Influenza vaccination has only been included in the National Calendar since 2006.In Europe, there is a continuous record of cases of influenza, and although it is far from complete, an inoculation against influenza has led to a decrease in the incidence.
According to the WHO, 5-10% of adults and 20-30% of children fall ill with annual flu epidemics, 250 000-500 000 people die from this disease, economic losses range from 1 to 6 million dollars per 100 000 population.
Vaccination against influenza should be given to patients-chroniclers, who are often ill with ARI, children of preschool age. In the countries of Europe, the elderly, patients with cardiac, pulmonary( including bronchial asthma) and renal pathology, diabetes and people with immunosuppression are vaccinated. In the US since 2008, the vaccine against influenza is older than 6 months.introduced into the National Calendar.
Influenza vaccination in children
Influenza vaccination should be carried out as early as the first year, because at this age there is a high incidence and severe course. Thus, in the 2007/08 season,the share of children 0-2 years among those who developed the flu was 38.4%, 3-6 years - 43.5%, while schoolchildren only 14%, and adults - 2.8%.Among the children hospitalized with confirmed influenza, 50% were children under the age of 6 months, 2/3 - children under 1 year and 80% - up to 2 years. In another study, it was shown that of the number of children who are sick with influenza at the age of 2-5 years, every 250th, 6-24 months is hospitalized.- every 100th.and 0-6 months.- every 10th. . According to the combined data of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the hospitalization rate for this disease is 240-720 per 100 000 children 0-6 months.and 17-45 per 100,000 children aged 2-5 years;37% of those admitted to hospital were at risk, their hospitalization rate is 500 per 100 000.
Although the death rate for children is 1/10 of the death rate of older persons( 0.1 and 1.0 per 100 000), a special study in the United States of this issue in2004-2005showed that in children in the first half of this figure is 0.88 per 100 000.
Symptoms of influenza in young children often differ from the classical picture - high fever + intoxication + cough and runny nose. At this age, febrile convulsions are frequent against the background of fever, the flu often causes croup, bronchiolitis, exacerbation of asthma, often complicated by otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia. The frequency of otitis media in children with influenza is 18-40% according to different tori, much more often in children under 2 years old. Complication of myocarditis, as well as from the nervous system - is not uncommon. So, in one of the studies of 842 children with confirmed laboratory flu in 72, neurologic complications occurred: encephalopathy in 10 children, febrile convulsions in 27 and afebrile - in 29, meningitis 2 and cerebral stroke due to hypotension - in 4.
Who should be vaccinated?
The contingent listed in the National Calendar does not include a number of groups whose flu vaccine has undoubted effect and can be recommended;The immunoprophylaxis calendar for epidemiological indications does not decode the risk groups. The recommendations in force in the United States are presented below, the flu shot should be given to the following categories of people:
- Healthy children over 6 months of age.
- Asthma and other chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
- Diseases of the heart with hemodynamic disorders.
- Conditions fraught with impairment of respiratory functions( aspiration, sputum congestion) - epilepsy, neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injuries, mental retardation
- Immunodeficiencies, including HIV infection.
- Sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies.
- Chronic diseases of the kidneys, metabolism, diabetes,
- Diseases requiring long-term therapy with acetylsalicylic acid( rheumatic diseases, Kawasaki syndrome) as prevention of Ray's syndrome.
- Family members and staff caring for children under the age of 5( especially important for children under 6 months)
These recommendations, although not including such obvious at-risk groups as patients with organic lesions of the central nervous system,which influenza causes prolonged apnea, children with malformations of the lungs and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are quite acceptable for our conditions. Of course, we should also recommend vaccination on an individual basis to all children and adults.
Influenza vaccination for people with chronic diseases is safe. Published enough convincing work, allowing to vaccinate these contingents.
Contraindications to vaccination against influenza
For all vaccines - allergy to egg hen proteins, to aminoglycosides( for vaccines containing them), allergic reactions to the administration of any vaccine. Split- and subunit vaccination against influenza can be used in persons with chronic pathology, incl.with immune defects, pregnant and lactating women, patients with immunosuppressive therapy, combined with other vaccines( in different syringes).It is not recommended to vaccinate people who have undergone Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Contraindications for live vaccines - immunodeficiency states, immunosuppression, malignant neoplasms, rhinitis, pregnancy, intolerance of chicken protein. Temporary contraindications, as for inactivated vaccines, are acute diseases and exacerbations of chronic.
Vaccination reactions and complications
The live vaccine against influenza is slightly reactogenic, the temperature above 37.5 ° in the first 3 days is allowed for no more than 2% of the vaccinated. When subcutaneous injection of whole-cell vaccines, it is allowed to develop a short-term temperature above 37.5 ° or infiltrates up to 50 mm in no more than 3% of the vaccinated. With their intranasal administration, subfebrile within 1 to 3 days is allowed for no more than 2% of the vaccinated.
Subunit and split vaccines give weak short-term( 48-72 hours) reactions in no more than 3% of vaccinated. The least reactogenic according to international independent studies are subunit vaccines. Clinical experience confirms the low reactogenicity of inactivated sipit and subadynamic vaccines and in children even in the second half of life. The largest amount( about 70,000 doses) of vaccine safety is from the United States. There are observations that the vaccine against influenza is safe in children in the first half of the year.
Rare cases of vasculitis are described. Observations in England for 34,000 vaccinated with different vaccines( of which 75% with chronic pathology) showed a low incidence of all and allergic reactions( overall, within 1-3% for different vaccines).
Rare immediate reactions after the introduction of the vaccine against influenza Grippol in 2006 in the subsequent almost did not recur.
The influenza vaccine is prepared from the current strains of the viruses A /H1N1/, A /H3N2/ and B, recommended annually by WHO.Vaccination against influenza is carried out in the autumn, preferably before the onset of morbidity.
Instead of the previously released anti-influenza gamma globulin, human immunoglobulin is used in a double dosage.
The vaccine against influenza is currently being tested, which is based not on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase but on matrix protein 1 and the virion nucleoprotein that do not mutate;if successful, there will be no need for an annual vaccination.
Live vaccines are made from attenuated strains of the virus( adapted to cold mutants), they are able to produce local immunity( production of IgA antibodies) by intranasal administration. In the USA, where a live vaccine has been used since 5 years, incl.in children with asthma, it is shown to be more effective than the inactivated vaccine against A / H1N1 and B.
Allantoic intranasal live dry flu vaccine for children aged 3 years and adults( Microgen, Russia) - lyophilizate for solution preparation. The contents of the ampoule are dissolved in 0.5 ml( 1 dose) of boiled water( cooled).Age-appropriate vaccine is injected once in 0.25 ml into each nasal passage to a depth of 0.5 cm with the attached dispenser of a single-use RD type.
Influenza vaccine is slightly reactogenic. Storage of drugs at a temperature of 2 to 8.Shelf life - 1 year.
Inactivated all-virion vaccination against influenza is used in children older than 7 years and adults. It is a purified virus, cultured on chick embryos, inactivated by UV irradiation.
Grippovak( NIIVS, Russia) contains in 1 ml of 20 μg hemagglutinin subtypes A and 26 μg B. Preservative - merthiolate. Form release: 1 ml ampoules( 2 doses), vials of 40 or 100 doses. Store at 2-8 °.Children from 7 years and adolescents are injected intranasally( by the RJ-M4 sprayer) 0.25 ml into each nasal passage twice with an interval of 3-4 weeks, adults - from 18 years - intranasally according to the same scheme or parenterally( SC)once in a dose of 0.5 ml.
Inoculated flu vaccine inactivated eluate-centrifuge liquid( Russia) - used in the same way as Grippovac
Subunit and split vaccines are used in children older than 6 months, adolescents and Roslyh. Children vaccinated for the first time and neoblevshim influenza, as well as patients with immunodeficiency is recommended to enter 2 doses with an interval of 4 weeks, in subsequent years - once. With the introduction of 1 dose in the spring and one fall, the vaccines are less immunogenic.
The influenza vaccine is injected intramuscularly or deep into the upper third of the outer surface of the shoulder. The vaccines are stored at 2-8 °.Shelf life 12-18 months.
Subunit and split vaccines registered in Russia
|Flu vaccine||Composition, preservative||Doses and method of inoculation|
5 μg 2 strains A and 11 μg strain B, + polyoxidonium 500 μg, merthiolate. Ampoules 0.5 ml
For children 6 months - 3 years 2-fold to 0.25 ml with an interval of 4 weeks.over 3 years - 0.5 ml each 1 time.
Polymer-subunit - Petrovax FC, Russia
5 μg of 2 strains A and B( Solvay Biolodzh.) + Polyoxidonium 500 μg, without preservative. Syringe, amp., 0.5 ml bottles
Children over 3 years and adults 1 dose( 0.5 ml) once
Agrippal S1 - Subunit, Novartis Vaccine and Diagnosis Srl, Italy
15 μg 3strains, without a cot. Syringe-dose.
Children older than 3 years and adults with 1 dose( 0.5 ml) once, up to 3 years - 1/2 dose( 0.25 ml) - vaccinated for the first time and not with the flu - 2 times every 1 month.
Begrivac Split, Nov artis Vaccine, FRG
15 μg 3 strains, without preservative. Syringe dose
Vaxigrip Split, sanofi pasteur, France
For 15 mcg 3 strains, without preservative. Syringe doses, amp.0.5 ml, bottles 10 doses of
Children under 9 years 2-fold, 0.25 ml( up to 3 years) or 0.5 ml( 3-8 years);> 9 years - 1 dose 0.5 ml.
Subunit, Berna Biotech, Switzerland
For 15 μg of 3 strains;virosomes mimic the virion. Without preservatives, formaldehyde and antibiotics
Children older than 3 years and adults - 0.5 ml IM or deep sc, for children from 6 months.up to 3 years in 0.25 ml( previously not vaccinated with 2 doses).
Subunit, Solvay Pharma, Netherlands
15 μg 3 strains, free of preservatives and antibiotics. Self-destroying syringe-dose.
For individuals> 14 years 0.5 ml. Children
Fluids Split, SmithKleinBichem Forms.ГмбХ, КГ, ФРГ
15 μg 3 strains, traces of merthiolate and formaldehyde. Syringe-dose.
Children over 6 years of 0.5 ml once, 6 months - 6 years - 0.25 ml 2-fold
The cell culture-grown subunit vaccine against influenza On-taflu, Novartis Vaccine and Diagnosis GmbH, Germany and split-FluvaxiN vaccine, ChangchookLife Science Co., Ltd., China.
Influenza vaccine is not active against avian influenza viruses and possible future mutants. Vaccines from "avian" strains in case of an epidemic have been created in Russia and other countries.
Is flu vaccination effective?
Influenza vaccination develops immunity 14 days after the injection, but in children who have not previously had contact with the virus, this requires 2 doses of the vaccine administered at an interval of 4-6 weeks. Immunity is type-specific;Vaccination against influenza should be performed every year, because there is an antigenic drift of strains of viruses, as well as its short duration( 6-12 months), even if its strain composition, as compared to the previous season, has not changed.
The influenza vaccine has a prophylactic efficacy against a laboratory-confirmed disease of 60-90%, although the degree of protection in children and the elderly is considered to be lower. When infected with strains of the virus, different from vaccine, the effectiveness is reduced;although the disease in vaccinated people flows more easily, but the incidence of influenza and mortality remain above the epidemic threshold.
Influenza vaccination is the most effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of influenza in both the general population and at risk groups. A vaccination against influenza reduces the hospitalization of children aged 6-23 months.(who received 2 doses of the vaccine) by 75%, and mortality by 41%, and the protective effect of the vaccination, carried out for 2 years or more, is much higher than the one-time before the epidemic. Among adults with community-acquired pneumonia vaccinated against influenza, during the influenza season, mortality was lower - RR 0.3( 0.22-0.41).Especially pronounced effect among the elderly: for 10 seasons, the relative risk of pneumonia was 0.73 and death - 0.52.
Influenza vaccination also reduces the incidence of acute otitis media( by 2.3-5.2%) and exudative otitis media( by 22.8-31.1%).Vaccination against influenza reduces the frequency of all ARI.
To protect children of the first half of this disease, the effect of vaccination of pregnant women is studied. Data from Bangladesh showed that this flu shot has an efficacy of 63%: up to the age of 24 weeks, 4% of children were infected with influenza, compared to 10% in controls. In addition, the frequency of febrile ARI decreased by 29%.
Bird flu problem
The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus( H5N1) multiplies in the intestines of birds - its N1 neuraminidase is resistant to acidic medium, and H5 hemagglutinin recognizes epithelial receptors containing sialic acids characteristic of birds. There are few such receptors( therefore people rarely get sick), but the trachea of pigs contains both types of sialic acids, which makes them the main "mixer" of viruses. Mass transmission from a person to a person is possible only if the specificity of the hemagglutinin of the avian virus changes.
A flu vaccination should be performed before the onset of the cold season. During the epidemic, interferon-a-nasal drops of Alfaron, Grippferon( 10,000 U / ml) and in aeozoles are used: children 0-1 years, 1 drop( 1,000 ME);1-14 years old - 2, over 14 years and adults - 3 drops 2 times a day for 5-7 days( in contact with a sick person) or an age dose in the morning every 1-2 days( during the epidemic season).The same scheme uses candles Viferon 1. Interferon-gamma( Ingaron - 100 000 ME in a vial, diluted in 5 liters of water) for children over 7 years and adults for 2 drops in the nose: in contact with a sick flu - once, in a season of epidemics- 2-3 drops 30 minutes before meals after the toilet bow 1 time every other day 10 days( repeated course if necessary - after 2 weeks).
For prevention in adults and children over 1 year of age use rimantadine( tablets 50 mg, 2% syrup for children Algeria with sodium alginate), although the virus A1 has become resistant to it. Doses of rimantadine: 100 mg / day( children 7-10 years), 150 mg / day( children over 10 years and adults);Algirem: children 1-3 years 10 ml( 20 mg) children 3-7 years - 15 ml:( 30 mg) - once a day for 10-15 days. Similar effect in Arbidol - according to the same scheme: children 2-6 years - 0.05, 6-12 years - 0.1, over 12 years - 0.2 g.
Neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir( Tamiflu) is allowed for treatment and preventioninfluenza A and B with 1 g. When applied within 36 hours after contact with the patient, warns of influenza in 80%, is active with avian influenza( but not with ARVI).Prophylactic dose for children 1-2 mg / kg / day, for adults - 75-150 mg / day - 7 days after contact or up to 6 weeks during the epidemic. Zanamivir( Relenza in aerosol is used from the age of 5 years for 2 inhalations twice a day( total 10 mg / day) of treatment and prevention.)
Vaccination against influenza in people with chronic diseases
Influenza vaccine in the form of split and subunit vaccines showed itsefficacy and safety when administered to patients with serious pathology( asthma, leukemia, liver transplant recipients, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc.). Clinical experience of vaccination of more than 5,000 children, 31 of them with various pathologies, showed its safety and effectiveness
Vaccination against influenza, consequences?
We were recently done in the garden. No consequences! And the fact that you have a runny nose, two options, the reaction of the body and thereby immunity is immunized for a year;or the infection appeared earlier inoculation and made itself felt in this way. Observe two days for the temperature, if ORZ, then treat! Good luck. Do not be ill!
as well as aches and joint swelling, lethargy. ..
Vaccinate with a weakened virus, it is possible that it carries a mild form of influenza and it will develop a lingering immunity to this strain of influenza.
This is exactly the reaction. Vaccination is a weakened influenza virus. That's just where is the guarantee that this year will be exactly this, not "B" or "B" or even what?
If there were cases of allergy to chicken eggs, then the inoculation is contraindicated( can give the strongest allergic reaction with complication), it is impossible to inoculate after a serious long illness, during illness( orz, cold, etc.).And if there are no contraindications then do it.
yes any. In principle, you have waited for them, the reaction can be expressed so.
Yes, it's the effects of vaccination. Viruses mutate, and the vaccine is the same year from year, so I do not see any reason to do it, although I'm not against vaccination. My son was once vaccinated in the garden and now I will not agree to it any more( I shed that same day with a critical temperature).Good luck!
*** just me
without ceremony. I never do my inoculation against the flu.very often I hear that after her children are even more sick. Here is my husband, although not a child, last year he was vaccinated and was very sick.three days 39 and not below.but I was not vaccinated and above 37.7 I did not raise the temperature. I also heard that the vaccine is standard, and the flu virus is different every time.this opinion is my personal and does not carry any agitational nature
Flu vaccination - contraindications
The flu epidemic has become habitual for a long time, and preparation for it has turned into something self-evident. Even children know how important prevention is. It is also well known that one of the best means for preventing influenza is vaccination. And only those who directly faced the problem know that the flu vaccine is not universal - it has contraindications. That is, not everyone can protect themselves from the disease with the help of a vaccine. More details about the negative aspects of vaccination against influenza will be described in the article.
Side effects of flu vaccination
Influenza vaccines come in many forms:
- Injection is more popular. There are no live viruses, but it gets into the body thanks to a shot.
- The second type of vaccine is aerosol. This means contains live viruses. Weakened, they do not pose a threat to the body, but contribute to the development of strong immunity.
Like any other vaccine, a flu shot can cause side effects. Different organisms perceive vaccination in their own way. The most frequent negative manifestations of vaccination are the following:
- Immediately after vaccination, a person can feel weakness, fatigue, drowsiness. Sometimes the patient is tormented by fever and fever.
- Many people get a headache after the vaccination.
- One of the most unpleasant consequences of vaccination is a runny nose or a pharyngitis.
- The most severe and harmful complication of vaccination against influenza is anaphylactic shock. Fortunately, this side effect is extremely rare.
- Quite a frequent unpleasant consequence of vaccination - pain, swelling and redness at the injection site.
Most of the side effects the patient forgets about a couple of days after the vaccination. And in order to avoid more serious and complex consequences, it is necessary to get acquainted with the list of contraindications before vaccination.
Who is not eligible for the flu vaccine?
Despite a large number of benefits, some groups of patients may not be vaccinated against influenza. An alternative method of protection against a disease is recommended in the following cases:
- First, it is strictly forbidden to get a flu shot from people suffering from colds or ARVI.Vaccination is allowed at least a month after recovery.
- Secondly, the flu vaccine is contraindicated in people with allergies to chicken protein.
- Specialists are not in a hurry to vaccinate patients who did not have a good previous vaccination.
- This method of preventing influenza is not recommended for people with diseases of the nervous and endocrine systems.
- In addition, patients suffering from kidney and adrenal problems should consult further.
- Vaccination against influenza Grippol and its analogs are contraindicated for chronic diseases of the lungs, bronchi and upper respiratory tract.
- You can not vaccinate babies.
- Asthma, anemia, hypertension and general cardiac deficiency can also serve as contraindications to vaccination.
As you can see, there are a lot of contraindications to vaccination against influenza for adults. Therefore, in order to really benefit the vaccination, it is necessary to consult with specialists before the procedure and to take into consideration their detailed inquiries about the state of health and the diseases transferred.
Do not forget that the vaccine is still not a panacea. To completely protect yourself against the flu, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle, for the time of the epidemic, to supplement your diet with nutritious foods, fruits and vegetables.
Vaccinations for adults
Vaccination involves the introduction of special drugs to develop a human immune defense against certain infections to prevent their development or reduce its negative consequences. There are schedules of routine vaccination, according to which most people in childhood were vaccinated. But hardly everyone knows that adults need to do certain vaccinations. It is about those vaccines, the effect of which has been going on for years, and therefore they are reintroduced to maintain immune defense against dangerous infections, which is called re-immunization.
In addition, many adults, especially those suffering from certain chronic pathologies that have weak immunity, are at increased risk of infection, and women planning to conceive a child, doctors recommend that some diseases be vaccinated. Let us consider which vaccinations are made by an adult.
The main list of vaccinations recommended for an adult
Here is the list of vaccines that should be done:
- From tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis - this inoculation should be done every 10 years. Pregnant women who were vaccinated more than a decade ago are recommended to be vaccinated in the second or third trimester. From tetanus vaccination is made necessarily after an animal's bite or in the presence of a lacerated wound.
- From chickenpox - it is recommended that adults who do not receive this vaccination in childhood and who have not had chickenpox( also if accurate data on whether the person was sick with chickenpox in childhood, are absent).
- From measles, mumps and rubella - vaccination is recommended for those people who have not received at least one dose of this vaccine and have not had any of these diseases.
- From human papillomavirus , vaccination should be given primarily to young girls because of the risk of cervical cancer provoked by this infection.
- From the flu - annual vaccinations are shown to people at increased risk of getting this disease or those who can develop severe consequences as a result of infection.
- From hepatitis A - recommended for people suffering from liver disease, medical workers, and also dependent on alcohol and drugs.
- From hepatitis B - vaccination is necessary in the same cases as listed for vaccination against hepatitis A, as well as with the frequent change of sexual partners.
- From pneumococcus - recommended for elderly people who smoke, and also for frequent lower respiratory tract diseases.
- From meningococcus - vaccination is done by adults, often staying in large groups.
- From the virus of tick-borne encephalitis - is necessary for those who plan to stay in conditions with a high risk of infection.
Implications of vaccinations in adults
If all conditions are met and there are no contraindications to the vaccine administered, complications after vaccination in adults develop rarely.
Vaccination against influenza
Vaccination against influenza, prevention of the disease is a very important point. Warnings are always more important than healing later. To date, there is no panacea for influenza, there is not a single miracle drug that guarantees a quick and complete cure, so vaccinations against influenza act as prevention of the disease. It is very important to prevent the disease by vaccinating on time. Every year more and more people are grafted from this dangerous disease.
However, there are both opponents and supporters of this procedure. There is no clear, concrete answer about the benefits or harm of vaccination against influenza. Vaccination should be carried out after studies and individually.
This vaccination is not included in the vaccination calendar and is paid for an adult, but for children it is still free of charge.
Vaccination against influenza in Russia occurs voluntarily, each person has the right to make his choice - for or against, and for the kids the choice is made by the parent.
The word "flu" comes from the French "grab", "catch".The definition speaks of the suddenness and rapidity of the virus's entry into the body. Influenza is a dangerous infectious disease that is acute and usually affects the respiratory system and is expressed by the following symptoms:
- high fever;
- sharp weakness;
- general deterioration;
- pain in the head;
- pain in the muscles;
- nausea, vomiting.
Hazardous influenza viruses, what is the danger, indicationsInfluenza can get sick at any time of the year. But usually people get sick all the same in the autumn and in the winter, because at this time the body lacks vitamins, the premises are not ventilated and temperature drops occur. In the autumn-winter period, the epidemic of the disease usually occurs. Small children, whose age is more than half a year, can get sick, as the antibodies transmitted by the mother cease to have a protective function. The virus causes influenza A, B, and C. Influenza virus is easily mutated, so flu and flu vaccine should be given annually to children and adults. Once the virus enters the upper respiratory tract, it immediately captures the mucosa and destroys its cells.
Cells are rejected and during coughing, sneezing, breathing enter the external environment, infecting others. Such infection is called in medicine "air-drop path".You can get into and through personal hygiene items, underwear. Once the virus has entered the body, the symptoms of the disease begin to manifest, a sharp weakness appears, up to 40 degrees the body temperature rises, the head turns, even convulsions may develop, the mucus and the throat pershit out of the nose. When a person has been ill with the flu, it acquires a kind of immunity to the disease, but the problem is that the virus mutates and the antibodies that are developed will not have any protection in the fight against the mutated virus.
Influenza is very dangerous, because it completely suppresses the human immune system. In addition, the flu provokes an aggravation of other diseases.
Complications after infection may be as follows:
- acute inflammation of the lung;
- otitis media;
- changes in the work of the central nervous system;
- altered processes in the work of the heart and blood vessels.
- , including children who are often ill with different infections;
- with the diagnosis of "bronchial asthma";
- suffering from CNS diseases;
- with heart disease or vascular problems;
- with kidney disease;
- with blood diseases;
- who have diabetes mellitus;
- deficient in the body's defense system;
- who go to kindergartens and schools.
An effective influenza vaccine is improved every year, as the virus is constantly mutating. The experience of scientists allows creating an effective and safe vaccine. The vaccination with the drug that was made this year will be ineffective next year, and therefore the vaccination against the flu with the improved drug is carried out annually. As the statistics have shown, the vaccine works, but can not guarantee 100% that the person will not get sick, but even if infected, the disease will proceed in a lighter manner and severe consequences will not occur.
Best vaccine against influenza, vaccination scheme, when should be vaccinated against the fluFor vaccination, live and inactivated vaccines are used today. Live vaccines are now used very rarely, as the development of live vaccines of the newest generation is underway. But the inactivated vaccine practically does not give serious consequences. This vaccine can be:
- whole cell;
- split vaccine;
The difference between drugs is that they differently split the virus into the component particles. The whole cell vaccine causes complications, has contraindications, but at the same time creates a stable immunity to influenza. The most dangerous to date are the second and third type of vaccine. They practically do not give complications. These drugs do not harm even a child, actively stimulate the immune system and do not cause adverse reactions. Today, 11 influenza vaccines are used and allowed in Russia. Most often do the vaccination with drugs:
How theInoculation Works After the drug is injected into a person, the process of producing antibodies occurs. This creates a layered protection.14 days after vaccination, the body accumulates a sufficient number of antibodies, and the body does not perceive the disease. Protective protein immediately recognizes the virus and eliminates it.
Immunity persists for up to six months or throughout the year. The effectiveness of immunization reaches 90%.This means that the probability of catching the flu is, but it is negligible compared to if the vaccination was not done in time. Today there is a standard vaccination scheme. Vaccination begins in September or October, due to which by the winter the body develops immunity to influenza. It is very important to get vaccinated before the epidemic. Babies can be vaccinated after the age of six months. Babies who have not yet been vaccinated against influenza, it is recommended to vaccinate twice in half the dosage for an adult with an interval of 30 days. The inoculation is done intramuscularly or very deep under the skin.
Modern flu vaccines practically do not give a negative reaction after administration, occasionally vaccinated people may have fever or swelling around the injection site. You can not vaccinate people who are allergic to a particular component of the drug, such as a protein or preservative. Do not administer the vaccine during the period of illness. You can only be vaccinated a month after the illness has passed. You can not get a flu shot if there were complications during the previous vaccination.
Vaccination must be done in a licensed medical facility. Vaccination should be carried out by an experienced doctor. After the drug has been introduced, the doctor must issue a certificate, which will include all the data on the drug. You can not buy the vaccine alone. Science today has proven the high efficacy of anti-influenza drugs, especially for toddlers at risk. One should or should not be vaccinated - this should be discussed with the pediatrician and individually.
Consequences after vaccination, rules for graftingAfter inoculation, the following complications can rarely occur:
- Inflammation of lungs of bacterial type. If the temperature does not drop more than five days - this is a sign of pneumonia.
- Reduced immunity.
- Otitis of acute form.
- False groats.
- Exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.
Vaccination can be free, paid and passive immunization. Schools, kindergartens and a polyclinic purchase the vaccine at the expense of money allocated by the municipality. This vaccine is issued in Russia. Some employers also provide free vaccination. Fee paid for vaccination in private clinics, and the price depends on the drug and on the cost of the service itself.
Warning! Acquired vaccines against influenza should be stored according to the rules prescribed in the instructions, otherwise the drug will lose its valuable properties. It is strictly forbidden to vaccinate independently.