Problems that affect human vision, there may be many, but cataracts among them are allocated enough strongly, because it can easily lead to the fact that a person simply loses his sight, finally blinded.It is necessary to carefully monitor this insidious pathology, which can sneak up unnoticed and "hit" even on those people who, as it seems at first glance, were absolutely healthy.
- 1What is cataract
- 2Causes of appearance and symptoms
- 3.1Methods of treatment
- 3.2Surgical intervention
- 3.3Possible complications
What is cataract
A cataract is called turbidity of a special optical lens located inside the eye and responsible for the refraction of the rays - the lens.If the problem arises, then the key property of the lens, transparency, disappears, it becomes cloudy.
It is interesting that this disease is translated from the Greek only as a "waterfall". But it's not just that. The fact is that a person suffering from a disease sees everything as if through a flowing stream of water, his perception of the surrounding reality is visibly distorted.
Causes of appearance and symptoms
Cataract can be both congenital and acquired disease, it can develop both on one eye, and immediately on both.In a congenital variant, it is usually the case that during pregnancy, the mother suffered a severe infectious disease and / or took potent medicines.
The purchased option most often develops in the following situations:
- trauma to the eye;
- operations affecting the head;
- glucocorticoid or radiation therapy;
- age changes.
The latter reason is the most common, because approximately every second person has a clouding of the lens after reaching 50 years of age.
The symptomatology of this pathology is problematic enough to track, because it manifests itself very smoothly, gradually, it is very difficult to detect if you do not previously consult a specialist.A person simply begins to gradually realize that something is wrong with his vision, he begins to see that he has stripes and white spots flashing before his eyes, the image begins to double. When reading, the eyes begin to get tired very quickly, and the work with small objects begins to be problematic.
If the problem is too much started, then it can be seen even from the side, because the color of the pupil changes from black to white.
The development of the disease can take a very long time, sometimes it develops to fifteen years.And if it developed so much, then it is necessary to provide surgical treatment, which is carried out through surgical intervention.
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If the disease is highly developed, then the removal of cataracts is simply necessary, which is almost always understood as surgical removal.
Methods of treatment
The simplest method of treating cataracts is medication.It is carried out quite simply, you only need to use drops that contain antioxidants, potassium iodide, amino acids, necessary vitamins and so on.This treatment can be effective only at very early stages, it can slow the progression of the disease, but not completely prevent it. In any case, you can use the reviews on cataract treatment, and what people specifically came up with.
It is recommended not to avoid more radical treatment, because it is more effective.
Where it is better to get rid of the problem with surgical intervention? This is a fairly simple operation that can be carried out in any ophthalmological clinic.The bottom line is that the affected lens is replaced with a special artificial lens. Cataract is removed by several different methods - either with ultrasound or with a special laser.The operation is called "phacoemulsification". To do this, make local anesthesia with drops. This anesthetic is very well tolerated. The only thing is that the prices for cataract surgery are quite large, that's why surgical intervention is used last.
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In most cases, the operation is successful, no problems arise.But nevertheless there are various complications which in rather rare or infrequent cases are shown. These include:
- Hemorrhage in the anterior chamber.This problem occurs rarely, only if the iris is damaged. Blood dissolves without outside interference for several days.
- Detachment of the retina.This is a rather serious complication, which most often occurs in short-sighted people. Requires re-intervention to eliminate.
- Elevation of intraocular pressure.The reason is the clogging of the drainage system. It is often solved by drops, sometimes by physical intervention.
- Lens shift.This is a serious deviation, which requires lifting the lens.
- Secondary cataract.It is corrected with the help of capsulotomy.
Do not be afraid of these complications. Virtually all of them can be fixed and are only temporary inconveniences..
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Prevention of cataract is possible. To avoid it over time it is enough just to maintain a healthy lifestyle.It is not so difficult, but in the future everything will pay off many times.It's enough just to quit your bad habits, stop smoking, try to carefully monitor the weight, control the sugar content in the blood, do regular physical exercises, avoid the occurrence of hypertension and / or diabetes mellitus, and if they arise, deal with them quickly treatment.
It is also necessary to take care of your eyes, because if you expose them to excessive stress, it will also affect the cataract in a negative way.Do not expose them to long exposure to microwave and / or ultraviolet radiation, otherwise this can trigger the appearance of free radicals.It is necessary to protect the eyes from the sun, in which will help dark glasses, a cap or hat with a visor or similar things that will help create a shadow in sunny weather.
You should carefully monitor what drugs you take, because some of them contain substances that can affect the protein that is contained in the lens, in a negative way, destroying him.Drugs that are at risk include, but are not limited to, antiallergic drugs, steroid drugs, antidepressants, and birth control pills.Their reception should be limited.
Treatment of secondary cataracts after lens replacement
But that's not all.If you work in a chemical or other harmful enterprise, then it is necessary not to violate the rules and safety standards that are assumed there, otherwise the problem can be provoked even more.
You can consult a doctor who can prescribe you drops for the prevention of cataracts. Here the decision is always made individually, depending on the characteristics of your body.
Cataracts, undoubtedly, are a dangerous pathology that can significantly harm a person, make his life worse and even deprive him of his vision.But this does not mean that the problem can not be overcome, on the contrary, it is more than real.It is enough only to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, and also to visit the ophthalmologist regularly enough to conduct a basic examination. The first sign is lacrimation, and if you notice this, then first of all consult a doctor.