugly and hurt the patient. Deformations of this kind can even change the gait, which will subsequently negatively affect the entire musculoskeletal system.

Do I need to see a doctor for help?

In most cases, you can judge the degree of the disease on the basis of a visual examination of the foot. The doctor should not be put off if:

  • you feel that the finger is very tense, so it is almost impossible to straighten it;
  • on the thumb there is a characteristic bone (bump), which interferes with the normal arrangement of the second finger;
  • while walking there are painful sensations;
  • on one of the fingers appears corn, which constantly rubs when walking.

The disease usually develops slowly. Muscles, which are in constant tension, gradually turn into strained tendons, a painful corn develops on the leg.

At the advanced stages of the disease, it is almost impossible to return the hammer-shaped fingers of the foot to a normal position, which makes it necessary to resort to surgical treatment.


To diagnose hammer-shaped deformation, it is usually sufficient to have an external examination and an X-ray. The orthopedic doctor determines the presence of calloused formations, their structure, as well as the relative position of the joints.

X-ray images allow us to determine with high accuracy in which joint the valgus curvature occurred.


After the collection of the diagnostic data, appropriate treatment is prescribed. Most often combined therapy and in the early stages is very successful.

Conservative treatment

At the initial stages of the disease, conservative treatment is prescribed. Sometimes just enough properly selected footwear or pedicure is enough to bring the hammer-shaped fingers back into place. The main areas of conservative treatment:

  1. Patients are recommended to reduce the total body weight to reduce the load on the joints of the feet.
  2. Special orthopedic insoles are prescribed, which relieve the load from the problem areas. Also, there are special insoles with two spacers, which allow to mechanically separate the toes of the foot when walking. In some cases, special gel or gauze caps that are worn directly on the deformed finger and protect it from rubbing help well.
  3. A good effect is provided by specially designed gymnastics for the feet.
  4. With severe pain, prescribe painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Operative treatment

In advanced stages of the disease, surgical treatment is usually used. Operations of this kind are considered quite complex, therefore only proven methods of correction are used.

If the hammer-shaped deformity is accompanied by valgus deformation, then both diseases are usually eliminated during one surgical intervention. After treatment in the hospital until complete recovery takes about a month.

A source: http://MedOtvet.com/arthritis/molotkoobraznaya-deformaciya-palcev-stopy-diagnostika-i-lechenie.html

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