From this article you will learn the answers to the questions: why does the child have blood from the nose, what diseases can be hidden behind it. What additional symptoms may be accompanied by bleeding. How to help a child if he has blood from his nose. Further examination of the body and treatment.
The causes of
Nasal bleeding( scientific name - epistaxis) occurs when capillaries are damaged in large numbers located in the mucosa of the nose. This damage occurs either as a result of trauma, or spontaneously.
Causes and diseases that cause bleeding from the nose are the same for both children and adults. However, this phenomenon is more common in children, because, firstly, in the childhood and adolescence, the cardiovascular system is still developing, and the capillaries in the nose may be weak, and, secondly, many diseases that cause bleeding,for the first time they make themselves felt at the age of 18.
According to statistics, blood from the nose at least once was in about 60% of the world's population. Most of all, 2 age categories are subject to nosebleeds: children under 10 years and adults over 60 years. Most blood from the nose goes to boys than girls( such statistics may be due to more frequent nose injuries in boys due to a more active lifestyle).
Frequent nasal bleeding is a dangerous symptom. Sometimes this can indicate serious violations in the body.
It is possible to get rid of nosebleeds completely, eliminating their cause.
If this symptom occurs, consult a pediatrician spontaneously. As a result of injury, if you can not stop the blood for a long time or there is a suspicion of a fractured nose - to a traumatologist.
You may also need advice from an ENT, an endocrinologist, a hematologist, an immunologist, an oncologist. The pediatrician will send you to these doctors if necessary.
Why can the blood flow from the nose
The causes of epistaxis can be divided into three groups:
- Local( the cause is located directly in the nose).
- Systemic( behind the nose bleeding are diseases of other organs).
- External( the reason is not in diseases, but in the negative impact of the environment).
Reasons for bleeding from the nose:
|Injury of the nose( with impact, fall, burns from getting into the nose of aggressive chemicals, etc.)||Vitamin deficiency C, K or P. If they lack, the capillaries become brittle.||Reduced air humidity( the mucous membrane of the nose dries up, which increases the fragility of the joints).|
|"Picking" in the nose, deliberate or accidental introduction into the nasal passage of a foreign object, especially acute.||Chronic hypertension. Against the background of increased pressure, the vessels are easily damaged. With high blood pressure, the nose often travels at night, since the load on the vessels of the head is greater in the horizontal position.||Sharp drop in atmospheric pressure( during takeoff or landing of an airplane, immersion in water).|
|Inflammatory process in ARI, sinusitis.||High intracranial pressure. This is a dangerous condition, as the risk of hemorrhages in the brain is increased. In this case, the blood from the nose can also go at night.||A drastic climate change( for example, when traveling on holiday to a city or country with a different climate).|
|Allergic rhinitis.||Increased body temperature.||Treatment of the common cold with nasal sprays or drops, especially corticosteroid.|
|Tumors in the nose( both benign and malignant).||Hormonal reorganization of the body( with puberty).||Exposure to low or high temperatures( heat stroke, sunstroke, hypothermia).|
|Operations on the nose, carried over recently.||Diseases of the blood( disorders of coagulability, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukemia).||Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Aspirin, Ketoprofen, Indomethacin, Ketorolac, Meloxicam, etc.).|
|Vessel diseases( eg, vasculitis - inflammation of blood vessels due to immunological disorders).||Therapy with anticoagulants.|
|Heart failure, congenital heart disease.||Severe intense physical activity( lifting of heaviness, excessive sport activity).Diseases of the kidneys or liver.|
|Internal bleeding( pulmonary, esophageal, gastric).|
We also note the causes of nosebleeds, which are almost impossible in childhood. This is the use of substances that dramatically expand or narrow blood vessels( high-dose alcohol, energy drinks, cocaine, amphetamine and other narcotic drugs inhaled through the nose), as well as hormonal changes in pregnancy.
As you can see, the factors that can cause epistaxis are quite diverse - from the harmless dryness of the air to serious diseases such as leukemia. Therefore, when spontaneous and frequent appearance of this symptom, consult a doctor and take a survey, which he will appoint you.
If bleeding is profuse, it can be accompanied by such symptoms:
- pallor of the skin;
- cold sweat;
- sometimes faint.
How to distinguish between "dangerous" bleeding from the nose
By dangerous means something that indicates serious diseases.
Bleeding, provoked by diseases, is frequent and begins spontaneously .
Vascular diseases and blood clotting disorders are often accompanied by bleeding not only from the nose, but also from other mucous membranes. Characteristic and the appearance of bruises, even from light strokes.
Epistaxis caused by hypertension is more likely to occur at night.
Sudden, short and intense bleeding is dangerous( when the blood begins to flow literally).They may indicate:
- rupture of a large facial or nasal vessel;
- of a malignant tumor of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses.
Bleeding during a trauma is also not always harmless. If the blood has gone from the nose as a result of a fall, especially from a height, pay attention to its color:
- If it is scarlet and foams - this can be a sign of lung damage.
- If it is dark, close to brown and curled - this can indicate a trauma to the esophagus or stomach.
In case of profuse nasal bleeding, a person may faint due to blood loss.
Also, epistaxis can be complicated by nausea and vomiting. With abundant allocation of blood, it flows down the back wall of the pharynx and, if ingested into the stomach, provokes these unpleasant symptoms.
In severe cases, with very heavy bleeding, blood can enter the nasolacrimal canal and go out through the orbit. However, this happens rarely.
If blood comes from two nostrils at the same time, and if bleeding lasts longer than 10 minutes, call a doctor immediately.
Rules for stopping nasal bleeding:
|What to do||What not to do|
|Sit the child so that the head is in a level position or slightly tilted forward.||Do not throw your head back. In this situation, it seems that the bleeding stops, because the blood does not flow through the nostrils, but flows into the esophagus. This will provoke nausea.|
|If bleeding starts in a dream, gently wake the baby and seat him.||If the nose is bleeding, do not lie in a recumbent or semi-lingering position.|
|Give the patient complete peace of mind.||Do not allow the child to continue actively moving and talking.|
|Take a cotton swab, soak it with hydrogen peroxide and place it in the nostril for 10 minutes.||Do not insert the cotton swab too deep into the nasal passage.|
|Put a cold object on the bridge of the nose: a towel soaked in cold water or a packet with ice slices.||Do not blow your nose, as this prevents the bleeding from stopping.|
If bleeding does not stop within 10 minutes, call a physician.
A doctor can stop blood by using the following methods:
- An introduction to the nostril of a cotton swab dampened with chloroacetic acid.
- Introduction to the nose of the hemostatic sponge. It is impregnated with substances that promote blood clotting.
- Laser coagulation( burning) of bleeding vessels.
- In severe cases, when the excessive bleeding can not be stopped, aminocaproic acid is injected intravenously. And, if the patient has lost a lot of blood, a plasma transfusion is performed.
Examination of the body
If the bleeding begins as a result of a trauma or insertion of a foreign object into the nose, take the patient to a traumatologist. Diagnosis will be as follows:
- The doctor will conduct a nose scan manually and using a rhinoscope.
- Will send to the radiography of the skull.
- In case of a complex fracture, CT or MRI of the nose and skull may be necessary.
If bleeding occurs spontaneously and regularly, consult a pediatrician. First of all, the doctor will measure blood pressure, collect data on the diseases transferred and the symptoms present at the moment. He will also send you for a general blood test.
At the initial examination it is sometimes possible to determine the cause of nosebleeds or to suspect a possible cause. If all tests are normal and there are no complaints at the initial examination, then, probably, the cause is external( for example, low air humidity).
Depending on the results of the initial examination, the following diagnostic procedures can be assigned.
|Suspected cause||Diagnostic methods|
|Nose diseases||Consultation of the ENT, nose and paranasal sinuses, MRI of the paranasal sinuses.|
|Hypertension||Daily monitoring of arterial pressure, kidney examination( renal ultrasound, urinalysis, urea blood test, creatinine, residual nitrogen).|
|Increased intracranial pressure||Consultation of a neurologist, examination of the fundus, MRI of the brain, duplex scanning of brachiocephalic arteries.|
|Hypo or vitamin deficiency||Blood test for specific vitamins. Sometimes a lack of vitamins can be seen without a purposeful analysis of the vitamin content in the blood.|
|Allergy||Consultation of an allergist or immunologist, a blood test for immunoglobulins of class E( IgE), allergological tests for various allergens.|
|Blood clotting disorders||Hematology consultation, coagulogram( blood coagulation analysis).|
|Hormonal disorders||Consultation of endocrinologist, blood test for thyroid hormones, for sex hormones.|
|Liver diseases||liver ultrasound, blood test for bilirubin, for aminotransferase( ALT and ASAT).|
|Heart failure||ECG, ultrasound of the heart( EchoCG), stress EchoCG, Holter monitoring.|
|Leukemia||Consultation of a hematologist or hematologist-oncologist, biochemical blood test( for lactate dehydrogenase, AsAT, urea, bilirubin, fibrinogen, total protein, glucose), myelogram( bone marrow analysis), cytochemical study of bone marrow punctate.|
The specific treatment of epistaxis is the stopping of blood. This process is described in the section "First Aid".
Further treatment is to eliminate the cause for the prevention of repeated bleeding.
|If no disease is found, get rid of external causes that can provoke nosebleeds:||Strengthen the vessels in the nose with:|
|Measure the humidity in your home||Healthy lifestyle|
|If necessary, install an air humidifier. This is especially true in winter, as the humidity in the air is often reduced in winter.||. Contrast shower( or washing).|
|. Do not abuse nose drops.||. Frequent outdoor activities.|
|. Cover your nose with a scarf if you are outdoors for a long time.||. Physical activity|
|Foods containing vitamins C, P and K. Main sources: sour berries, citrus fruits, vegetables and fruits of green color( cabbage, broccoli, kiwi, etc.), greens, nuts|
If the bleeding of the mucosaolochki nose cause health problems, follow all recommendations of the doctor for further treatment of the underlying disease.