Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in adults
The most common and painful topic for every person and for every family in the autumn-winter period is ARVI. During the epidemic, 8-9 people out of 10 can get sick. By respiratory viral infections are meant diseases of the upper respiratory tract caused by a group of viruses. There are about 250 kinds of viruses that can lead to the development of acute respiratory viral infections.
The primary factor in the development of the disease is the hypothermia of the body and, as a consequence, a decrease in overall immunity. Subcooling of the lower extremities is of great importance.Prevention of ARVI
If you do not want to hurt follow a series of recommendations:
- Adhere to a regular, rich in vitamins and protein nutrition.
- Be sure to get enough sleep, you can sleep 1-2 hours a day.
- Try not to get into stressful situations.
- Come home - wash your hands immediately with soap and water. Rinse thoroughly with soap and nasal passages.
- In public places, hospitals, pharmacies, shops do not hesitate to put on an ordinary disposable mask.
- Drip 2-3 drops of beet juice into the nasal passages.
- 2-3 times a day instill the drug Grippferon.
- Lubricate the nasal passages with Oksolin Ointment when going outside.
- Take 1 tablet of Dibazolum for 2 weeks.
As a rule, at first a period of the first unclear, weak symptoms appears. Weakness, coughing, runny nose, a sore throat, an aching in the muscles of the body, a small subfebrile condition. What can be done first thing at home? So, treatment of acute respiratory infections in the home suggests:
- It is very good to wrap it up and sweat in a dream.
- Rub feet with vodka, and put on warm dry socks.
Next, we turn to treatment of acute respiratory infections with folk remedies.
We drink warm tea with honey and ginger:
- For a glass of tea, put one hour. l. rubbed ginger and the same piece of honey.
- All this is thoroughly mixed.
- You need 2-3 glasses of this tea drink.
You can put dry jars on your back.
Treatment of acute respiratory infections in adults involves the fact that you need to properly sweat. Therefore, we use tea with diaphoretic herbs:
- Linden blossom;
If the acute respiratory viral infection proceeds without temperature, then the following simple method can be used for treatment:
- We collect half a glass of water
- We drip there 5 drops of iodine.
- We're drinking.
Traditional medicine in this situation recommends taking:
- antiviral drugs;
Remember that before you start the treatment standards for ARVI in adults, it is better to consult a district doctor. He will be able to prescribe the optimal regimen for ARVI treatment in adults.
One of the proven antiviral drugs that allow for effective treatment of ARVI in adults is Viferon in a dosage of 50, 00 units. It contains ready antibodies for suppression from viruses. The drug of a similar group is Kipferon. Take this drug for 1 candle, rectally 2 times a day.
Another proven drug is Isoprinosine. It has antiviral nonspecific action and reduces immunosuppression of viruses. It is taken in a dosage of 500 mg for a period of 5 days.
Rapid treatment of acute respiratory viral infection in adults allows the use of antibiotics. However, as a rule, they are prescribed in the presence of complications of the disease.
From vitamins take large doses of ascorbic, up to 1 gram during the day.
Vasoconstrictors are recommended for use in obstructed nasal breathing.
To antihistamines we will refer:
- Loratadin et al.
Take 1-2 times a day.
Please note that cough preparations should be taken only on the advice of a doctor. Because it is necessary to assess the type of cough. However, lozenges containing sage are allowed.
Also warm milk with Borjomi in the same proportions will help.
Do not forget about the wet cleaning of the room up to 2 times a day, and also airing up to 4-5 times a day.
It is recommended to drink plenty of liquids to detoxify the body (up to 2 liters of fluid). It is very useful to drink:
- milk with lemon and honey;
- cranberry, raspberry, cranberry fruit drinks;
- citrus juices.
The patient needs to provide sufficient food with protein food: broths, vegetables and fruits, seafood. It should be eaten often, but fractional.
And most importantly - you need bed rest for the patient. Complications, as a rule, develop if the cold is transferred to the legs. These are defeats:
- lungs and others.
Prevention and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in adults: drugs
Do you know what should be the treatment of ARVI in adults? Drugs in this disease can be different. However, taking them in certain doses is recommended only after consulting a doctor. If you can not visit the hospital in the near future, you can get rid of colds at home, without the use of pharmaceuticals.
In this article, we will tell you in detail how to treat ARVI in adults. Drugs against this ailment will also be presented to your attention. In addition, you will learn how to protect your body and not get sick in the winter or autumn.
The standard of ARVI treatment in adults is known to many. After all, this is the most common disease that an incredible number of people face each year, especially in the autumn-winter period. According to statistics, during an epidemic of acute respiratory infections, approximately 8 people out of 10 can get sick. And it should be noted that not always such a disease passes without a trace. A fairly large number of people develop complications. To avoid this, doctors recommend not to delay treatment, but to fight the disease immediately after the appearance of the first symptoms.
What is ARVI?
Before I tell you about the most effective regimen for treating ARVI in adults, it should be told what kind of disease it is.
Viral respiratory infections are ailments that affect the upper respiratory tract. As a rule, such a deviation is caused by a group of viruses. To date, there are about 250 species. They lead to the development of acute respiratory viral infection in an adult.
Causes of the disease
As already mentioned above, the standard of ARVI treatment in adults is known to a large number of people. But it is better to know not how to fight this disease, but how to avoid the very occurrence of the disease. For this purpose it is necessary to reveal the reasons of development of ARVI.
The primary factor in the occurrence of such a deviation is supercooling. If you have been in the cold for a long time or have become very wet under the autumn rain, the consequence will be a general decrease in immunity. In a few hours, and maybe even a few days, you will begin to feel chills, stuffy nose and other cold symptoms. It is at this point and should begin treatment of ARVI in adults. Drugs in this case need not be prescribed by a doctor. After all, you should only increase immunity again, and for this, ordinary vitamins (especially vitamin C) may be appropriate.
What if the virus has penetrated the body?
Rapid treatment of ARVI in adults is the only possible solution, due to which the disease will not continue its development. If the virus still penetrated the body, then immediately take a number of urgent measures. For this it is recommended to dress warmly, and then drink herbal tea with honey and lie under a warm blanket. Also, some doctors advise taking a shock dose of such a drug as "Paracetamol" (2 tablets at once).
As a rule, after the described actions (usually the next morning) all the symptoms in the form of weakness, cough, runny nose, sore throat and aches in the muscles of the body pass very quickly. But that these signs do not return to you again, it is recommended to maintain their immunity by taking vitamin complexes and consuming fresh fruits and vegetables.
Further development of the disease
Now you know what should be the effective treatment of ARVI in adults. But the above advice is recommended to apply in practice only if you have an initial stage of the disease. After all, with its further development, they will not help you.
Unfortunately, most people mistakenly believe that all the symptoms of a cold will go away on their own, without using any effort in the form of home or drug treatment. This reckless decision plays a fatal role in the fate of the patient. Symptoms start to increase, and a person's condition worsens. As a result, a patient with a mild cold gets to a hospital bed. That is why with the further development of the disease it is recommended to take all necessary medicines and vitamins without fail.
What drugs to use for treatment?
Effective treatment of ARVI in adults involves the use of such tools as:
- antiviral agents;
Before proceeding to the standard treatment of ARI, it is better to consult a therapist. After all, only an experienced doctor will be able to assign you the optimal scheme and quickly get rid of the ailment.
So how to get rid of ARVI? Treatment in adults (drugs from viruses are named below) is reduced to taking an antiviral drug. To such an effective tool can be attributed "Viferon". This is a powerful medicine that contains ready-made antibodies that suppress viruses. Also in the pharmacy you can buy a similar product "Kipferon". This product is sold in the form of rectal suppositories. They must be used in an amount of 1 pc. twice a day.
Another proven means is "Isoprinozin". The medication has a nonspecific antiviral property, decreasing the immunosuppression of viruses. This drug should be taken at 500 mg per day for five days.
Reception of antibiotics
What else can be the treatment of ARVI in adults? The drugs presented above are good at curing colds. But if you need fast treatment, doctors can prescribe antibiotics. Although such funds are usually prescribed only in the event of complications. Otherwise, you can quickly recover from a common cold, but get many other problems associated with dysbiosis, etc.
What vitamins to take?
To increase your immunity and quickly get rid of all the symptoms of SARS, it is recommended to take more vitamins. The first in line should be ascorbic acid in a dose of 1 g per day. You can also purchase a whole complex that will support your immunity.
If the cold is accompanied by the strongest cold, then you should use vasoconstrictor drugs. And antihistamines include:
- drug "Dimedrol
- medicine "Loratadin
- drug "Tavegil" and so on.
Take medication twice a day.
To drug therapy has become more effective, some experts recommend combining it with folk recipes. For this, a generous drink is recommended (up to about two liters of liquid). This therapy will remove all the phenomena of intoxication of the body.
So, with ARVI it is very useful to drink:
- warm crimson, cowberry, and cranberry fruit;
- milk with honey and lemon;
- various compotes from dried fruits;
- citrus juices.
Also, do not forget about wet cleaning in the room and its regular airing. As for the menu, the patient needs to provide protein food, which should include weak meat broths or seafood. In addition, it is required to introduce into your diet fresh fruits and vegetables.
What can be complications?
The most important thing for a cold is bed rest. After all, if you decide to move the disease on your feet, it is unlikely that any treatment will help you. Moreover, if you do not comply with bed rest, ARVI can progress, resulting in you risk getting complications that will certainly affect the heart, brain, lungs, kidneys and others. organs.
Treatment and prevention of ARVI
Now you know how to cure yourself and your loved ones from ARVI. However, we recommend that you better prevent the disease, rather than taking a large number of different medications later.
So, if you do not want to get sick, then be sure to follow the following recommendations.
- Eat a meal rich in vitamins.
- Be sure to get enough sleep.
- Avoid stressful situations.
- In public places, wear a one-time mask.
- Lubricate the nasal passages with oxolin ointment.
Review of antiviral drugs in cases of influenza and influenza
Any disease, especially ARVI and the Flu is easier, cheaper and safer not to treat, but not to prevent, to prevent its occurrence. Recently, especially worried about the "point" - it's safer. Should I take antiviral pills at all? In today's complex world, how to understand the issues:
- Will the effect of using an expensive antiviral drug?
- Which drug is better for adults to take flu, children?
- Do not it cause harm to health?
- Is there the best cure for flu?
- Effective antiviral drugs - is it advertising, business, dummy or not?
Antiviral drugs for Orvy on the Russian pharmaceutical market are as follows:
Virtually all antiviral drugs for orvi and flu have no evidence base for their antiviral efficacy. Studies are very expensive, conducted by the manufacturers themselves and those interested in the positive conclusion of the parties. Today, most clinical trials of new drugs are regularly falsified in order to bring "miraculous" drugs to the market with a new price tag. Given the fabulous commercial benefits of selling expensive antiviral drugs during the epidemic, honesty and objectivity of research is not believed. As you know, pharmacological publications, even in medical journals today, are about 90 percent - these are custom-made articles of an advertising nature.
Today in the pharmacy chains an abundance of various medicines, some of which in fact "Medicines" are not, because there are a lot of fakes, frank dummies and inefficient means. Advocates of patients' rights in Ukraine, for example, argue that in 4 drugs registered as antiviral - the active substance was not found. However, a wide advertising company allows producers to earn millions of hryvnias on them per year.
Antiviral drugs for Orvi are conventionally divided into:
- Vaccines - stimulation of the production of antibodies before infection with the virus
- Immunostimulants - drugs that temporarily enhance nonspecific immunity, which promote the production of interferons
- Antiviral drugs are agents that affect neuraminidase (a viral enzyme) by suppressing the multiplication of the virus (Oseltamivir, Zanamivir) and blockers of M2-channels Amantadine, Remantadin - these drugs have proven clinical effectiveness, but as any means have a number of side effects effects.
Most antiviral drugs for orvi and influenza are developed and applied no more than 10-40 years. The drug should have a greater "trial period" in order to draw a conclusion about its effectiveness and side effects. As for immunostimulants, these funds can have delayed consequences (development risks autoimmune diseases, oncological diseases of the blood, etc.) and should be prescribed according to strict indications.
Immunity modulators and antiviral agents
The immunostimulants produced today show the activation of immune reactions at the biochemical level (what is called "In vitro"), but their real benefits and long-term consequences of use are rather complex, poorly understood region. Since information on many mechanisms of immunity has become known relatively recently, scientists are getting more and more information about its functioning every year. Therefore, there is no confidence in the safety and correctness of general stimulation of the "under-researched" immune system (see Fig. what is immunity and whether drugs are needed to improve it). Especially prudent should be the preventive use of immunostimulants and the treatment with antiviral medicines for children.
"Pharmacy immunostimulants can not only help the body, but also harm" - says Ph.D. Tatyana Tikhomirova, immunologist-allergist. Such a state as hyperactivation of the immune system, as well as immunodeficiency is extremely dangerous, the human body functions normally only with the balance of the immune system. And if a person each time stimulates ("to increase self-immunity"), then, in the presence of predisposing factors, this may result in pathological inflammation, launching of immune aggression on healthy tissues, hyperactivation of the immune system and theoretically (in extreme cases) to the development of autoimmune or oncological disease.
If the next of kin has any autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent sugar diabetes, Sjogren's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, etc.), then under no circumstances should a person use any immunostimulants. Even if a person is healthy, there is already a violation of the immune system, and one can live with them all his life, but if he is rude and persistently try to stimulate their immune system, it can end with the debut of an autoimmune disease.
Fortunately, for most healthy people, without the presence of any predisposing factors, it is difficult to "achieve" your immunity so as to seriously damage your health. Since most of the known immunostimulants either do not work at all, or almost do not work. One part of the drugs - an ordinary deception, another - ineffective means. But it should be remembered that any drug has side effects.
|Drug Groups||Act||Names of drugs|
|Interferon preparations||Blockade of viral mRNA translation, presentation of viral antigens||Recombinant alpha / gamma interferons|
|Etiotropic means||Neuraminidase inhibitors||
|Ion channel blockers||Rimantadine (Remantadin, Orvirem)|
|Antiviral drugs with varying degrees of evidence of action||Enabling synthesis
|Specific HA chaperone||
Alexander Khadzhidis, Chief Clinical Pharmacologist, St. Petersburg states the following: "Some doctors for some reason first appoint patients antipyretic drugs, and then immunomodulators, supposedly for the production of interferon - which is illogical and generally is absurd. That is, first, knocking down the temperature - "forbid" the body to fight the virus (at high temperature, antibodies are produced against the virus and infection), and then artificially "forced" do.
In developed countries, interferonogens (drugs that stimulate the production of interferon) are not at all. Interferons can work only with parenteral (intravenous) administration, and even then, their effectiveness is questionable. In Russia, these drugs are extremely popular, despite the fact that they are useless.
With regard to antipyretics with the virus - to knock down the temperature better with paracetamol and once with a rise in temperature, rather than 4 p / day - "just in case." Taking Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in ARVI, especially in children under 12 years old, is contraindicated, it can become the cause of severe damage to the central nervous system and the liver, it is not recommended to apply it to those who suffered from peptic ulcer disease Gastrointestinal tract. "
Well-known in Russia doctor Alexander Myasnikov says that all immunomodulators widely advertised in our country are a waste of money. In the United States and Western Europe, it is already unequivocally recognized and proven that these remedies are ineffective, but most Russian doctors continue to believe in the power of immunomodulators in treating Orvi.
Pharmacological action: Integratedimmunostimulating, an antiviral drug,has an interferonogenic effect. As part of the drug - Timogen sodium, ascorbic acid, bendazole. Timogen synthetically obtained dipeptide, it enhances the nonspecific resistance of the organism. Ascorbic acid normalizes the permeability of capillaries, reducing the activity of the inflammatory process. Bendazol stimulates the production of endogenous interferon in the body.
Side effects: in people suffering from vegetative-vascular dystonia, causes a decrease in blood pressure.
Contraindications: in pregnancy, children under 1 year, thrombophlebitis, severe hypotension, diabetes mellitus, stomach ulcer, urolithiasis.
Issued: since 2001 in capsules, for children since 2006 in syrup, in powder for the preparation of solution
Research: There is no reliable information about clinical trials confirming its efficacy and safety. Often, doctors and pharmacists recommend this tool for children, but use it to treat children should be used with caution or not used at all.
References: Quite a lot of reviews in patients who use Citovir, about the effectiveness and absence of side effects. Improvement of well-being is observed on the second-third day, in single cases the drug did not help.
Price: Cytovir 3 - average240-580rub.
Pharmacological action: inducer of interferon synthesis, antiviral,immunomodulatingeffect. Composition: the sodium salt of the copolymer, which causes the formation of late interferon, which has high antiviral activity. The greatest effect occurs if you start treatment within the first 24 hours of the disease, but not later than the 4th day after the onset of an acute infection. With a view to prevention, it is possible to take it at any time, preferably immediately after contact with a sick Orvy or a flu.
Side effects: the emergence of allergic reactions.
It is issued: It is registered in 2003, since 2005 it is made in tablets, since 2011 it is resolved to use for children over 3 years old for the treatment of influenza, as an prevention for children can be used for children older than 6 years.
Research efficiency and safety: There is conflicting information. The active ingredient is the sodium salt of the gossypol copolymer with carboxymethyl cellulose.And Gossipol itself is a natural polyphenol, it has been banned in the world since 1998 due to its toxicity. Gossypol for a long time and actively studied by some countries as a contraceptive, with its continued intake completely stops spermatogenesis. Chinese and Brazilian scientists say that host gossypol boys and men may suffer infertility in the future. However, Kagocel is not pure gossypol, it is the sodium salt of the copolymer, which has other properties that differ from the properties of the chemical itself.
The manufacturer actively advertises the drug and claims that the salt in Kagocel is negligible, 4 times lower than the concentration from the international standards allowed. Multiple stages of purification of the product ensure the absence of free Gossypol in the final drug, which is checked by monitoring the quality of each series of Kagocel tablets. The method used to check the availability of free gossypol is very accurate, it can reveal its content higher, 036%. In early 2013, data were published on tests performed on rats - no changes in reproductive function were detected in animals.
That is, research on primates was not done? It is known that gossypol for different animal species has its maximum dose of toxicity, according to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) for rats the limiting toxic dose is 2200-3300 mg / kg.,for pigs 550, for guinea pigs up to 300 mg / kg. The research carried out by the manufacturer consisted in the administration of therapeutic doses to male rats, and doses 25 times higher than therapeutic doses250 mg / kg). Can you trust the rest of the statements and "studies"?
Neither in Western Europe nor in the United States Kagocel is not used, there are no WHO medicines on the list. The effectiveness of the drug is not proven according to the representatives of the Formulary Committee of the RAMS and SDMX. There were no statistical studies on the development of side effects as of autumn 2013.
The drug is actively recommended for use by adults and children, but evidence of the safety of this medicines for children 3-6 years old no, clinical studies for this age group are not was produced.
Reviews: Many help, some children and adults are allergic reactions in the form of rashes, swelling, itching.
Price: Kagocel - average180-280rub. In 2012, the volume of sales amounted to - 2.64 billion. rubles
Tyloron (Amiksin, Lavomax)
Pharmacological action: active ingredient Tiloron, possesses antiviral andimmunomodulatingaction, it is a synthetic inducer of interferon that stimulates the formation of interferons alpha, beta, gamma.
Side effects: short-term chills, allergic reactions, contraindicated in breastfeeding and pregnancy.
Issued: almost 40 years ago, children under 7 years of age are strictly prohibited.
Research: The benefits of the drug are unquestionable for both treatment and prevention of viral diseases, but this can overlap with potential harm to the body. In the 80's in the US, after tests on mice, the drug was banned, as it had a highly toxic effect,in experimental animals, retinal bundle, liver lipidosis and other side effects were observed. It does not apply in the US and the European Union. In our country, continue to produce antiviral Amiksin and doctors appoint it to patients.
A small study involved 14 patients who received tilorone in a dose of 152 and 189 g, in 2 the drug caused keratopathy and retinopathy (while the visual acuity did not decrease), these effects were reversible. The authors of the study concluded about the potential danger of the drug for health.
Reviews: The occurrence of allergic reactions, the high cost of medicine.
Price: Amiksin - on average500-560rub. Sales volume in 2012 amounted to 7 billion. rub.
Additionally! Medicines, the so-called immunomodulators - Lycopid, Polyoxidonium, Cycloferon, Proteflazide, Timogen, Panavir, Isoprinosine, Neovir, Groprinosin and others. - should not be used to treat children (for various diseases) without immunograms and serious indications as they do not have the proper clinical trials of efficacy and safety in the treatment children.
Below are just some of the antiviral medications from Orvi, reviews about them, a brief description, comments on known studies of their effectiveness, the average price in pharmacies.
Pharmacological action: active substance imidazolylethanamide pentandioic acid. It is active against adenovirus infection, influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial infection, parainfluenza. It is an immunomodulator that affects the functional activity of the interferon system.
Side effects: allergic reactions
Contraindicated: children under 18 years.
Produced: as a drug for the treatment of influenza and orgi from 2008, before that, according to prof. Vlasova Vasilia Vitaglutam (imidazolylethanamide pentane diacid) was used in Russia before 2008 as a stimulant for hematopoiesis in cancer patients receiving an anticancer therapy.
Research: According to the manufacturers, the idea of producing Ingavirin arose in the 1980s, but Only after many years of research into its safety and efficacy was the drug submitted for registration by 2008 year. When Vitaglutam was used in patients with oncological diseases, there was no convincing evidence of its effectiveness. And when in 2008 Ingavirin appeared on the pharmaceutical market without full-fledged studies, the "epidemic of swine flu" began in the country, therefore Ingavirin was actively sold. The drug was recommended by the Ministry of Health and Social Development, even despite the absence of placebo-controlled studies, reasonable evidence of its effectiveness.
One study conducted at 105!!! of patients with confirmed influenza showed the following results:
- Receiving ingavirin reduced the duration of fever to 3 hours (if used in the first 1 days after the onset of the disease)
- In the placebo group, this is 72 hours
- In the group taking Arbidol - 48 hours
Analyzing the duration and intensity of flu symptoms - weakness, headache, dizziness in patients with ingavirin was confirmed to reduce the severity of the disease, side effects are not revealed.
In May 2009, Alexander Chuchalin, chief therapist of the Russian Federation, (he led a team of drug developers) gave an interview to the magazine Ogonek: "The new antiviral agent Ingavirin efficiency is much higher than that of the AmericanTamiflu. The Russian drug is quickly and easily integrated into the genome of the A / H1N1 virus, immediately destroying it. It is also effective with other dangerous viruses. "
Reviews: Most drug does not help, isolated cases confirm the reduction in the timing of the disease.
Price:380-460rub. From January to June 2010, the sales volume of Ingavirin was 220 million. rubles, 467 thousand packages were sold.
Pharmacological action: Antiviral, has the ability to suppress viruses of influenza A and B, SARS - severe acute respiratory syndrome, associated coronavirus. Arbidol is also used in the complex therapy of acute rotavirus intestinal infections.
Active substance: Methylphenylthiomethyl-dimethylaminomethyl-hydroxybromoindole carboxylic acid ethyl ester.
Side effects: use of children under 3 years is prohibited, individualallergic reactions.
Produced: invented in 1974, in 1992, it began its industrial production.
Research: Until 2013 there was no convincing evidence in its effectiveness and safety. Studies conducted in the USSR have not been published. In Russia in 2008, a study of 300 people showed that Viferon was more effective than Arbidol. In 2004, in China, tests for 230 patients with symptoms of Orvi showed it was not effective, in contrast to Tamiflu and Ingaverin. In 2009, in the journal of the UK "Antiviral Research the authors of the research stated that strains resistant to Arbidol are formed less frequently than those of Remantadine and Amantadine.
The Office of Quality Control of US Medicines denied registration of Arbidol in the United States, and WHO has never considered this drug as an effective antiviral drug.
Update on the drug: At the end of 2013, the World Health Organization Arbidol (umifenovir) as an antiviral drug with a direct effect, assigning it an individual code J05AX13. Thus, Pharmstandard received a nominal permission for widespread use of the drug on the territory of the Russian Federation, where Arbidol is included in the standards of treatment and prevention of influenza and ARVI in children and adults.
Nevertheless, the multicenter test of the effectiveness of Arbidol, which was planned to be completed in 2013, has not been completed to this day, and its terms have been postponed to 2015. The results of this test, which has serious sponsors and does not suffer from a shortage of patients, could put a dot over I in the arbidol epic, but for unknown reasons this is not occurs. I.eevidence of effectiveness is not present until now, it remains to wait ...
Reviews: The same number of positive reviews and opinions about the ineffectiveness of its use. There are isolated cases of allergic reactions in the form of dermatitis, angioedema, pain in the epigastric region.
Price: Arbidol - on average130-710rub. In 2012, the volume of sales - more than 5 billion. rub.
Pharmacological action: an antiviral drug, which includes oseltamivir carboxylate (active metabolite), suppresses influenza A and B viruses. When Orvi is not effective.
Side effects: Nausea, insomnia, diarrhea, dizziness, lethargy, cough, headaches, with caution to pregnant women and lactation. Contraindicated for children under 1 year.
Produced: since 1996, the pharmaceutical company "F. Hoffmann-La Roche "registered the right to developpreparations containing oseltamivir.
Research: Tamiflu has a disadvantage - it complicates the diagnosis, because side effects are similar to the symptoms of influenza. It is dangerous in the epidemic period with long-term admission. Optimum effective only short-term use - a few days at the beginning of the flu. Independent researchers demanded a standard report from the Swiss manufacturer of 4-5 research modules. To which the pharmaceutical company provided only the first modules, repeated requests for full information were never satisfied.
Since 2004, cases of neuropsychic disorders began to be registered, more often in children and adolescents, who took Tamiflu during influenza - hallucinations, nightmares, confusion, convulsions, anxiety, etc.
Japanese postmarketing studies of this drug in 2006 have indicated a risk of developing impaired consciousness in humans - psychosis, depression, suicidal tendencies, especially in children. And there were also 54 deaths after Tamiflu, 16 of which were in adolescents 10-19 years (15 killed suicide, 1 died, hitting a car), the rest died of kidney failure (it is possible that due to severe flu).
The latest information about this drug:Back in April 2014, the Cochrane Society (an independent health research network) represented by Tom Jefferson and the British Medical the journal published data from the Cochrane review of studies that did not confirm the efficacy of Tamiflu and Relenza in the treatment and prevention influenza. Also, the efficacy of reducing influenza complications with these drugs has also been questioned. The firm attempts of Roche firm to fight back with a firm promise to provide undeniable evidence in the form of results of randomized trials have so far not been successful. Evidence is expected to present.
April 10, 2014, the Cochrane Collaboration website published the results of these 26 clinical trials Relenza and 20 clinical trials of Tamiflu, in which 2, 00 people participated.
As a result of the research it was found that:
- Oseltamivir as a preventive agent slightly reduces the risk of developing influenza in families, without reducing the ability of the influenza virus to be transmitted from person to person.
- The duration of symptoms is reduced by 16 hours (from 7 to, days), in children this effect is absent altogether.
- The drug has no effect on the risk of serious complications (sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bronchitis), that is, does not reduce the likelihood of complications.
- The medicine is recognized as sufficiently toxic, increasing the risk of nausea, vomiting in both children and adults.
- When used for preventive purposes, the drug was dangerous to health, because it leads to mental disorders, impaired renal function, in some cases found that it helps to reduce the production of their own antibodies to the virus.
Based on these studies, health officials of the world's leading countries should decide to stop mass procurement of antiviral drugs with the current substance Oseltamivir due to the high risk of side effects and low effectiveness as a medicine for the therapy and prevention of influenza virus in the period epidemic.
reference: only on the basis of the claims of the manufacturer Tamiflu that the drug significantly reduces the risk of serious complications and hospitalization of patients during the epidemic, countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States in 2009 in connection with the epidemic of swine flu, these drugs were purchased at 40 million doses (The USA, bln. dollars, Great Britain 424 million. f.St.).
Based on recent data on the low efficacy and non-safety of this antiviral agent, an international group experts in evidence-based medicine called on the governments of the world's leading countries to stop mass purchases of Tamiflu and Relenza.
Reviews: There are enough reviews about side effects in the form of vomiting, dizziness, psychosis, headache. The effectiveness of influenza is confirmed by many.
Price: Tamiflu-on average1200-1300rub.
Pharmacological action: antiviral drug, an adamantane derivative, suppresses various strains of the influenza A virus (swine flu including).
Side effects: contraindicated in pregnant women, children under 1 year. Reduces concentration of attention, causes dizziness, nervousness, headache, increased fatigue, nausea, vomiting, dryness inmouth.
Produced: information on the first uses of the drug are known since 1968.
Research: The tests were conducted from 1981 to 2006, mainly they showed a lower toxicity of Remantadine in comparison with Amantadine. One study showed the effectiveness of preventing Amantadine influenza infection by 61% in compared with the placebo group and in the event that a person fell ill, then for 1 day reduced febrile syndrome. In the same study, he was compared to Tamiflu, he gave an efficacy of 73% of the placebo group. Rimantadine (Remantadine) is currently considered a drug with proven clinical efficacy, but the possible resistance to it of some strains of the influenza virus.
Reviews: There are reviews that Remantadin causes side effects - dizziness, tachycardia, bitterness in the mouth. In general, the reviews are positive.
Price: Remantadine - average50-150rub.
It is during the flu (including swine) with the first symptoms of therapists and pediatricians recommend: adults - Remantadin, Tamiflu. Children over 1 year old are shown by Orvir (rimantadine syrup), Viferon. Children older than 8 years can - Remantadin (in the table), Tamiflu.
Interferons are informant proteins, which are excreted by cells infected with viruses. They seem to inform other cells about the infection and the required inactivation of the virus. Alpha interferons produce lymphocytes, beta - fibroblasts. In addition to Viferon, the alpha group includes Intron, Reaferon, Kipferon.
ViferonThe creation of the drug was scientifically justified in the period 1990-1995. group of scientists of the Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. N.F. Gamaleia under the guidance of prof. Malinovskaya V.V.
Since December 1996 on the basis of the same SRI, serial production of recombinant interferon alfa-2b in suppositories begins. Viferon - a candle with a different content of the active substance.
- Viferon-1 (150000 IU) is designed for babies from birth to 7 years. It is used in ARVI, herpetic infection, as an additional remedy for prolonged pneumonia or sepsis, including in preterm infants with intrauterine infections. The drug is given a course for 5 days. Children under 7 years are recommended 1 candle 2 times a day. Preterm, born on a period of more than 34 weeks - as children under 7 years. With a shorter gestation period - 1 candle three times a day. If necessary, after a five-day break, the course can be repeated for another 5 days.
- In children older than seven years, an adult drug in candles for 50, 00 IU is used twice a day for five days. Possible use of viferon in pregnant women.
- Candles with viferon content of , 0, 00 and , 0, 00 IU are used in the treatment of viral hepatitis and herpetic infections.
- The preparation in the form of ointment is intended for the therapy of herpes on the skin and mucous membranes in adults and children older than a year.
Side effects: the main side effect of drugs viferon may be an allergic reaction, which happens infrequently.
Research: As for the effectiveness of the drug, it is not included in list A of evidence-based pharmacology. I.e,wide randomized trials in humans consistent with international standards were not performed. However, a positive practical experience of treatment with viferon in pediatric practice is available. (By the way, nitroglycerin also does not have randomized studies that prove its effectiveness, which does not make it an ineffective first-line drug for stenocardia). Publications of these clinical trials of the drug are available only in Russian and were conducted only in domestic clinics. Value for money allows pediatricians to recommend a drug for ARVI treatment in children younger than seven years. For adults in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, the drug is of limited use because of rectal administration and the availability of alternative drugs.
The main arguments of the opponents of the drug:
- high molecular weight of protein molecules that can not be absorbed in the gut
- lack of clinical trials that meet international standards.
KipferonIn candle light a little expensive for the treatment of common colds. Therefore, it is replaced by viferon. But, with severe forms of intestinal dysbiosis in children of the first two years of life, the drug shows good clinical results.
Studies: Randomized trials were not conducted, that is, the drugrefers to the list of drugs with unproven effects. The main claims:
- High molecular weight, which prevents normal absorption
- Adding to the drug components of the donor blood, which can cause fever and allergies.
Cycloferon was originally registered as a veterinary drug in 1993 for the treatment of animals with viral infections, in 1995 it was already honey. a drug.
The drug Cycloferon is approved for use in adults and children older than four years. Produced in solution for injection, tablets, liniment. Refers to immunomodulating drugs, is an inducer of interferon, enhancing its production and exhibiting antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating properties.
Application: on the territory of the Russian Federation is used in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza, viral hepatitis, herpes infection, human papillomaviruses and other urological and gynecological pathologies (eg, candidiasis, chlamydia).
Contraindications: The drug is not recommended for pregnant and lactating. May cause an allergic reaction.
Research: Cycloferon is an immunostimulant that stimulates the immune system and the production of interferons. To date, allclinical trialsthis drug, published in the medical literature,were conducted only in the territory of the Russian Federation and do not meet international standards.
There are no serious clinical trials for cycloferon that would prove its effectiveness or refuted the absence of long-term adverse effects of this drug (development of autoimmune diseases). It is not superfluous to recall that all drugs that are on the pharma market for less than five years are still at the fifth level pharmacological tests and it is quite possible to identify previously unknown undesirable effects from drugs such series. In the presence of newly identified harmful effects, the drug will be withdrawn from the pharmacy networks and discontinued, and most of those who have been treated with this remedy and have earned some disruptions in health are unlikely to receive at least some compensation.
Ineffectiveness of antiviral agents due to the stability of strains of the virus
The lack of a positive effect with the use of certain antiviral drugs for influenza is possible, and because there are drug-resistant viruses and a specific influenza strain may already be resistant to a particular drug (eg, Remantadin).
Other treatments and placebo effect
It is also possible that patients whose reviews indicate the efficacy of such remedies were quickly recovered by other methods of symptomatic treatment, and the placebo effect is not excluded (cf. amazing facts about placebo).
In a healthy organism, after 2-3 days, the immune system produces enough protective antibodies against the virus, it does not need additional medicines. It is enough to comply with all the known rules - bed rest, plentiful hot drink, vitaminized foods and drinks, clean air in the patient's room, gargling, etc.
Rapid recovery with antiviral drugs
In various life situations, reducing the duration of the disease even for one day can be very important, for example - wedding day, urgent business trip, important business deal, exam, interview and etc. It is in such cases that the use of antiviral drugs, which reduce the duration of the illness by 2-3 days, may make sense.
There are no adequate studies
Absence of benign studies on the study of effectiveness and side effects (on a large group of people, different ages, during long time), most antiviral agents from Orvi and influenza suggest the caution of their use or even the rejection of them.
Do not spend money on pacifiers
Spending money, in some cases, considerable, on drugs with unproved efficacy, side effects, questionable safety, perhaps, is not advisable. Any medicine, even useless or empty, can damage the body.
Video transmission: How the placebo effect works
- sec: 4 min. - about what means are usually prescribed by doctors
- with 2: 0 - about the effect of placebo on the work of the immune system
- with 3: 7 - about the high effect of placebo in children
- with 3: 5 - about preparations-pustachki, appointed or nominated at ORVI
- with 3: 0 - about homeopathy and antiviral drugs in ARVI
- with 4: 7 - on how modern research is conducted
Tip 1: How to treat a cold in adults
Cold common people called viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract, flowing in a mild form. The most common of these are acute respiratory disease (ARI) and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI). These diseases are easily recognized and amenable to home treatment.
You will need
- - salt
- - milk
- - honey
- - Butter and sunflower oil
- - chemist's collection of herbs
- - cranberries
- - essential oils
- - Radish
- - lemon
- Begin treatment for the first symptoms of a cold. It can be a cough, runny nose, sore throat, general weakness. The sooner you take action, the sooner the disease will come to naught. However, do not rush to run to the doctor for prescription for antibiotics, first try tried home remedies.
- Drink more warm liquid, the ideal option - green or herbal tea with honey. Use a natural antibiotic: cranberries, make mashed potatoes, add boiling water to it, filter and take during the day. In the absence of allergies to bee products, use honey and other medicinal products. For example, mix it with radish juice (it stands out if you make a cone-shaped depression in a vegetable and leave it in a closed pan for several hours).
- Dissolve a quarter teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water. With the resulting solution, rinse your throat with a cough, and in case of a cold, drop a few drops into each nostril two or three times a day. After the procedure, lubricate the nostrils with petroleum jelly or "Asterisk" balm. As an option - heat a few teaspoons of salt in a dry frying pan, pour it into a tissue bag or a handkerchief and apply to the sinuses. In the same way, you can warm your nose with a hot baked potato.
- Rinse your throat with broths of pharmacy herbs. Take one tablespoon of dry leaves of sage or chamomile and brew in a glass of boiling water. Cool to room temperature and use during the day every few hours. If you trust aromatherapy, try a massage with essential oils of plants. Mix five drops of sage oil, chamomile and eucalyptus with four tablespoons of sunflower oil. The resulting mixture rub your neck and back before going to bed.
- Do not ignore general medical recommendations for patients with colds. Avoid heavy fatty foods, give preference to chicken broth, green apples, lemons, warm milk with a piece of butter. Often ventilate the room. If possible, observe bed rest, sleep in woolen socks and with a scarf around his neck.
- Be sure to consult a doctor if after several days of active treatment the cold becomes only stronger. The reason for the visit to the doctor should be and new emerging symptoms of the disease, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high fever.
ARVI at the child of 8 years, the scheme or plan of treatment ??
magAbazhur (FE Beinertova)
The doctor should explain what and how
I myself do not drink against tablets and do not give my son. Only I smear a breast with ointment for a warming up and a jam currant dilution with water and all. Immunity should be able to fight the disease and not pierce the pills
Orvi, this is any viral infection (this group includes many diseases), including. and influenza (only it can not be identified for free).
but what are you yourself did not specify the medication?
we look at the circumstances. there is an initial stage (anaferon + vitamins), there is neglected, if the temperature, here it is already necessary to be more serious
Earlier and did, now for reinsurance I go to one more doctor and then I make a choice, t. To already I know that for example on kagotsel the organism of my child reacts normally, but what does not accept, it does not I take.
And what is kagocel? We also got it, by the way.
This is a good antiviral, twice already experienced it. Symptoms cleans up quickly. at times. 4-5 days and you are in the ranks.