Chronic bronchitis: causes and effective treatments
Chronic bronchitis (the code for μB 10 - J42) and in our time is a very common disease. And one of the most, perhaps, common in the field of respiratory diseases. Chronic bronchitis is a consequence of acute bronchitis. It is an acute form, constantly recurring, leading to a chronic form. In order not to suffer from this disease, it is important not to allow the recurrence of acute bronchitis.
What is chronic bronchitis?In simple terms, it is an inflammation of the bronchial mucosa. As a result of inflammation, a large amount of sputum (mucus) is released. The breath of a man suffers. It is broken. If excess sputum is not excreted, the ventilation of the bronchi is impaired.Slime literally floods the cilia of the ciliated epithelium, and they can not perform their function, the function of expulsion.Although due to insufficient amount of mucus, the active activity of cilia is also disturbed.
There are two forms of chronic bronchitis - primary (independent inflammation of the bronchi) and secondary (bronchi affected by infection in infectious diseases). The cause is infection with a virus or bacteria. Possible and the impact of various physical (or chemical) stimuli. Bronchitis and dust are caused. They are called dusty bronchitis.
The nature of the sputum is also different: just mucous or mucopurulent; putrefactive; may be accompanied by a hemorrhage; croupous.
Chronic bronchitis can cause complications:
- asthmatic syndrome;
- focal pneumonia; From this article, you can find out what to do when the cough after pneumonia does not go away.
- emphysema of the lungs.
Causes and risk factors
Development of chronic armor is promoted by foci of chronic infection, diseases of the nose, nasopharynx, accessory cavities
Chronic bronchitis is caused by recurrent acute bronchitis. So the best prevention in this case will be a quick cure for the acute form of the disease.
Prevention of secondary bronchitis: therapeutic gymnastics, hardening (is of great importance), taking general toning agents. Such means include: pantocrine, ginseng, eleutherococcus, magnolia vine, apilac, vitamins.
Development of chronic bronchitis is promoted by smoking, dustiness, gas contamination of the air, alcohol abuse.The same reason can be and diseases of the nose, nasopharynx, subordinate cavities. Contribute to re-infection of foci of chronic infection. This disease can be caused by a weak immune system.
The very first signs
With exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, cough increases, purulence of sputum increases, fever is possible
The first, the most important sign is a cough. It can be "dry" or "wet", that is, with or without phlegm. There is a pain in the chest. Most often, the temperature rises.The absence of temperature is a sign of a weak immune system.
With a simple form of bronchitis, bronchial ventilation is not impaired. Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis are wheezing, as ventilation is impaired. When exacerbations cough increases, purulence of sputum increases, fever is possible.
Diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is usually not in doubt.
The four main symptoms are cough, sputum, dyspnea, worsening of the general condition. However, in determining the diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude other diseases of the respiratory system.
Methods of treatment
Bed rest, moistened air and a ventilated room are the main conditions for treating bronchitis
Treatment depends on the stage of the disease.General measures in various forms are the prohibition of smoking, the elimination of substances that irritate the respiratory tract; treatment of the common cold, if there is one, throat; use of physiotherapy and expectorants.In addition, with purulent bronchitis prescribe antibiotics, and in obstructive bronchitis - bronchospasmolytic and glucocorticoids (steroid hormones).What are the symptoms of untreated bronchitis, is indicated in this article.
How the treatment of bronchitis with pine buds is indicated in the article.
What antibiotics for acute bronchitis should be taken is indicated in the article here: http://prolor.ru/g/lechenie/kak-vylechit-bronxit-antibiotikami.html
Hospitalization is required only in very serious conditions.
At high temperature, bed rest is necessary. In other cases, you can do without bed rest, but it's worth observing a more or less strict rest. The air in the room needs to be moistened. Now let's talk specifically about the methods of treatment.
Treatment with medicines
Strong antibiotics for bronchitisUsed only in severe or neglected form, because first of all from their application the immune system suffers.Are prescribed only by a doctor individually.
Here it is necessary to remember that there are also natural antibiotics. Propolis primarily concerns them. Chronic bronchitis affects adults more often and alcoholic tincture can be used: 40 drops should be diluted with water. This solution should be taken 3 times a day. In this proportion, propolis should be taken for the first three days, then the dosage is reduced to 10-15 drops. You can use its aqueous extract: 1 tsp. 4-6 times a day. Treatment with propolis (as well as herbs) is long, up to a month. The natural antibiotic also includes flowers of calendula. Recall, and about othereffective preparations:
- Acetylsalicylic acid. Do not neglect such a simple tool in our time. Take it should be strictly after meals, three times a day. It reduces chest pain, lowers fever, eliminates fever. Acts like a decoction of raspberries.
- Expectorants. Here you need to decide what you like - herbs or already ready-made pharmacy forms. Pharmacists offer a huge choice, these are various syrups: althaea, licorice root, primrose flowers, etc. Very effective syrups and ointments Dr. IOM. They have an exclusively plant base. There are ready-made preparations, like bromhexine, ambroben, gedelix, fervex. All of them are effective, but pay special attention to contraindications. In this article, expectorant syrups for children are cough.
- With obstructive bronchitis is effectivelycorin hydrochloride. The drug has a bronchodilator effect, it liquefies sputum well. But he has contraindications.
For the treatment of chronic bronchitis folk remedies for adults are used:
Radish juice (black) with honey or aloe juice. Mix them in equal proportions.
- Herbs. Cyanosis of the azure has the strongest expectorant property. In this case, the broth of cyanosis and nerves will calm and relieve inflammation. In the people it was called an odo-grass. The cyanosis has another name - valerian Greek. Her broth (and even better - napar, insist all night) should be taken after eating a little during the day.
- Thyme.Especially good for a strong cough. In the people it was called "Bogorodichnaya grass", doctors called thyme. It is better to drink like tea, but you can cook a decoction. Or to buy in a drugstore pertussin (thyme is included in its composition).
- Infusion of pine buds.Take to eliminate wheezing during the day.
- Chest harvests with licorice root.You can create a collection yourself, adding a leaf of a plantain and a mother-and-stepmother. Do not forget - licorice strengthens the immune system.
What herbs still use in the treatment of chronic bronchitis? Air swamp, marshmallow medicinal and anise. The black elder (used for fever), common heather, spring horsetail. This is the medicinal sweetboy, the medicinal medlina, the three-color violet.
And one more remedy, if there are no contraindications, available to everyone is milk.Nothing so cleanses the bronchi and lungs as milk. But with the disease it should be drunk with soda and butter (even better - fat, lard). If bronchitis is accompanied by a cough, effective grandmother's recipes for coughing, for example, figs with milk, milk with soda and home candy from a cough, will help.
Useful recommendationsThe first recommendation for bronchitis is a plentiful drink! It's great if it's berry juice.Very effective berries are cranberries, viburnum, raspberries, sea buckthorn, cranberries.Chamomile tea, just tea with lemon (freshly brewed). Drinking must be necessarily warm! Cold, even at room temperature - is unacceptable.
Physiotherapy is a necessary part of the treatment. But you can not start physiotherapy before the temperature drops. What does it refer to? Everyone knows and available mustard plasters, banks. Help and compresses on the chest. They should be warming. You can on your back. It is advisable to use inhalations with medicinal herbs. Rubbing with interior fat, badger fat, pharmacy grits. A gentle massage is useful.
You can do "dry" inhalation ": 4-5 drops of essential oil (pine, spruce, juniper, eucalyptus, etc.) should be dripped onto a hot frying pan.
The role of nutrition. With chronic bronchitis, food should be easy! The presence of a large number of vitamins is invaluable, especially vitamin "C". Not fatty chicken broth is useful. You can not neglect it.
Note: if at the beginning of treatment, take a laxative (a sheet of hay, a buckthorn bark), i.e. cleanse the body, it will be easier for him to cope with the disease.The defenses of the body will become stronger.
Important: the means that restore the immune system to use in acute stages can not be! These include: apilac, flower pollen, immunal, ginseng, eleutherococcus, etc. This you will take in the period of recovery.
More details on the correct treatment of chronic bronchitis in this video:
Let's sum up: you can cure chronic bronchitis! The main thing is not to give up and leave the treatment. Do not let the disease return. It is very important to choose an individual medicine that is right for you. Weigh the pros and cons". And do not forget about prevention.
Recurrent obstructive bronchitis
Recurrent obstructive bronchitis is a repeated exacerbation of bronchial obstruction that occurs several times in a single season, usually against the background of an existing infection. Simply put, cured acute obstructive bronchitis, can become aggravated once a person falls ill with an ordinary cold. Similar outbreaks of exacerbation that occur several times in a short period of time are usually called relapses.ICD-10 code J44 Other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease J44.0 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute respiratory infection lower respiratory tract J44.1 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with exacerbation, unspecified J44.8 Other specified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease J44.9 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unspecified J41 Simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis
What causes recurrent obstructive bronchitis?
Provocative of relapses of obstructive bronchitis are acute respiratory infections. Most often, such a disease is characteristic of children, and of an early age. In the medical field, recurrent obstructive bronchitis is known as a harbinger of bronchial asthma.
This is explained by the fact that children prone to frequent obstructions of the bronchial tree are most prone to develop further attacks of bronchial asthma.
How does recurrent obstructive bronchitis occur?
As already mentioned above, relapses are called repeated outbreaks of a recent illness. In the case of obstructive bronchitis, relapses may occur within the first two years. The impetus for relapse is the infectious disease of the body, it is SARS.
On the background of the main symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection: insignificant or subfebrile body temperature, reddening of the throat, enlarged tonsils, discharge from the nose, coughing turning into a strong dry cough. General weakness of the body, lack of appetite. Within a few days, the symptoms of SARS decrease, and the cough acquires a wet character, the mucous or mucopurulent sputum escapes.
In the lungs can be heard rough rales, single, dry or wet, small or large bubble, with a changing quantitative and qualitative index before and after coughing.
For relapsing conditions, it is important to observe during the periods of remission, recovery of the organism after the disease. It is worth noting that after the acute phase of recurrent obstructive bronchitis subsides during the remission period, the so-called "increased readiness for cough" is observed. An example is the situation in which a breath of fresh frosty air or other provoking factor causes a strong attack of cough.
How to recognize recurrent obstructive bronchitis?
The most informative methods are the radiographic image of the chest, in which you can clearly see the greatly enlarged pulmonary pattern. The clarity of the pulmonary pattern is more pronounced in the period of exacerbation, but also in the state of remission its increase significantly differs from the norm values.
In the acute period, bronchoscopy is very informative. With its help, the distribution of catarrhal or catarrhal-purulent endobronchitis can be detected in a timely manner.
The bronchography is also indicative in which a contrast medium is introduced into the bronchi and the bronchial tree is observed to follow it. Recurrent obstructive bronchitis gives a picture of a very slow or partial filling of the bronchi, or a visible narrowing of the bronchial lumen, which indicates the presence of bronchospasm.
In clinical and biochemical analyzes of blood and urine, no significant changes in the character of the examined disease are detected.
When making an accurate diagnosis, in young children, a detailed differential diagnosis should be carried out to exclude bronchial asthma. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma will be made if:
- Exacerbation of obstruction more than three times in a row for a calendar year.
- An aggravated allergic anamnesis or the presence of any severe allergic reaction.
- Eosinophilia (presence of eosinophils in peripheral blood).
- Absence of fever in the period of an attack of obstruction.
- Positive allergic indices in the blood.
Who to contact?Pulmonologist
What is the treatment for recurrent obstructive bronchitis?
The algorithm for the treatment of acute obstructive bronchitis is also used to treat relapses of this disease. Separate, specially developed treatment regimens are relapses - no. To exclude the subsequent repetition of the disease, it is necessary to conduct constant and targeted prevention.
For the treatment period, the necessary rest, nourishment and breathing regime is provided. For the inhaled air, indices are required for the total temperature, it should be within the range of +18 - +20 degrees and humidity not lower than 60%. Warm and moist air promotes the removal of bronchospasm, dilution of sputum and the alleviation of the condition as a whole.
The main task in the treatment of obstructive bronchitis is to remove the bronchial jam. With this task, the drugs of such groups as mucolytics and bronchodilators are successfully cope, consistently applied, according to certain schemes. To small children more often similar preparations are appointed or nominated in the form of inhalations.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed solely on indications. Can be a period of 3 to 7 days.
A good therapeutic effect is provided by physiotherapy and physiotherapy exercises, massage exercises aimed at improving blood circulation and ventilation of the lungs.
In difficult situations, when repetitions of obstruction occur frequently, treatment can be delayed up to three months or more. The treatment includes preparations used in bronchial asthma in mild form.
Specific individual schemes and doses of drugs are prescribed, depending on the degree of complexity of the form of the disease, the age of the child and the presence of concomitant diseases.
In addition to treatmentTreatment of bronchitis Physiotherapy with bronchitis Obstructive bronchitis: treatment with folk remedies Treatment of obstructive bronchitis at adults Antibiotics at a bronchitis Antibiotics at a bronchitis at adults: when appoint or nominate, names Than to treat? Fagotsef Cebanex
What is the prognosis of recurrent obstructive bronchitis?
A child's body many diseases simply outgrow. Obstructive bronchitis is one of such diseases.
On a follow-up visit, children are present for 2-3 years after the first attack of the disease and are removed from it if there were no relapses during the period of observation. From all this it follows that recurrent obstructive bronchitis has a favorable prognosis for complete cure.
Inflammatory process, taking place in bronchioles, bronchi and trachea is a tracheobronchitis. Consider the symptoms of the disease, the methods of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for recovery.
This ailment is characterized by damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs and rapid spreading. To date, several of its types are distinguished, but most often acute, chronic and allergic. Each species is an independent disease that requires proper diagnosis and therapy.
Inflammation affects the upper parts of the respiratory tract, spreading lower, covering the bronchi. Often occurs as a result of the transferred bronchitis and other injuries of the respiratory system, provided they are incorrect or untimely treatment.
The ICD code 10 indicates which category of the international classification of diseases is the one or other pathology.
Tracheobronchitis belongs to class X. Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99):
- J00-J06 - Acute respiratory infections of the upper respiratory tract.
- J10-J18 - Influenza and pneumonia.
- J20-J22 - Other acute respiratory infections of the lower respiratory tract.
- J30-J39 - Other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
J40-J47 - Chronic diseases of the lower respiratory tract.
- (J40) Bronchitis not specified as acute or chronic
- (J41) Simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis
- (J41.0) Simple chronic bronchitis
- (J41.1) Muco-purulent chronic bronchitis
- (J41.8) Mixed, simple and mucopurulent chronic bronchitis
- (J42) Nonspecific chronic bronchitis
- Chronic tracheitis
- Chronic tracheobronchitis
- J60-J70 - Diseases of the lung caused by external agents.
- J80-J84 - Other respiratory diseases affecting mainly the interstitial tissue.
- J85-J86 - Purulent and necrotic conditions of the lower respiratory tract.
- J90-J94 - Other diseases of the pleura.
- J95-J99 - Other respiratory diseases
Causes of tracheobronchitis
The main etiological factor in the development of inflammation is the activation of the viral or bacterial flora. As a rule, this is due to a violation of the normal state of the protective functions of the body and mucous membrane under the influence of provoking factors.
The most common causes of the disease:
- Smoking and drinking.
- Drinking cold drinks and lots of cold food.
- Injury of the mucous membrane of the trachea.
- Chronic infectious diseases (sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis).
In most cases, the ailment appears due to the interaction of two factors, for example, hypothermia due to alcoholic intoxication. A separate category includes smokers. The mucous membrane becomes inflamed due to the constant trauma of smoke and harmful substances released by the cigarette. This kind of disease requires long and complex treatment, often recurs.
There is a risk group, which includes people suffering from frequent mood swings, stresses that do not comply with the diet and rest. In this case, even a slight weakening of the immune system allows the virus to penetrate the body and spread to the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract.
To protect oneself from the defeat of the respiratory tract, fatigue and hypothermia should be avoided, especially during the winter-spring period, when the body is most weakened. In addition, it is better to give up harmful habits, that is, smoking and drinking alcohol. Acute respiratory viral infections, transmitted pneumonia, whooping cough, typhus and other diseases, provoke a secondary, but more serious, respiratory damage.
Is it tracheobronchitis?
Many patients, suffering from inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, are interested in the same question: how much they are infected. So, regardless of the form of the disease, the infection is transmitted by airborne droplets or respiratory. The duration of the incubation period is 2-30 days, depending on the type of pathogen. But most often the symptoms begin to appear in the first three days after infection.
In some cases, malaise acts as a complication of influenza or acute respiratory viral infections, but may occur independently. The patient complains of mild ailments, there is a dry cough, after which there are painful sensations in the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The state of health worsens, the body temperature rises, there may be shortness of breath, difficulty breathing out. In addition, there is anxiety, sweating, and frequent breathing. These signs indicate that the pathology is progressing, and the patient can infect others.
Symptoms of tracheobronchitis
The main symptoms are perspiration, dry coughing and sore in the lower part of the throat and chest. The disease is characterized by the following manifestations:
- Mild ailment
- Dry cough
- Painful sensations after coughing in the diaphragm area
- Increased sweating
- Frequent breathing
- Elevated temperature up to 38 ° С
- Inability to take a deep breath and exhale
- The respite
- Bluish color of lips
- Osipshy voice (indicates the development of laryngitis)
Supplement the picture of the symptoms of pain between the ribs and in the area of the anterior abdominal wall, fever. After a while, shortness of breath and spitting show up, which indicates that the pathology has taken a chronic form, and the patient's condition worsens. It is also possible to develop angina due to impaired circulation. Pay attention, ignoring the symptoms leads to the fact that the disease is transformed into a more dangerous form - pneumonia, that is, pneumonia.
Temperature in tracheobronchitis
The increase in temperature with inflammatory lesions of the mucous membrane of the bronchi, trachea and bronchioles is a concomitant phenomenon. In addition to coughing, the ailment is accompanied by fever, if it is not present, it may indicate bronchial asthma or other more serious pathologies. Cough without fever occurs in patients with lung pathologies, for example, congenital malformations or bronchiectasis.
Elevated temperature is a protective reaction of the immune system, that is, thus, the body tries to contain the further spread of the infection. Because of viral or infectious infection, the body begins to produce interleukin, which falls into one of the brain regions. For these processes, the hypothalamus is responsible, which stops the heat transfer due to the generation of additional energy. This protective function slows the reproduction and development of infection.
In addition to fever, patients complain of severe headaches and general malaise, an aching all over the body, a hoarse voice. As a rule, the temperature lasts for the first 2-4 days of the disease. If adequate therapy has been provided, then the patient's condition improves. If this does not happen, the patient is prescribed antibiotics, medicines and other medicines. Sometimes the fever keeps and after the transferred inflammation of the bronchi and trachea, in this case it is just a side effect of the ailment that will pass after the restoration of the organism.
Cough with tracheobronchitis
Coughing is one of the main symptoms of tracheobronchitis. In a healthy body, glands located in the bronchi produce a small amount of mucus, which itself is removed from the body. But because of the inflammatory process, the mucous membrane dries up, resulting in coughing, pain in the chest and increased production of mucus. It can be paroxysmal and become more frequent in the acute and chronic form of the disease. Very often, the main diagnosis and treatment plan depends on its type.
It can be accompanied by separation of phlegm. In the early stages of the ailment, the cough is quite painful and loud. But over time it becomes dry, goes into a wet form and is characterized by an increased separation of sputum. The duration depends on the stage of the disease and the accompanying symptoms. If it has become violent and causes severe pain, it indicates a complex defeat of the respiratory system, which requires urgent medical attention.
Diffuse inflammation of the upper respiratory tract or acute tracheobronchitis is a viral disease. Its main cause is infection with bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci). There are many reasons that provoke a malaise: smoking, running cold, the impact of external stimuli. The disease is characterized by seasonal exacerbations and without proper treatment passes into a chronic form.
Most often, chronic tracheobronchitis affects people working in conditions of high dust (miners) or having bad habits (smoking, alcoholism). The chronic form is characterized by a paroxysmal dry cough with a small sputum discharge. The disease causes accompanying pathologies (sinusitis, rhinitis, sinusitis) and can last more than three months.
The protracted form of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract is due to incorrect or untimely treatment. In this case, therapy is a long process and a long recovery period, because the body has been exposed to microbial activity, and gas exchange has been disturbed in the lungs. The patient suffers from fever and a strong cough that occurs both during the day and at night.
Treatment involves medication and strengthening of the immune system. Patients are prescribed antibiotics and drugs to boost immune forces. Special attention should be paid to methods of alternative medicine. Patients are advised to use more citrus, freshly squeezed juices and fruits, as they increase the body's resistance to disease. Black radish juice helps get rid of the disease in a short time, preventing the transformation of the inflammation into a chronic one.
For allergic tracheobronchitis is characterized by acute inflammatory defeat of the respiratory tract. The main pathogens of infection are pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci and other microorganisms. During the period of illness, general deterioration of the patient's condition, lethargy, decreased appetite, fever. A feature of allergic inflammation is pain and burning behind the sternum, a severe dry cough that is accompanied by the release of mucous sputum.
For the infectious form of the lesion of the bronchi and trachea, an acute mixed infection is characteristic. The patients have general weakness and malaise, fever, pain behind the sternum, dry cough, which eventually turns into wet. Breathing becomes hard, wheezing appears.
As a rule, this type of disease is most often found in the winter. People who are prone to respiratory illnesses and smokers suffer from recurrences of the disease. A prolonged course of pathology can cause allergies, sinusitis and bronchiectasis. Diseases are susceptible to both adults and children. Without proper therapy, it is possible to block small bronchi and develop hypoxia due to disruption of gas exchange in the bronchi and lungs.
The purulent form of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract is due to improper or insufficient treatment of the acute form. Most often, it appears due to the use of drugs, to which the causative agents of the disease are not sensitive. In the bronchi gradually accumulates fluid in the form of sputum and purulent discharge. For a day, about 250 ml of sputum may leave, indicating a progression of the pathological process.
The main symptom of purulent inflammation is a severe cough, rapid breathing and shortness of breath. Previously transferred diseases, which have taken a chronic form, can provoke its development. In this case, a moist cough with a purulent-mucous membrane or thick purulent sputum appears. Over a long period of time, the subfebrile temperature holds, the patient complains of fatigue, general weakness and sweating.
Without proper treatment, pathological symptoms lead to obstruction, that is, violation of bronchial patency due to accumulation of secretions. This pathology is considered to be the most severe, therefore in most cases the treatment is carried out in a hospital. If the disease takes a chronic form, it can worsen due to colds, allergic reactions, stress and overstrain.
For recovery, antibiotics are used that are sensitive to harmful microorganisms. To do this, the patient is given a smear of sputum for sowing on the flora. To sputum and purulent clusters quickly departed, use mucolytic drugs and antihistamines. In addition to drug therapy, patients are prescribed inhalation, physiotherapy, curative gymnastics and thermal procedures. Abundant drink, healthy diet and strengthening of the immune system speed up the healing process.
Non-allergic inflammation of chronic bronchi is a disease of obstructive form. It is dangerous because of the obstruction of the bronchi, their ventilation and gas exchange is disturbed. Most often, malaise occurs in smokers with long experience, and passive smokers, that is, people who are in a smoke-filled room are at risk. Unfavorable environmental conditions, professional harmful conditions, bad habits and viral infections, contribute to the development of the inflammatory process.
There are a number of internal factors that increase the risk of developing the disease, primarily a genetic predisposition. There is a theory that says that people with the II blood group are predisposed to this pathology. Premature babies, patients with congenital deficiency of alpha1-antitrypsin and the absence of Ig A, are also included in the group. As for the symptoms of the obstructive form, it is a cough and shortness of breath, heavy, wheezing, fever.
- Diagnosis begins with an examination. Due to prolonged inflammatory process, the thorax acquires a barrel shape, possibly a swelling of the supraclavicular spaces and swelling of the cervical veins.
- If the disease is complicated by cardiac or respiratory failure, then there are swelling on the lower limbs, cyanosis of the lips, fingertips, epigastric pulsation. In addition to breathing disorders, the disease causes tachycardia, hypercapnia, and high blood pressure.
- Instrumental research methods are mandatory. For this, pneumotachometry and peak flowmetry are used to assess bronchial patency. Electrocardiography and X-ray can diagnose lung and heart pathologies. There are complications in the form of secondary infection and chronic pulmonary heart.
As a therapy, patients are prescribed antibacterial and expectorant drugs. An obligatory condition for recovery is the elimination of risk factors. It is not superfluous to adhere to dietary nutrition and physiotherapy procedures.
The emergence of 2-5 episodes of respiratory damage per year indicates a recurrent disease. As a rule, the ailment lasts 2-3 weeks and is distinguished by the reversibility of pathological changes in the bronchopulmonary system. Relapses are directly related to colds, inflammatory diseases, viral and bacterial lesions. The main role is played by risk factors. It can be chronic infectious foci, for example, sinusitis, adenoiditis, or rhinitis. On the state of health, the surrounding factors also affect negatively: smoking, including passive, harmful working and living conditions.
The diagnosis is appropriate, since the history is of great importance. The doctor's task is to find out the factors that cause painful symptoms. The clinical picture of the inflammatory process depends entirely on its period, it can be exacerbation, complete remission or reverse development. As a rule, relapses do not differ from acute forms and are characterized by seasonal occurrence. Recovery is long and complicated.
Viral damage to the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, that is, the upper respiratory tract, is often caused by a weakened immune system. The organism does not cope with infectious agents, therefore there are characteristic signs of malaise. Disturbed nasal breathing and nasopharynx infections are considered risk factors. The main symptoms are fever, general weakness, cough with sputum discharge.
Viral variant of the disease can be transmitted by personal contact with the patient. For infection sufficient to get into the air infected particles of mucus and saliva. Treatment begins with a complete diagnosis of the patient's body. Antibiotic drugs are not used for therapy, since this type of drugs is not effective. The patient is prescribed expectorant syrups, rubbing and other thermal procedures.
It will not be superfluous to observe the rules of hygiene: airing the patient's room, frequent wet cleanings with disinfectants. To prevent recurrence, strengthening of the immune system is recommended. Patients are prescribed vitamins, preventive gymnastics, rejection of bad habits and a balanced diet.
The catarrhal form of tracheobronchitis does not extend to the lungs, but is characterized by abundant mucus secretion and absence of obstruction. It can take an acute and chronic appearance. Most often it affects smokers and people working in conditions of high dust and gas contamination. The main cause of the disease is untimely or inadequate treatment of the common cold. An acute respiratory disease causes inflammation of the bronchi, which can take a chronic appearance. Non-compliance with oral hygiene, hypothermia, smoking, alcoholism - this is one of the causes of malaise.
The main symptom is a cough and fever. In addition, there may be drowsiness, general malaise, headaches, heart palpitations. A few days later, sputum appears, a runny nose. If you ignore the above symptoms within 2-3 weeks, the disease takes a chronic form, the treatment of which is very complex and lengthy. Without proper therapy, the ailment can lead to bronchial asthma, pneumosclerosis or pulmonary emphysema.
Tracheobronchitis in children
Tracheobronchitis in children is often a complication after SARS. The main causes of the disease in childhood are a weakened immune system, hypotrophy, congestion in the pulmonary system and complications after infectious diseases. Symptoms are similar to viral infections and laryngitis, so thorough diagnosis is required.
The child complains of a dry, violent cough, vomiting, laryngitis, fever, hoarse voice, chest pain. When these symptoms appear, urgent medical attention is needed. Focusing on the features of the child's body and the severity of the disease, the doctor chooses the treatment. To accelerate the recovery, I assign the rubbing of the interlobar space and the sternum with irritating ointments. Do not be unnecessary will be inhalations, therapeutic exercises, thermal procedures (mustard) and physiotherapy.
Tracheobronchitis in pregnancy
The main cause of inflammatory disease in pregnancy are bacteria and viruses. The allergic form is extremely rare. Because of the ingress of the upper respiratory tract to the mucosa, pathogens actively multiply, causing a disturbance of blood circulation and swelling. Gradually, the inflammation spreads to the bronchi, because of which begins an intensive sputum, that is, bronchial mucus.
Symptoms of the disease in pregnant women are similar to those of SARS. A woman complains of cough, fever, general weakness. With progression, cough becomes dangerous, as it is accompanied by tension of the abdominal muscles. By the nature of the sputum, you can determine the type and severity of the malaise. In some cases, bronchospasm is added to the above-described symptomatology, that is, the difficulty of exhalation and a strong convulsive cough.
The acute course of the disease lasts from 7 to 32 days. If a woman had a chronic inflammation before pregnancy, then during pregnancy she can become aggravated. Disturbance of respiratory functions and oxygen starvation are dangerous for the future child, since they can lead to hypoxia, uterine hypertension, uterine bleeding, premature birth or miscarriage. The treatment plan is made after consultation and diagnosis by a doctor. If the disease is acute, then the treatment can be carried out in a hospital.
General recommendations for the treatment and prevention of disease in pregnant women:
- Full rest, sleep and outdoor walks - this will prevent intoxication and accelerate the release of accumulated mucus in the bronchi.
- Abundant drink - the liquid accelerates the excretion of mucus. You can use not only warm water, but also teas, herbal infusions, compotes and natural juices. From drinks with caffeine content is better to refuse.
- Humidification of the air - to keep the bronchial mucosa from drying out, it is recommended to humidify the air. For these purposes, a special humidifier is suitable, which will prevent the reproduction of microbes.
- Healthier nutrition and strengthening of the immune system - this will make it easier to transfer the unpleasant manifestations of the disease and accelerate the process of recovery.
Residual effects after a tracheal bronchitis carry over indicate that the disease has become chronic. The bronchial system is deformed, breathing is disrupted, and attacks of suffocation often occur. In addition, there is a slight increase in temperature, which lasts a long period of time and sputum production. Patients feel general weakness, aches in the whole body and painful sensations behind the sternum. This all happens against the background of a decrease in appetite and attacks of dry cough.
- The raised temperature - for its or her elimination it is possible to accept Aspirinum or Paracetamol. Such drugs as: Coldrex, Antigrippin and Fervex have an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.
- Cough - a strong cough causes painful sensations behind the sternum. To eliminate it, it is recommended to take Tusuprex and Broncholitin. Ambroxol and Bromhexine are used to accelerate the escape of sputum.
- The respite - for its elimination take bronhorasshirayuschie medications, for example, tablets Teopek, aerosol for inhalation Salbutomol or Berotek.
- Headaches - appear due to a cold and cough. Combined preparations are used for treatment. Medicinal properties have and folk remedies, for example, menthol oil and eucalyptus extract.
If the inflammation of the bronchi and the trachea has a prolonged course or is constantly progressing, then this indicates the development of complications. As a rule, this is due to the lack of suitable therapy. The most common complication is the transition of a simple illness to a chronic one. In some cases, the ailment leads to the development of emphysema, acute respiratory failure, bronchopneumonia and inflammation of other systems and organs due to the ingress of infectious agents in them, which are carried with blood flow.
- Bronchopneumonia is a complication of acute inflammation. It develops because of the stratification of bacterial infection and because of the decrease in local immunity.
- The chronic form - arises because of repeatedly transferred acute inflammation (more than 3 times a year). When eliminating provoking factors, it can completely disappear.
- Obstructive pulmonary disease - appears due to secondary infection and a prolonged course of the disease. Obstructive changes indicate a pre-existing condition and increase the risk of bronchial asthma. In addition, cardiopulmonary and respiratory failure occurs.
Diagnosis of tracheobronchitis
Diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the trachea and bronchial tree is an important process, the effectiveness and outcome of which depends on the treatment regimen and the prognosis for recovery.
Basic diagnostic methods:
- Patient examination, percussion and auscultation, that is, listening and tapping the lungs.
- Radiography - allows to identify pathological processes in the lungs and possible complications of the disease.
- Sputum analysis - sowing of bacterial flora is necessary to exclude severe and dangerous diseases of the respiratory system (cancer, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis).
Based on the diagnostic results, the patient is selected antibiotics and drugs sensitive to the pathogenic microflora for the production of sputum, lowering of temperature and other painful symptoms.
Who to contact?Pulmonologist
Treatment of tracheobronchitis
The treatment regimen is completely dependent on the form of inflammation of the upper respiratory organs and the patient's condition.
- If the malaise without complications, that is easy, then compliance with the regime and physiotherapy (electrophoresis, inhalation) can improve health. In this case, antipyretic and mucolytic agents are taken of the temperature and for sputum excretion. Antibiotics are prescribed only if other drugs are not effective against microorganisms that provoke inflammation. As a rule, patients are prescribed a seven-day course with sulfanilamide medication.
- For the treatment of acute lesions of the respiratory system, it is extremely important to ventilate the room in which the patient is located. This will protect against overheating and will speed recovery. If the ailment is accompanied by complications, antibiotics Penicillin, Oxacillin, Mecillin, and sprays for inhalation, which easily penetrate into the bronchi and trachea, evenly distributed over the mucous membrane.
- If the disease occurs without complications, then appoint only sulfanilamide drugs. If blood circulation and breathing are disturbed, use Strophantine, glucose solution and Cititon intravenously. In the therapy of severe forms, oxygen therapy, that is, the introduction of oxygen into the body, has proved itself.
- If the inflammation is allergic, the patient is prescribed expectorant and antihistamines, alkaline inhalations, physiotherapy and curative gymnastics.
In all cases, the predictions are favorable, but in chronic form they use complex therapy, the results of which determine the duration of the disease and the degree of possible damage to the whole organism.
More information about the treatment of tracheobronchitis read here.
Diet with tracheobronchitis
Dietary nutrition is important for any disease, including cold. Correctly composed diet will make it easier to transfer the symptoms of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi and trachea, to overcome pathogenic viruses and bacteria. Food should be balanced, rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins.
- Eat often, but in small portions, that is, adhere to a fractional regime. A large amount of protein will prevent protein starvation, which occurs due to its loss during a strong cough and sputum production. The thing is that protein is a material for building tissues, organs and cells, it participates in muscle contractions and synthesizes peptide hormones, hemoglobin and enzymes.
- In addition to protein in the diet must be present fats and carbohydrates. They can be obtained from cereals, bakery products, fruits and berries. Do not forget about complex carbohydrates, improving digestion and stabilizing blood sugar levels.
- Sour-milk products enrich the body with lacto and bifidobacteria, stimulate the process of digestion. These products reduce the harmful effect of antibiotics used in the treatment, and prevent putrefactive processes in the intestine.
- To get rid of sputum, you need to consume more liquid. Excellent herbal infusions, infusions and teas. For example, hot tea from sage, linden or elderberry has a diaphoretic effect. Milk whey or broth with honey or anise is useful for dry cough. A juice of onions accelerates expectoration.
- Freshly squeezed juices, especially a beverage made from beets, carrots and apples will give not only a charge of vivacity, but also a daily dose of vitamins needed for the body's recovery.
Any preventive measures are always aimed at preventing relapses of the transferred disease. The most important rule is the timely treatment of any colds. If there is a dry cough, then it is worth to drink a course of antitussive medications, which will stop the pathological process. At this time, you can moisten the inflamed mucosa of the trachea with hot beverages and milk, honey, raspberries or with inhalation.
- If you work in the open air or in an open room, then you are at risk for developing inflammatory respiratory diseases. As a prevention, it is recommended to wear a special mask-respirator, which covers the nose and mouth.
- When the first symptoms of malaise, do inhalation. Physical exercises and sports help strengthen the respiratory system, have a beneficial effect on the entire body. Sports activities contribute to an early escape of sputum.
- Catarrhal diseases can not be carried on legs. It is better to let the body recover and overcome the viral infection. To do this, you need to spend a couple of days at home, eat right and drink more fluids.
- Such bad habits like smoking - this is one of the factors that cause malaise. Passive smoking significantly increases the risk of developing the disease. Give up the bad habit for health.
The prognosis depends entirely on the form and extent of the inflammatory process. As a rule, acute and allergic forms have a favorable prognosis. But the chronic variant requires an integrated approach. The result of treatment is completely dependent on the duration of the disease and the degree of damage to the internal organs.
The acute uncomplicated form lasts about 14 days. If there are complications or the disease has a protracted course, the pathological process will stretch for a month or more. Chronic inflammation, for which periods of exacerbations and remissions are characteristic, also has a special duration.
Hospital with tracheobronchitis
The hospital list for diseases of the respiratory system is given for up to 10 days. This is when the disease is mild. If recovery does not occur within the allocated time and the patient needs additional days for treatment, a hospital commission of the VKK is created and the sick list is prolonged. But on average, patients are ill for 5-7 days.
Tracheobronchitis is a dangerous disease, the wrong or neglected treatment of which can lead to serious consequences. Timely diagnosis and compliance with preventive measures is a guarantee of healthy breathing.